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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Genetic Architecture And Evolution Of Brain Cortical Folding In A Pedigreed Primate Population, Elizabeth Grace Atkinson Dec 2013

The Genetic Architecture And Evolution Of Brain Cortical Folding In A Pedigreed Primate Population, Elizabeth Grace Atkinson

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elevated neurological faculty, related to the dramatic increase in brain volume, is a hallmark of the primates. Cognitive capacity, the processing power and speed of the brain, is directly related to the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex and the connectivity network underlying information processing in the brain. Increased cortical folding (gyrification) allows for more neurons to be contained within the volume of the braincase and the arrangement of folds and ridges across the cerebral cortex is an indication of the underlying neural network connecting regions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a better understanding of the ...


Sustainable Management Of The Main Two Maltese Indigenous Grape Varieties For Winemaking, Jonathan Falzon Dec 2013

Sustainable Management Of The Main Two Maltese Indigenous Grape Varieties For Winemaking, Jonathan Falzon

Masters Theses

Ġellewża and Girgentina, the main two Maltese indigenous grape varieties that are used for winemaking, are grown in small parcels of land with an average size just over 0.1 ha. Policies and regulations that influence the sector have been set up and this increased the need for studies to understand the current management practices and how can they be more sustainable. Through interviews with 30 growers of the indigenous grape varieties it was found that most vines are trained as bush vines and cane pruned with 2 or 3 canes with about 5 to 10 buds in each. Nutrition ...


A Novel Rcc1-Like Protein Is A Crucial Regulator Of The Intraerythrocytic Cycle Of The Human Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium Falciparum., Marcus Davon Skaflen Dec 2013

A Novel Rcc1-Like Protein Is A Crucial Regulator Of The Intraerythrocytic Cycle Of The Human Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium Falciparum., Marcus Davon Skaflen

Masters Theses

Malaria is a deadly infection caused by a single celled protozoan of the Plasmodium genus. Plasmodium spp. are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, and initially invade the liver, but the disease is caused by the blood stage of the infection. Approximately 500 million cases of malaria are documented annually and over 1 million of those result in death. Plasmodium falciparum is the most lethal of five species known to infect humans. To further compound this problem, drug-resistant parasite strains have been documented for every currently available antimalarial drug, making the need to identify new drug targets more urgent than ever ...


Feelings Of Connectedness To Nature: A Comparison Of Park & Recreation Management Students And Sport Management Students., N. E. Scarborough Dec 2013

Feelings Of Connectedness To Nature: A Comparison Of Park & Recreation Management Students And Sport Management Students., N. E. Scarborough

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the face of the present consumer-based environmental movement, leaders in many industries and disciplines are striving to understand why people are “going green” in order to market to them. Researchers have been studying ways in which people connect to the environmental movement, and researchers in the field of sport and recreation are also conducting such studies. Several surveys have been developed to measure these connections; one such survey instrument is the Connectedness to Nature Scale (CNS). In the present study, the CNS was re-created online, and a link to the survey was sent via email to students studying Park ...


Effects Of Excitation Pressure On Variegation And Global Gene Expression In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rainer Bode Dec 2013

Effects Of Excitation Pressure On Variegation And Global Gene Expression In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rainer Bode

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I assessed the effects of photosystem II excitation pressure on chloroplast biogenesis and leaf sectoring in the Arabidopsis thaliana variegated mutants im, spotty, var1, var2, chs5 and atd2. The plants were grown under varying degrees of excitation pressure induced by growth at increasing irradiance at different temperatures and the extent of variegation was quantified throughout the plant’s development. I found that the degree of variegation was positively correlated with excitation pressure, regardless of whether high light or low temperature was used to induce increased excitation pressure in all the mutants tested. This was irrespective of whether the mutation causing ...


Land Grabs And Implications On Food Sovereignty And Social Justice In Senegal, Joanna Lafrancesca Dec 2013

Land Grabs And Implications On Food Sovereignty And Social Justice In Senegal, Joanna Lafrancesca

Master's Theses

This thesis focuses on the case study of Senegal to examine the implications of large- scale land acquisitions on the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. I investigate the diverse perspectives of market enthusiasts, human rights organizations, peasants, the state, and international financial organizations on large-scale land acquisitions. Based on primary research, I argue that the state of Senegal plays an active role in permitting “land grabs” and that they pose a threat to food sovereignty among Senegalese host communities. Lastly, I argue there needs to be a broader understanding of long-term consequences and risks to insure social justice in areas affected ...


Fumarate Inhibits Tnf-Α Release, Megan Kelly Dec 2013

Fumarate Inhibits Tnf-Α Release, Megan Kelly

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Vertebrates utilize two forms of immunity to combat pathogens. Innate immunity is considered the first line of defense that utilizes immediate action and three barriers. Innate immunity responses typically occur within minutes of pathogen exposure resulting in cellular receptor activation and acute pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory macrophages engage bacterial endotoxins, including Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA). And respond by releasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). While beneficial for neutralizing acute pathogen exposure, prolonged TNF-α release results in chronic inflammation and tissue damage. In the present study, we examined two methylated derivatives of a citric acid cycle intermediate, fumarate ...


Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang Dec 2013

Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of coordination of bacterial gene expression in response to cell population. System two QS is regulated by the small signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and is implicated in the infectious behaviors of various bacterial species. AI-2 is biosynthesized from S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) by the enzyme LuxS and induces interspecies cell-to-cell communication. Inhibition of LuxS would therefore inhibit interspecies QS. Herein, a search for novel molecular species that will competitively bind with SRH in the LuxS binding site is performed in silico. Computational screening results are then validated in vitro using an optimized LuxS inhibition assay.


Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Reactive Oxygen Species In Neurodegeneration, Leah Farina Dec 2013

Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Reactive Oxygen Species In Neurodegeneration, Leah Farina

Honors Theses

Neurodegeneration leads to the loss of normal anatomy and physiology of the neuronal system in a human body. The hallmark of most neurodegenerative diseases is abnormal folding and accumulation of proteins within neuronal cell bodies that is not present in healthy people. These changes in normal protein metabolism often lead to neuronal cell death and failure of the affected regions of the central nervous system. Abnormal protein accumulation may be attributed to dysfunctional mitochondria and damage by reactive oxygen species. In addition to causing altered protein accumulation, dysfunctional mitochondria and an excess of reactive oxygen species also lead to errors ...


Foraging Ecology, Sexual Selection, And Divergence In Sunfish (Lepomis Spp.), Scott F. Colborne Dec 2013

Foraging Ecology, Sexual Selection, And Divergence In Sunfish (Lepomis Spp.), Scott F. Colborne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The origins of novel traits and their contribution to biodiversity have long been of interest to biologists. My research focused on the links between foraging ecology and both natural and sexual selection, and how these mechanisms interact to shape the phenotypic diversification of natural populations. Using bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), I examined three major questions: 1) how are diet and morphological variation related to alternative reproductive tactics in bluegill; 2) are sexual selection and disruptive selection driving divergence between foraging ecomorphs in pumpkinseed; and 3) how are human-induced changes to prey communities affecting foraging ecology of ...


Computational Molecular Coevolution, Russell J. Dickson Dec 2013

Computational Molecular Coevolution, Russell J. Dickson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A major goal in computational biochemistry is to obtain three-dimensional structure information from protein sequence. Coevolution represents a biological mechanism through which structural information can be obtained from a family of protein sequences. Evolutionary relationships within a family of protein sequences are revealed through sequence alignment. Statistical analyses of these sequence alignments reveals positions in the protein family that covary, and thus appear to be dependent on one another throughout the evolution of the protein family. These covarying positions are inferred to be coevolving via one of two biological mechanisms, both of which imply that coevolution is facilitated by inter-residue ...


Novel Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated From Marine Hydrothermal Vents, Christine Demko Sislak Dec 2013

Novel Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated From Marine Hydrothermal Vents, Christine Demko Sislak

Dissertations and Theses

As part of a large study aimed at searching for patterns of diversity in the genus Persephonella along the north to south geochemical gradient of the ELSC, ten novel strains of Alphaproteobacteria were isolated unexpectedly. Using defined media under microaerophilic conditions to enrich for Persephonella from chimney samples collected at the seven vent fields on the ELSC and the dilution to extinction by serial dilution method to purify cultures, a total of ten strains belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria were isolated. Two of these isolates, designate MN-5 and TC-2 were chosen for further characterization and are proposed as two new species ...


Certain Agave Species Exhibit The Capability To Be Moderately Productive Under Conditions Of High Salt And Drought Stress, Steven J. Bergsten Dec 2013

Certain Agave Species Exhibit The Capability To Be Moderately Productive Under Conditions Of High Salt And Drought Stress, Steven J. Bergsten

Theses and Dissertations

Water availability and arable lands are increasingly limiting resources in many parts of the U.S., particularly in semi-arid and arid regions. As a means of addressing food and fuel demands associated with burgeoning population growth, highly productive and water-use efficient crops need to be identified. One potential crop, Agave, merits consideration and evaluation due to its putative capability to provide sustenance and energy despite growing in water-limited regions and on marginal soils. However, little is known regarding the productivity these succulent plants will have under growing conditions of the Southwest, where high concentrated saline soils are abundant, and water ...


Role Of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases In Volatile Emissions And Insect Resistance In Arabidopsis, Shailu Lakshminarayan Dec 2013

Role Of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases In Volatile Emissions And Insect Resistance In Arabidopsis, Shailu Lakshminarayan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In Arabidopsis thaliana, carotenoid degradation by enzymatic oxidative cleavage is catalyzed by nine CCD and NCED enzymes; this cleavage produces an array of terpenoid products that are collectively known as apocarotenoids, which include volatile and non-volatile compounds. Previous studies on CCD1 revealed that its overexpression in A. thaliana enhances β-ionone emission and reduces damage caused by flea beetles. In consideration of these findings, I generated CCD4 and CCD8 Arabidopsis overexpression lines. Further, I characterized these overexpression lines on the basis of their carotenoid content and their volatile profiles. Surprisingly, accumulation of key carotenoids in the leaves was observed in both ...


Soil Development And Vegetation Response To Removal Of A Small Dam, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, Stephanie Kay Rohdy Dec 2013

Soil Development And Vegetation Response To Removal Of A Small Dam, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, Stephanie Kay Rohdy

Dissertations and Theses

Dam removal is increasing as dams age, yet little is understood about the pedogenic response to dam removal. This study reports on the edaphic changes of reservoir sediments and vegetation cover one year following removal of a small earthen dam in Northern California. In August 2012, I sampled surface sediments from the former Dream Lake reservoir in Lassen Volcanic National Park, and compared their physical and chemical properties with soil samples from two reference sites. I also estimated percent cover of vegetation in the former reservoir and reference sites. My results show that the reservoir was under reduced conditions, as ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen Dec 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen

Theses and Dissertations

Nanomaterials have attracted substantial attention in the area of catalysis due to the unique properties they exhibit such as high surface areas, intricate pore networks and unique morphologies. TiO2 has attracted attention as a catalyst since the discovery of its high photocatalytic activity by Fuishima and Honda in 1972. Given its high thermal stability, low cost, low environmental impact, and versatility, TiO2 is a widely used commercial catalyst and catalyst support. TiO2 is used in many applications such as photocatalysis is also an excellent support material for noble metals in a number of oxidative synthesis and pollution-control reactions. Though TiO2 ...


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim Dec 2013

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Identification Of The Binding Partners For Hspb2 And Cryab Reveals Myofibril And Mitochondrial Protein Interactions And Non-Redundant Roles For Small Heat Shock Proteins, Kelsey Murphey Langston Dec 2013

Identification Of The Binding Partners For Hspb2 And Cryab Reveals Myofibril And Mitochondrial Protein Interactions And Non-Redundant Roles For Small Heat Shock Proteins, Kelsey Murphey Langston

Theses and Dissertations

Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSP) are molecular chaperones that play protective roles in cell survival and have been shown to possess chaperone activity. As such, mutations in this family of proteins result in a wide variety of diseases from cancers to cardiomyopathies. The sHSPs Beta-2 (HspB2) and alpha-beta crystalline (CryAB) are two of the ten human sHSPs and are both expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. A heart that cannot properly recover or defend against stressors such as extreme heat or cold, oxidative/reductive stress, and heavy metal-induced stress will constantly struggle to maintain efficient function. Accordingly, CryAB is ...


Evolution And Functional Morphology Of The Cephalic Lobes In Batoids, Samantha Lynn Mulvany Dec 2013

Evolution And Functional Morphology Of The Cephalic Lobes In Batoids, Samantha Lynn Mulvany

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cephalic lobes are unique structures derived from the anterior pectoral fins, found in select myliobatid stingrays. Many benthic batoids utilize undulatory locomotion and use their pectoral fins for both locomotion and prey capture. Pelagic myliobatids that possess cephalic lobes utilize oscillatory locomotion, using their pectoral fins to locomote and their cephalic lobes for prey capture. Despite differences in habitat usage and locomotor modes, these batoids feed on very similar benthic organisms. The purpose of this study was to 1.) compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in lobed and lobeless species, looking at skeletal elements, musculature ...


Discovering Driver Somatic Mutations, Copy Number Alterations And Methylation Changes Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, Bokhari Yahya Dec 2013

Discovering Driver Somatic Mutations, Copy Number Alterations And Methylation Changes Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, Bokhari Yahya

Theses and Dissertations

Nowadays we have tremendous amount of genetic data needing to be interpreted. Somatic mutations, copy number variations and methylation are example of the genetics data we are dealing with. Discovering driver mutations from these combined data types is challenging. Mutations are unpredictable and have broad heterogeneity, which makes our goal hard to accomplish. Many methods have been proposed to solve the mystery of genetics of cancer. In this project we manipulate those above mentioned genetics data types and choose to use and modified an existing method utilizing Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The method introduced two properties, coverage and exclusivity ...


Robinson Point, Belize: An Important Foraging Ground For Endangered Sea Turtles In The Western Caribbean Sea, Linda Searle Dec 2013

Robinson Point, Belize: An Important Foraging Ground For Endangered Sea Turtles In The Western Caribbean Sea, Linda Searle

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Anecdotal reports, flipper tag returns, satellite migration paths, and above-water and net surveys have identified an important foraging area for sea turtles in the Robinson Point area, 12 kilometers southwest of Belize City. Visual observations confirmed that sea turtles were actively foraging at Robinson Point. Sixteen 30 minute visual observations from stationary and drifting boats made 132 sea turtle sightings from October 2007 through January 2008, with a maximum of 40 sightings made in one survey. In-water capture methodology tested the traditional turtle net, which captured 14 turtles in 63 sets for a success rate of only 22%. There were ...


Reaching For The Light: The Prioritization Of Conspicuous Visual Stimuli For Reflexive Target-Directed Reaching, Daniel K. Wood Dec 2013

Reaching For The Light: The Prioritization Of Conspicuous Visual Stimuli For Reflexive Target-Directed Reaching, Daniel K. Wood

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The degree to which something stands out against the background of its environment communicates important information. The phenomenon of camouflage is a testament of the degree to which visual salience and probability of survival tend to overlap. Salient stimuli often elicit fast, reflexive movements in order to catch prey or avoid a predator. The overarching goal of the work presented in this thesis is to investigate how the physical salience of visual stimuli influence the programming and execution of reaching movements. I approached this question by recording kinematics and muscle responses during reaching movements. Broadly, this thesis investigates the effect ...


The Role Of Choline Acetyltransferase Variants In Alzheimer's Disease Models, Shawn Albers Dec 2013

The Role Of Choline Acetyltransferase Variants In Alzheimer's Disease Models, Shawn Albers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The primate specific 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) isoform is found in the nuclei of cholinergic neurons, with a disruption in the subcellular localization in aging and AD brain samples# The functional significance of this protein is poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed a potentially protective role for 82-kDa ChAT, mediated through a reduction in amyloid-!1-42 (A!1-42) release in APP/PS1 double transgenic primary cortical neurons. Here we examine the effect of 82-kDa ChAT expression in transgenic neurons, on the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and A! production. In this study we demonstrate 82-kDa ChAT transcriptionally increases ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Cold-Activation Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Immune System, Golnaz Salehipourshirazi Dec 2013

Cold-Activation Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Immune System, Golnaz Salehipourshirazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Evidence of immune response enhancement after cold exposure suggests that cold activates the insect immune system. I investigated whether the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster is activated by cold exposure in the absence of pathogens. To explore if different kinds of cold affect the immune response differently, I included acute and chronic cold exposure. I cold-exposed flies, and then examined up-regulation of immune-related genes. In addition, I measured hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase activity, and woundinduced melanization. Acute cold exposure increased hemocyte concentration and woundinduced melanization. Chronic cold did not change hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase activity or melanization in flies. Acute and chronic ...


Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson Dec 2013

Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a commonly used separation technique in chemistry. Nevertheless, the mechanistic interactions at the molecular level among the eluent, analyte, and the stationary phase are not fully understood. Because of this limited understanding, optimization of the separation must be done experimentally. Learning more about molecular interactions should aid in improving separations. We are currently using second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy to investigate how analytes adsorb to the surface. SHG is a spectroscopic technique that produces signal only at places of non-isotropic symmetry; this typically occurs at surfaces. SHG can be used to produce surface isotherms of test ...


The Hippocampus Participates In A Pharmacological Rat Model Of Absence Seizures, Justin Andrew Arcaro Dec 2013

The Hippocampus Participates In A Pharmacological Rat Model Of Absence Seizures, Justin Andrew Arcaro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The thalamocortical network is responsible for the generation of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in absence epilepsy. Recent studies suggest a potential involvement of the hippocampus, which may explain the variability in the extent of cognitive deficits among patients with absence epilepsy. I hypothesize that the hippocampus may become entrained in spike-and-wave discharges following thalamocortical activation. The gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) rat model of absence seizures was used in this thesis. Following GBL injection, SWDs of 4 to 6 Hz developed in the spontaneous local field potentials (LFPs) recorded by depth electrodes in the thalamus, neocortex and hippocampus. Synchronization of hippocampal, thalamic and neocortical ...


The Evolution Of Floral Symmetry Across The Plant Order Lamiales, Jinshun Zhong Dec 2013

The Evolution Of Floral Symmetry Across The Plant Order Lamiales, Jinshun Zhong

Dissertations

Bilaterally symmetrical corollas have evolved independently numerous times from radially symmetrical ancestors and are thought to represent adaptation to specific pollinators. However, evolutionary losses of bilateral symmetry have occurred sporadically in different lineages. CYC2-like and RAD-like are genes needed for the normal development of bilateral symmetry in snapdragon corollas. However, exactly how changes in the floral symmetry patterning genes correlate with the origin and loss of floral bilateral remains poorly known. To address this question, a densely sampled phylogeny of CYC2-like genes across the order Lamiales was inferred and calibrated. The expression patterns of these genes in early diverging and ...


Increasing Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition: Implications For Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Jennifer M. Mcphee Dec 2013

Increasing Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition: Implications For Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Jennifer M. Mcphee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Continued intensification of agriculture and combustion of fossil fuels will increase rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition over the next century. N is typically a limiting resource for terrestrial plants, and many species are adapted to low-N conditions. Increased N availability can affect both plant biomass and species composition, often favouring N-demanding, adventive species. These effects can be adverse in the context of ecological restoration, where the end product often relies on establishing a particular community composition. I used a field experiment in Norfolk County, Ontario, to examine how N addition affects species composition and plant productivity of a tallgrass ...


Tissue-Dependent T Cell Apoptosis And Transcriptional Regulation Of Memory Cd8+T Cell Differentiation During Viral Infections: A Dissertation, Varun N. Kapoor Dec 2013

Tissue-Dependent T Cell Apoptosis And Transcriptional Regulation Of Memory Cd8+T Cell Differentiation During Viral Infections: A Dissertation, Varun N. Kapoor

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells is the hallmark of an anti-viral immune response. Effector T cells generated during an immune response are heterogeneous in regards to their ability to populate the memory pool once the immune response has resolved. Initial T cell activation takes place in the lymphoid organs, after which T cells migrate into the non-lymphoid tissues. The presence of memory T cells at non-lymphoid tissue sites has been shown to be critical for protection against secondary virus challenge. Our lab has previously demonstrated that during and after the resolution of the immune response to Lymphocytic choriomeningitis ...