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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Obesity

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Genetic Determinants Of Metabolic Syndrome In Lyon Hypertensive Rats, Man Chun John Ma Dec 2013

Genetic Determinants Of Metabolic Syndrome In Lyon Hypertensive Rats, Man Chun John Ma

Theses and Dissertations

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a collective term for a cluster of disorders, including dysglycemia, central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and eventual end organ damage. The combination of these disorders increases the risk of many kinds of end organ damages, including coronary heart disease, kidney failure, and cirrhosis. MetS is highly prevalent in the United States, affecting one third of the U.S. population in a 2009 estimate.

The Lyon strains are three rat strains selectively inbred from the same colony of outbred rats for different blood pressure levels. The Lyon Hypertensive (LH) strain, in addition to its essential hypertension phenotype, also ...


Racial Differences In Self-Efficacy Expectations For Exercise, Selena P. Smith Dec 2013

Racial Differences In Self-Efficacy Expectations For Exercise, Selena P. Smith

Honors Theses

This project examined the link between race and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy pertains to an individual’s confidence in ability to complete or engage in a particular task or activity (Bandura, 1986). Prior research shows that self-efficacy has a great influence on exercise initiation and adherence (Bandura, 1986; Dishman, 1982; Rodgers and Sullivan, 2001). Research also supports that Caucasians are more likely to participate in exercise than African Americans (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000).

Participants included 51 females, 31 Caucasians and 20 African Americans, between the ages of 18 and 50 years old. The women were recruited from local fitness ...


The Relationship Between Television Viewing Time And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adult Women, Peter Jacob Arens Nov 2013

The Relationship Between Television Viewing Time And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adult Women, Peter Jacob Arens

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The present investigation was conducted to assess the relationship between television viewing time and cardiorespiratory fitness. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Intermountain West. Participants: 302 middle-aged women. Method: TV viewing was assessed using a questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a maximal graded treadmill test. Physical activity (PA) was evaluated using Actigraph accelerometers worn over seven consecutive days, while body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod). Results: (Mean ± SD) age: 40.2 ± 3.0 years. VO2max of the frequent (≥ 3hrs/day) TV group (32.6 ± 6.4) was significantly lower than both the moderate (1-2 hrs ...


Metformin-Induced Pedf Expression Regulates Cell Proliferation And Lipid Metabolism In Prostate Cancer Cells, Miguel Angel Tolentino Aug 2013

Metformin-Induced Pedf Expression Regulates Cell Proliferation And Lipid Metabolism In Prostate Cancer Cells, Miguel Angel Tolentino

Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in American males. A high fat diet and obesity accelerate PCa progression and increase the 1risk of death from disease. Epidemiological studies have indicated that PCa patients with type 2 diabetes have higher mortality rates than PCa patients without diabetes. Type 2 diabetics who are on metformin, a drug to control blood sugar levels, show a delay in PCa progression in comparison with PCa patients with type 2 diabetes who are not on metformin. It has been proposed that metformin inhibits proliferation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or ...


Aging And Obesity Models In Osteoarthritis, Sara Ohora Jul 2013

Aging And Obesity Models In Osteoarthritis, Sara Ohora

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease whose exact mechanisms are not well understood, but aging and obesity are common risk factors. To determine the role of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFα) in obesity-associated OA, Tgfa null and control mice on control and high fat diets were compared. In addition, spontaneous OA was investigated in aging C57BL/6J mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance was used to assess body composition in the obesity model, while gait analysis, histological staining and OARSI scoring were used to determine OA in both models. Mice on high fat diet developed no OA, but Tgfa null mice weighed ...


Maternal Acculturation Levels And Their Effect On Children's Food Intake, Maternal Perceptions Of Body Size And Maternal Stress, Tracie A. Chavoor Jun 2013

Maternal Acculturation Levels And Their Effect On Children's Food Intake, Maternal Perceptions Of Body Size And Maternal Stress, Tracie A. Chavoor

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In the U.S., obesity has hit alarming rates and affects Hispanic children disproportionately. Acculturation, the shift from one culture’s values, beliefs and practices to those of a new culture, may have both negative and positive health effects on immigrants. The objectives of this study were to determine the association between the level of acculturation (low acculturation or high acculturation) of low-income Latina mothers and the foods consumed by their children (0 to 36 months old). The association between acculturation and maternal perceptions of infant and toddler body size, maternal perceptions of her own body size and maternal parenting ...


The Relationship Between Calcium Intake And Body Mass Index In The Participants Of Hub City Steps, Laura P. Ewoldt May 2013

The Relationship Between Calcium Intake And Body Mass Index In The Participants Of Hub City Steps, Laura P. Ewoldt

Honors Theses

Background: The social, economic, and health impacts of unhealthy dietary behaviors and sedentary lifestyles are quite significant and even more so in the rural South. The majority of individuals in the US do not adhere to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, specifically fruits, vegetables, and calcium.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to address the issue of calcium intake and obesity in a population of primarily African American women in south Mississippi and to determine if levels of calcium intake had a relationship with body mass index.

Methods and Analysis: Data for the current study was collected through the ...


Assessment Of Dietary Behaviors Of College Students Participating In The Health Promotion Program Bucs: Live Well, Courtney E. Mckinney May 2013

Assessment Of Dietary Behaviors Of College Students Participating In The Health Promotion Program Bucs: Live Well, Courtney E. Mckinney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rates of adult obesity in the United States continue to rise, especially among the college-age population who typically practice poor dietary choices, contributing to weight gain. College-age students experience a transitional phase called ‘emerging adulthood’ where they learn autonomy in many areas that influence long-term health status. The purpose of the online health promotion program BUCS: Live Well was to promote self-efficacy in ability to incorporate positive dietary changes, assess incidences of positive dietary habits after completing the program, and determine if weight status, residence, and health perceptions influence dietary behaviors. BUCS: Live Well was successful in assessing current dietary ...


Acceleration Of The Panin Development In Mice Expressing Oncogenic K-Ras Due To A High Fat Diet, Bincy Philip May 2013

Acceleration Of The Panin Development In Mice Expressing Oncogenic K-Ras Due To A High Fat Diet, Bincy Philip

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Obesity is postulated to be one of the major risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and recently it was indicated that an elevated body mass index (BMI correlates strongly with a decrease in patient survival. Despite the evident relationship, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. Oncogenic mutation of K-Ras is found early and is universal in pancreatic cancer. Extensive evidence indicates oncogenic K-Ras is not entirely active and it requires a triggering event to surpass the activity of Ras beyond the threshold necessary for a Ras-inflammation feed-forward loop. We hypothesize that high fat intake induces a persistent low level inflammatory response ...


Diet-Induced Obesity Decreases Liver Iron Stores In Mice Fed Iron Deficient, Adequate, Or Excessive Diets, Brett J. Healy May 2013

Diet-Induced Obesity Decreases Liver Iron Stores In Mice Fed Iron Deficient, Adequate, Or Excessive Diets, Brett J. Healy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epidemiological and observational evidence suggests that obesity is related to poor Fe status. To determine interactions between obesity, dietary Fe intake and Fe status; male, weanling C57BL/6J mice were fed either high fat diets to induce obesity or a standard diet for 16 weeks. Fe concentrations of both the high fat or control diet (4.5 vs 3.8 kcal/g) were set at: 5, 50 or 500 mg Fe/kg diet. Mice fed the high fat diets had significantly higher percentage body fat (17.9%) compared to mice fed control diets (5.3%, P<0.001). Among obese mice, dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence body composition. Conversely among lean mice, mice fed the iron excessive diet had significantly less fat mass when compared to mice fed the iron deficient diet (P<0.05). Obesity and/or dietary Fe concentration did not significantly affect plasma Fe levels. ANOVA analysis showed significant effects of diet-induced obesity, dietary Fe and an interaction between both factors on liver Fe levels (P< 0.05). Obese mice had significantly lowered liver Fe levels compared to lean cohorts fed the same amount of dietary Fe (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Moreover, lean mice fed the Fe deficient diet (5 mg Fe/kg diet) had similar liver Fe levels (127 mg Fe/kg ± 0.04) compared to obese mice fed the 50 mg Fe/kg diet (132 mg Fe/kg ± 0.05). These data suggest that obesity, independent of dietary Fe intake, influences liver Fe stores.


Elongation Factor 1a-1 And Hepatocyte Response To Fatty Acid Excess, Alexandra M. Stoianov Apr 2013

Elongation Factor 1a-1 And Hepatocyte Response To Fatty Acid Excess, Alexandra M. Stoianov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Obesity is associated with elevated levels of serum fatty acids, which accumulate in nonadipose tissues including the liver. Elongation factor 1A-1 (EF1A-1) has previously been shown to participate in the cell stress and death response of cardiomyocytes to excess saturated fatty exposure, and in steatotic mouse myocardium. In this thesis, the hypothesis that the hepatocyte response to fatty acid overload involves EF1A-1 was tested. EF1A-1 expression was induced in the livers of obese mice in association with severe hepatic steatosis, and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells in response to excess palmitate. Partial translocation of EF1A-1 from the ER to polymerized ...


Local Macrophage Proliferation In Adipose Tissue Is A Characteristic Of Obesity-Associated Inflammation: A Dissertation, Shinya U. Amano Mar 2013

Local Macrophage Proliferation In Adipose Tissue Is A Characteristic Of Obesity-Associated Inflammation: A Dissertation, Shinya U. Amano

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems facing the world today. Extending our understanding of adipose tissue biology, and how it changes in obesity, will hopefully better equip our society in dealing with the obesity epidemic. Macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in the adipose tissue in obesity and secrete cytokines that can promote insulin resistance. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are thought to originate from bone marrow-derived monocytes, which infiltrate the tissue from the circulation. Much work has been done to demonstrate that inhibition of monocyte recruitment to the adipose tissue can ameliorate insulin resistance. While monocytes can enter ...


Role Of Inflammation In Diet-Induced Obesity: A Dissertation, Sophia Kogan Mar 2013

Role Of Inflammation In Diet-Induced Obesity: A Dissertation, Sophia Kogan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity results from expansion of white adipose tissue. The inability of white adipose tissue to adequately store lipids leads to ectopic deposition of lipids in non-adipose tissue that can lead to systemic insulin resistance. It is well known that insulin resistance correlates with inflammation of adipose tissue in obese animals and humans. Decreasing inflammation in the adipose tissue has been proven as a therapeutic strategy for improvement of insulin sensitivity in vivo. Numerous factors secreted by immune cells, including macrophages, have been suggested as regulating adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

In the first part of my thesis, I describe the role ...


The Effect Of Alpha-Cyclodextrin On Acute Blood Lipid And Glycemic Responses To A Fat Containg Meal, Evan Neil Fletcher Jan 2013

The Effect Of Alpha-Cyclodextrin On Acute Blood Lipid And Glycemic Responses To A Fat Containg Meal, Evan Neil Fletcher

Wayne State University Theses

Obesity and hyperlipidemia have become major concerns in the United States over the past 30 years. Alpha-Cyclodextrin (á-CD), a naturally occurring soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to reduce dietary fat absorption and improve blood lipid levels in an animal model (mouse and rat) and in human studies. In the current double blind study, 34 healthy male and female participants were recruited to test if á-CD had any acute effect on blood lipid and glycemic responses to a fat containing meal. The participants received the á-CD on one occasion and a placebo the other to determine if there was any ...


Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins Jan 2013

Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Echinacea is a medicinal plant that has a history of use for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. More recently there has been a renewed interest in alternative therapies including phytomedicinal preparations of Echinacea. Some important issues that remain to be addressed regarding the use of Echinacea therapeutically include plant species specific alterations of immune response and the effect of different preparation techniques (water as compared to ethanol) on immune response to viral infection. Results from multiple studies in mice, in cell culture, and in clinical trials in humans have suggested that water preparations provide a stimulatory effect on innate ...


Cardiorespiratory Responses In Healthy-Weight And Obese Women And Children, Elizabeth Ann Easley Jan 2013

Cardiorespiratory Responses In Healthy-Weight And Obese Women And Children, Elizabeth Ann Easley

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

A criterion method to evaluate cardiorespiratory health is measuring peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) from a maximal graded exercise test (GXT). While VO2 peak is a valuable measure, heart rate recovery (HRRec) and endothelial function (EF) also describe cardiorespiratory health and fitness. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in VO2 peak, HRRec, and EF between healthy-weight (HW) and obese (OB) women and children and to determine if there were significant correlations among these variables. A total of 60 women and children participated in this study. Anthropometric, body composition, resting heart rate and ...


Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris Jan 2013

Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is characterized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which originates in adipose tissue from adipocyte dysfunction as a consequence of adipocyte hypertrophy. Although rodent models have been pivotal to understanding the etiology of obesity and its co-morbidities, and the roles of specific genes, distinct differences between rodents and humans underscore the need for alternative comparative models. Swine are an attractive comparative model because of similar physiology and anatomy with humans. Ossabaw swine are of particular interest due to their "thrifty" genotype and predisposition to multiple risk factors for the metabolic syndrome.

Saturated fatty acids have the distinct ability ...


Fatty Acid Fate In Determining Oxidation And Inflammation In Adipose Tissue, Emilio Patrick Mottillo Jan 2013

Fatty Acid Fate In Determining Oxidation And Inflammation In Adipose Tissue, Emilio Patrick Mottillo

Wayne State University Dissertations

Adipose tissue (AT) is a critical regulator of energy balance through its ability to store or oxidize free fatty acids (FFAs). White adipose tissue (WAT) functions as an anabolic organ to sequester and release FAs, in contrast brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a catabolic organ that oxidizes FAs. However, a comprehensive understanding of the role that FFAs play in the function of WAT and BAT is needed. Here we demonstrate that intracellular FAs enhance the expression of inflammatory cytokines by β3-AR activation in adipocytes, in which the expression of PAI-1 is partly mediated by the de novo synthesis of ceramides ...


An Investigation Into The Influence Of Dietary Saturated Fat And Quercetin Supplementation On Adiposity, Macrophage Behavior, Inflammation, And Non-Alcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease, Reilly Enos Jan 2013

An Investigation Into The Influence Of Dietary Saturated Fat And Quercetin Supplementation On Adiposity, Macrophage Behavior, Inflammation, And Non-Alcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease, Reilly Enos

Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of this dissertation was to examine the degree to which manipulation of the saturated fat content of a high-fat diet influenced obesity-related outcomes as well as to see if the naturally-occurring flavonoid, quercetin, could attenuate the resulting obesity and related metabolic and inflammatory side effects. Specifically, these studies examined 1) the influential role of saturated fat on macrophage function, inflammation, and other obesity-related comorbidities, including non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease, and 2) the potential benefits of quercetin supplementation. Overall, results from these studies suggest that adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease progression can be greatly ...


Associations Between Resting Metabolic Rate And Energy Storage In Young Adults, Robin Shook Jan 2013

Associations Between Resting Metabolic Rate And Energy Storage In Young Adults, Robin Shook

Theses and Dissertations

At the most basic level obesity is the result of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the exact etiology is considerably more complex and may involve a variety of physiological and behavioral factors. Metabolic disturbances, including reduced fat oxidation as measured by the respiratory quotient (RQ) and reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), have been identified as possible predictors of changes in body weight and body composition. RMR represents the largest component (60-80%) of caloric expenditure that contributes to total daily energy expenditure in humans and has high inter-person variability (±25%) but not within individuals (<±5%). The cause of this variability between individuals and the exact role of RMR and RQ in determining body weight and body composition are uncertain.

This dissertation ...


The Effects Of A High Fat Diet On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Inflammation In The Brain., Lauren Suzanne Vervaecke Jan 2013

The Effects Of A High Fat Diet On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Inflammation In The Brain., Lauren Suzanne Vervaecke

Theses and Dissertations

INTRO: High fat diets (HFD) ingested over long periods of time have been shown to cause diet induced obesity leading to excessive adiposity and chronic low grade inflammation. Here we have shown how differing levels of saturated fats (SF), which are common storage fats, affect markers of inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis. IL-1â and TNF-alpha are pro-inflammatory cytokines that have been shown to increase with a HFD, while molecular signalers, PGC-1alpha, cyt c, and SIRT1, related to mitochondrial biogenesis have been shown to decrease. Despite the risks of consuming a diet high in SF's, consumers continue to buy energy dense ...


Executing And Teaching Science--The Breast Cancer Genetics And Technology-Rich Curriculum Professional Development Studies Of A Science Educator, Regina Evarn Wragg Jan 2013

Executing And Teaching Science--The Breast Cancer Genetics And Technology-Rich Curriculum Professional Development Studies Of A Science Educator, Regina Evarn Wragg

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents my explorations in both molecular biology and science education research. In study one, we determined the ADIPOQ and ADIPORI genotypes of 364 White and 148 Black BrCa patients and used dominant model univariate logistic regression analyses to determine individual SNP and haplotype associations with tumor or patient characteristics in a case-case comparison. We found twelve associations between individual SNPs and patient or tumor characteristics that impact BrCa prognosis. For example, the ADIPOQ rs1501299 C allele was associated with ER+ tumors (OR=4.73, p=0.001) among White women >50 years of age at their time of ...


Linking Environmental Toxicant Exposure To Diabetes Susceptibility, Jannifer Beth Tyrrell Jan 2013

Linking Environmental Toxicant Exposure To Diabetes Susceptibility, Jannifer Beth Tyrrell

Wayne State University Dissertations

An important and unresolved question in the environmental health field is whether exposure to common environmental toxicants, such as dioxin and heavy metals like Pb, increase the risk of developing diabetes, especially in combination with other common metabolic stressors such as obesity.

Previous studies suggested that dioxin exposure increased peripheral insulin resistance but did not appear to cause fasting hyperglycemia or elevated hepatic glucose output. In concordance with those findings we observed that dioxin treatment caused a strong suppression of the expression of the key hepatic gluconeogenic genes PEPCK and G6Pase. However, this suppression was not solely mediated by the ...