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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Population Genetic Structure Of Bromus Tectorum In The American Desert Southwest, Desiree Rochelle Eldon Dec 2013

Population Genetic Structure Of Bromus Tectorum In The American Desert Southwest, Desiree Rochelle Eldon

Theses and Dissertations

Following its introduction to North America in the late nineteenth century, Bromus tectorum L., an inbreeding invasive winter annual grass, has become dominant on millions of hectares of sagebrush steppe habitat throughout Intermountain Western North America. It appears that within the last 30-40 years, B. tectorum has expanded its range southward into the Mojave Desert and also into more climatically extreme salt desert environments. Previous research using microsatellite markers and experimental studies has suggested that lineages found in desert habitats are genetically distinct from those found in the sagebrush-steppe habitat and possess suites of traits that pre-adapt them to these ...


Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix) Protein Hydrolysates- A Potential Source Of Natural Antioxidant, Sravanthi Priya Malaypally Oct 2013

Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix) Protein Hydrolysates- A Potential Source Of Natural Antioxidant, Sravanthi Priya Malaypally

Open Access Dissertations

Invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), continue to spread over the Mississippi River causing a great concern for the river ecosystem due to their impact on native fish species. To minimize the negative effects of silver carp, many strategies were implemented including using it for animal feed, as fertilizers or simply discarding them into waste. However, these fish are high in protein content, making them excellent starting material for protein-derived by-products. One alternative is to recover and modify the protein in the fish into bioactive food ingredient. In the functional/ nutraceutical food industry, there is high demand for antioxidant agents. In ...


The Effects Of Invasive Plants On Biodiversity Across Spatial Scales, Kristin Irene Powell Sep 2013

The Effects Of Invasive Plants On Biodiversity Across Spatial Scales, Kristin Irene Powell

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

Although introduced plant species are often considered to be one of the most notable anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, their influence on biodiversity remains controversial. Some studies have shown large declines in biodiversity in plant-invaded areas, whereas others have noted that plant invasions are rarely implicated as the cause of species extinctions. This dissertation aims to synthesize this seemingly conflicting literature on the effects of invasive plants on biodiversity. The overarching hypothesis in this research is that the effect of invasive plant species on biodiversity is scale-dependent, and the discrepancy among studies can be explained by a difference in the scales ...


Temporal Food Preference And Effectiveness Of Selected Bait Products Against Pachycondyla Chinensis (Emery) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Ying Mo May 2013

Temporal Food Preference And Effectiveness Of Selected Bait Products Against Pachycondyla Chinensis (Emery) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Ying Mo

All Theses

Pachycondyla chinensis (Emery), commonly known as the Asian needle ant is a well-established invasive species in urban and woodland areas in South Carolina. Foraging ants are found around or under places such as sidewalks, flowerbeds, mulch, tree bases, stones, and logs where human outdoor activity takes place in urbanized area. It is not an aggressive ant, but it has a powerful sting that causes severe allergic reactions in some people. It also has a negative impact on native ant species in forest environments. Food preference was studied, followed by an evaluation of selected bait products against P. chinensis.
Protein, carbohydrate ...


Invasion Ecology Of Acer Platanoides In An Old-Growth Urban Forest, Justin Paul Rogers Apr 2013

Invasion Ecology Of Acer Platanoides In An Old-Growth Urban Forest, Justin Paul Rogers

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

Acer platanoides (Norway maple) is an exotic tree species with invasive potential that has been described as a prolific seed producer, shade tolerant, and a strong competitor for limiting resources. It has invaded many forests in the northeastern United States and Canada, including the Washington Grove, a 10 ha forest in Cobbs Hill Park in Rochester, NY. To quantify the extent of the invasion at the Grove, I surveyed the forest canopy, subcanopy, seedlings, saplings, shrub cover, herbaceous cover, seed rain, and seed bank. In a primarily Quercus (oak) canopy, A. platanoides was relatively sparse at 31 individuals/ha, but ...


Improving Model Performance For Invasive Plant Species Distribution Using Global-Scale Presence-Only Data: Parameterization And Data Quality, Feng Yu Jan 2013

Improving Model Performance For Invasive Plant Species Distribution Using Global-Scale Presence-Only Data: Parameterization And Data Quality, Feng Yu

Open Access Theses

Invasive species have significant ecological and economic impacts. To control species' invasion, risk assessment provides the most essential information for identification and evaluation of the potential risk of the invasive species, especially in their early invasion stages. Species distribution models (SDMs) is the foundation for risk assessment, in terms of both the practical and theoretical interest in our understanding of species invasion process. SDMs contribute to the proactive invasion management and the test of ecological or biogeographical hypotheses about species distributions in relation to their environment.

However, modeling of invasive species at large spatial scale (i.e., cross-continental) is rarely ...


Behavior And Ecosystem Effects Of The Invasive Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea) In Urban Streams, Kayla Turek Jan 2013

Behavior And Ecosystem Effects Of The Invasive Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea) In Urban Streams, Kayla Turek

Master's Theses

Invasive species can be detrimental to freshwater ecosystems. By completing laboratory and field studies to observe processes and behaviors of the invasive Asian Clam (Corbicula fluminea), I documented pathways whereby this invasive species impacts aquatic ecosystems under conditions typical of urbanized streams I found. The predominant pathways by which clams impacted nitrogen (N) cycling was through excretion thus increasing ammonium (NH4+) flux out of sediment and through bioturbation, which increased nitrate (NO3-) diffusion to the sediment and dinitrogen gas (N2) production (i.e., denitrification). The effect was greater under urban conditions, where C. fluminea population density and water column NO3- ...


Physiological And Behavioral Mechanisms Of Range Expansion In The House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus), Andrea Lyn Liebl Jan 2013

Physiological And Behavioral Mechanisms Of Range Expansion In The House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus), Andrea Lyn Liebl

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduced species cause both considerable ecological and economic damage every year. However, not much is known about how certain species are able to establish and spread beyond the site of initial introduction, whereas others do not. Species undergoing range expansion following an introduction may prove to be a valuable resource to invasion biology, but may also be informative in light of species' responses to changing environments (i.e. global climate change). Here, I took advantage of an ongoing range expansion of an introduced vertebrate species. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) were introduced to Mombasa, Kenya in the 1950s and have subsequently ...


Mechanisms Altering Exotic-Native Proportions In Plant Communities, And Impacts On Biodiversity And Ecosystems, Leanne M. Martin Jan 2013

Mechanisms Altering Exotic-Native Proportions In Plant Communities, And Impacts On Biodiversity And Ecosystems, Leanne M. Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the causes and consequences of variation in species composition and diversity across space and time are basic questions in ecology that have strong implications for conservation and restoration. However, exotic-dominated ecosystems, in which species with potentially novel interactions occur, are altering the context in which we ask these questions. The work presented here tested for the first time whether 1) experimental community assembly history manipulations of the seeds of native species could alter species composition, diversity, and ecosystem measures in grasslands dominated by exotic species, and 2) whether exotic-dominated grasslands differ from native-dominated grasslands for multiple aspects of diversity ...


Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Response To Invasion And Subsequent Removal Of Typha × Glauca From Great Lakes Coastal Marshes, Kimberly Anne Greene Jan 2013

Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Response To Invasion And Subsequent Removal Of Typha × Glauca From Great Lakes Coastal Marshes, Kimberly Anne Greene

Master's Theses

Aquatic macroinvertebrates are important in wetland ecosystems; many fish and wildlife species depend upon them for food resources and they aid in nutrient cycling. Wetland macroinvertebrate communities are influenced by plant community composition; as such, this study examined two implications of invasive hybrid cattail, Typha × glauca (Typha), on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in northern Great Lakes coastal wetlands: 1) how the presence of nearly monotypic stands of Typha alters wetland aquatic macroinvertebrate communities and 2) how manual removal of Typha, via mowing and manual tilling, impacts these invertebrate communities along with wetland plant communities. I found that in emergent marsh habitats ...


An Assessment Of The Invasive Poison Hemlock And Its Insect Associates In Kentucky, Christine D. Allen Jan 2013

An Assessment Of The Invasive Poison Hemlock And Its Insect Associates In Kentucky, Christine D. Allen

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Poison hemlock, Conium maculatum (Apiaceae), is an invasive plant in North America with a unique toxic chemistry. Previous research on this plant has focused on identifying herbivores as potential biological control agents or describing the toxic plant alkaloids. However, none have examined the role of higher trophic levels in the food web surrounding poison hemlock. Generalist predators and food web interactions are an important component of studies investigating invasion effects, as plant or animal introductions can alter ecosystem functioning. In this study, predators in poison hemlock were sampled at the foliar and epigeal levels, resulting in 956 Carabidae and 321 ...