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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Development Of Novel Vaccines For Campylobacter Control In Poultry, Lindsay Ann Jones Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Vaccines For Campylobacter Control In Poultry, Lindsay Ann Jones

Masters Theses

Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of human enteritis in developed countries. Human campylobacteriosis is commonly associated with consumption of undercooked, contaminated chicken, a natural host of Campylobacter. Thus, control of Campylobacter colonization in poultry at the farm level would reduce the risk of human exposure to this pathogen. Vaccination is an attractive intervention measure to mitigate Campylobacter in poultry. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the outer membrane proteins CmeC (an essential component of CmeABC multidrug efflux pump) and CfrA (ferric enterobactin receptor) are feasible candidates for immune intervention against Campylobacter. By targeting these two promising vaccine candidates, three ...


Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by certain species of the genus Leishmania results in a significant disease burden worldwide. This is most pronounced in some of the world's poorest communities. In South America and the Mediterranean basin, dogs are the major domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, one cause of human VL. In addition, dogs infected with L. infantum have an immune response and pathophysiology similar to human cases, making them a representative naturally-occurring animal model of VL. Chronic infection with Leishmania infantum can result in asymptomatic infection for a long period of time or symptomatic, potentially life-threatening visceralizing disease. Immunopathology ...


Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer Jan 2013

Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines remain the most effective medical intervention to disease in which effective vaccines are available. Designing vaccines that elicit protective immunity while minimizing adverse events is difficult. Exacerbating the challenges of vaccine design is the increased emphasis on using pure preparation of antigens that alleviate safety concerns but also show decreased potency. Therefore the need for safe adjuvants to boost immunity of subunit immunizations is great. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel bio-erodible polyanhydride particle platform to enhance humoral and cellular immunity. Encapsulation of 25 µg of Ovalbumin (Ova) antigen in microparticles elicits humoral immune responses equivalent to ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson Jan 2013

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus continues to be a significant problem for pork producers. The aim of this body of work was to help stakeholders control and prevention infection with this virus. A literature review of currently available diagnostic tests and guidelines for their interpretation serves as a resource for producers, practitioners, and researchers. The research focus was to evaluate two novel methods to develop improved modified live vaccines. The efficacy of viral chimeras constructed from a commercially available vaccine and a virulent wild-type isolate and the ability to attenuate wild-type isolates with a unique cell passage process are ...


Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam Jan 2013

Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate exercise is associated with improved resistance to infection; it has also been shown that acute exhaustive exercise is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections. Seasonal influenza virus is a contagious upper respiratory tract infection that can lead to widespread morbidity and mortality each year, despite the availability of a vaccine for influenza. Type I interferons (IFNs) are one of the body's first lines of defense against viral infection. Influenza vaccines containing interferon-alpha (IFNa) have been shown to increase antigen-specific antibody titer. The purpose of the experiments carried out in ...


Antibodies To Inhibit Clostridium Difficile Adhesion To Human Gut Epithelial Cell Line, Wonbeom Paik Jan 2013

Antibodies To Inhibit Clostridium Difficile Adhesion To Human Gut Epithelial Cell Line, Wonbeom Paik

Master's Theses

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major hospital-acquired diarrhea that can cause life-threatening complications such as pseudomembranous colitis. CDI is caused by colonization of host with C. difficile, a Gram positive, anaerobic bacterium known to produce toxins that cause disease. Normally, the gut microbiota protects the host from CDI, but disruption of the microbial composition through antibiotic treatment can leave one vulnerable for CDI. To date, no vaccines for preventing CDI are available.

In this study, the potential of antibodies directed against specific surface molecules of C. difficile to block bacterial adherence to host gut epithelial cells was studied, in ...


Mucin Associated Surface Protein Synthetic Peptide As A Novel Vaccine Candidate Against Chagas Disease, Carylinda Serna Jan 2013

Mucin Associated Surface Protein Synthetic Peptide As A Novel Vaccine Candidate Against Chagas Disease, Carylinda Serna

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite and the etiological agent for Chagas disease. Chagas is endemic in Latin America affecting 18-20 million people. However, currently worldwide increasing numbers of the disease are being seen due to migration and globalization. This neglected disease causes significant morbidity, mortality, and an economic burden. There are no known vaccines and the only currently available drug is Benznidazole, but its effects are controversial. Nonetheless, a therapeutic or prophylactic vaccine is of urgent need to alleviate this disease. In this study we present an experimental approach using a synthetic peptide-based vaccine against T. cruzi. The ...


Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun Jan 2013

Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive disorder in breeding pigs and respiratory symptoms in pigs of all ages. The virus continues to bring significant economic losses to swine industry, and is considered to be one of the most important swine pathogens. Vaccination has been utilized to aid or facilitate PRRS control. Among various types of vaccines used, attenuated live virus vaccines appear to be more efficacious than killed virus vaccines. However, the effect of vaccination with attenuated live virus vaccines is crippled by several safety and efficacy issues. First, the vaccine development process is time-consuming. Second, the ...


Defining A Role For Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70i) In Mediating Autoimmune Vitiligo, Jeffrey Alan Mosenson Jan 2013

Defining A Role For Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70i) In Mediating Autoimmune Vitiligo, Jeffrey Alan Mosenson

Dissertations

Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of melanocytes, leaving 0.5% of the population with progressive depigmentation. Current treatments offer limited efficacy. Observations that heat shock proteins (HSPs) can serve as adjuvants in antitumor vaccines first suggested to us a link between HSPs and stress-induced vitiligo. Such proteins are marvelously well conserved throughout evolution, which has placed them in the spotlight for helping to understand the intriguing relationship between infection and immunity. Intracellularly, inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) is upregulated by stress and helps protect cells from undergoing apoptosis. In times of stress, melanocytes will secrete antigen ...


Secreted Virulence Factors In Lethal Illness Due To Staphylococcus Aureus, Adam Russell Spaulding Jan 2013

Secreted Virulence Factors In Lethal Illness Due To Staphylococcus Aureus, Adam Russell Spaulding

Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus causes significant illnesses throughout the world, including toxic shock syndrome (TSS), pneumonia, and infective endocarditis. Major contributors to S. aureus illnesses are secreted virulence factors it produces, including superantigens and cytolysins. Rabbit cardiac physiology is considered similar to humans, and rabbits exhibit susceptibility to S. aureus superantigens and cytolysins. As such, rabbits are an excellent model for studying pneumonia, infective endocarditis, and sepsis, We examined the ability of USA200, USA300 and USA400 strains to cause vegetations and lethal sepsis in rabbits. USA200, TSST-1+ strains that produce only low amounts of Α-toxin, exhibited modest LD50 in sepsis (1x10 ...


Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross Jan 2013

Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Avian influenza A H5N1 is rapidly gaining the potential to be the next influenza pandemic threat. Human cases of H5N1 have proven to be approximately 60% fatal with a growing number of strains becoming resistant to antiviral treatments. Therefore, there is a strong need for new research to develop a pandemic H5N1 avian influenza vaccine. In this work, a synthetic polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccine (or nanovaccine) platform for respiratory pathogens such as H5N1 was designed. In particular, the work focused on the design of a subunit vaccine based on antigens specific to H5N1 avian influenza.

Intranasal administration of vaccines can increase ...