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The Evolution And Expression Of Drosophila Meiosis Genes, Danielle Jeanine Beekman Dec 2013

The Evolution And Expression Of Drosophila Meiosis Genes, Danielle Jeanine Beekman

Theses and Dissertations

Drosophila melanogaster is unique amongst model organisms in that males utilize achiasmatic meiosis, where formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and recombination are absent. Most organisms require the SC and chiasmata for the successful completion of meiosis and production of viable gametes, making D. melanogaster an ideal system for the study of meiotic variation. The goal of my research was to examine in detail the origin and evolution of male achiasmatic meiosis in Diptera. This was done in three parts: 1) assessing the presence and absence of meiosis genes across dipteran species, 2) analyzing the rate of evolution of Drosophila ...


Studying Aggregate Formation By Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Associated Mutant Sod1 Protein In Drosophila Model, Michael Mccarthy Aug 2013

Studying Aggregate Formation By Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Associated Mutant Sod1 Protein In Drosophila Model, Michael Mccarthy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A common pathological hallmark of most neurodegenerative disorders is the presence of protein aggregates in the brain. Understanding the regulation of aggregate formation is thus important for elucidating disease pathogenic mechanisms and finding effective preventive avenues and cures. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a selective neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting motor neurons. The majority of ALS cases are sporadic, however, mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are responsible for about 20% of familial ALS (fALS). Mutated SOD1 proteins are prone to misfold and form protein aggregates, thus representing a good candidate for studying aggregate ...


Studies On Solo Working Mechanism In The Meiosis Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Qian Ma Aug 2013

Studies On Solo Working Mechanism In The Meiosis Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Qian Ma

Masters Theses

In eukaryotes, sister chromatids are closely aligned due to cohesion, a process essential for chromosome pairing and segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. A conserved cohesin complex in a ring structure is composed of four subunits, including each of these four members or their homologs, SMC1, SMC3, SCC1/RAD21/REC8, and SCC3/SA. Up to now, no REC8 homolog has been identified in the meiosis of Drosophila. SOLO is a meiotic protein required for accurate chromosome segregation, centromere cohesion, and cohesin complex localization in Drosophila meiosis. In addition, SOLO is required for synapsis and recombination in Drosophila female meiosis.

In ...


Understanding The Contribution Of Individual Zinc Fingers To A Multi-Functional, Polydactyl Transcription Factor, Ryan M. Baxley Jul 2013

Understanding The Contribution Of Individual Zinc Fingers To A Multi-Functional, Polydactyl Transcription Factor, Ryan M. Baxley

Theses and Dissertations

Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw)] is a twelve zinc-finger (ZF), DNA binding transcription factor. Su(Hw) has been well characterized as critical component of the gypsy insulator complex, required for the enhancer blocking and the barrier activity of the insulator. In addition to gypsy, Su(Hw) localizes to ~3,000 binding sites in the Drosophila genome, with association to a subset of sites required for female germline development. Loss of Su(Hw) results in activation of a developmental checkpoint and apoptosis at mid- oogenesis, with a critical role during oogenesis in down-regulation of neural genes. Studies of Su(Hw) function ...


Transcriptional And Translational Mechanisms Controlling Circadian Rhythms In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Jinli Ling Jun 2013

Transcriptional And Translational Mechanisms Controlling Circadian Rhythms In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Jinli Ling

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Circadian rhythms are self-sustained 24-hour period oscillations present in most organisms, from bacteria to human. They can be synchronized to external cues, thus allowing organisms to anticipate environmental variations and optimize their performance in nature.

In Drosophila, the molecular pacemaker consists of two interlocked transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC) sits in the center and drives rhythmic transcription of period (per), timeless (tim), vrille (vri) and PAR domain protein 1 (Pdp1). PER and TIM negatively feedback on CLK/CYC transcriptional activity, forming one loop, while VRI and PDP1 form the other by regulating Clk transcription negatively and positively, respectively ...


Layered Reward Signalling Through Octopamine And Dopamine In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Christopher J. Burke May 2013

Layered Reward Signalling Through Octopamine And Dopamine In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Christopher J. Burke

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Evaluating our environment by deciding what is beneficial or harmful, pleasant or punishing is a part of our daily lives. Seeking pleasure and avoiding pain is a common trait all mobile organisms exhibit and understanding how rewarding stimuli are represented in the brain remains a major goal of neuroscience. Studying reward learning in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster has enabled us to better understand the complex neural circuit mechanisms involved in reward processing in the brain. By conditioning flies with sugars of differing nutritional properties, we determined that flies trained with sweet but non-nutritive sugars formed robust short-term memory (STM ...


Drosophila T-Box Transcription Factor Midline Functions In The Notch-Delta Signaling Pathway To Regulate Sensory Organ Precursor Cell Fate And Cell Survival And Embryonic Development Profile Of Midline, Senseless, And Achaete In The Cns And Pns, Joseph D. Saucier May 2013

Drosophila T-Box Transcription Factor Midline Functions In The Notch-Delta Signaling Pathway To Regulate Sensory Organ Precursor Cell Fate And Cell Survival And Embryonic Development Profile Of Midline, Senseless, And Achaete In The Cns And Pns, Joseph D. Saucier

Honors Theses

The gene mid of Drosophila is a highly conserved gene that codes for a T-box transcription factor with similar functionality to its vertebrate homolog Tbx20. Mid and Tbx20 are important for their roles in heart and CNS development. Additionally, these transcription factors aid in proper eye development but this area of research is vastly understudied. This study uses the eye of Drosophila to report that mid and its paralog H15 expression aid in the specification of sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell fates and cell survival in the pupal eye imaginal disc. Using RNAi interference to reduce mid expression resulted in ...


Control Of Neuroendocrine Cell Physiology By A Single Transcription Factor, Drosophila Basic Helix Loop Helix Regulator Dimmed, Tarik Hadzic Apr 2013

Control Of Neuroendocrine Cell Physiology By A Single Transcription Factor, Drosophila Basic Helix Loop Helix Regulator Dimmed, Tarik Hadzic

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

Neuroendocrine cells feature a large capacity for the processing, accumulation and regulated release of bioactive peptides and peptide hormones. The ultrastructural correlate of this regulated secretory pathway is a specialized organelle, called a dense core vesicle: DCV). DCVs are typically larger than conventional, small synaptic vesicles. Past work has identified intrinsic DCV proteins: non-cargo proteins, like the processing enzyme, carboxypeptidase) or ancillary ones that play a role in DCV trafficking and exocytosis: like CAPS, the Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion). Currently, there is a lack of understanding of the developmental and physiological mechanisms that permit neurosecretory cells to coordinate ...


The Drosophila Interactions Database: Integrating The Interactome And Transcriptome, Thilakam Murali Jan 2013

The Drosophila Interactions Database: Integrating The Interactome And Transcriptome, Thilakam Murali

Wayne State University Dissertations

In this thesis I describe the integration of heterogeneous interaction data for Drosophila into DroID, the Drosophilainteractions database, making it a one-stop public resource for interaction data. I have also made it possible to filter the interaction data using gene expression data to generate context-relevant networks making DroID a one-of-a kind resource for biologists. In the two years since the upgraded DroID has been available, several studies have used the heterogeneous interaction data in DroID to advance our understanding of Drosophila biology thus validating the need for such a resource for biologists. In addition to this, I have identified ...


Characterizing Cyclin J By Identifying Conserved Protein-Protein Interactions, Phillip Jacob Selman Jan 2013

Characterizing Cyclin J By Identifying Conserved Protein-Protein Interactions, Phillip Jacob Selman

Wayne State University Theses

Cyclins are proteins that bind to Cyclin-dependent kinases, or Cdks, through a conserved domain called the Cyclin Box. Many Cyclins regulate the cell cycle. A few Cyclins impact cellular processes outside of the cell cycle. Also, a few Cyclins have poorly understood functions.

Cyclin J is a member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. Cyclin J is conserved among all metazoans, but is presently not well understood. All the research done on Cyclin J has been done in Drosophila.

Its mRNA is present in the early embryo, then disappears, only to reappear in adult females. When probing protein extracts with ...


Cysteine Desulfurase And Isd11: A Drosophila Model, Rahul Ravindran Nair Jan 2013

Cysteine Desulfurase And Isd11: A Drosophila Model, Rahul Ravindran Nair

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

Cysteine desulfurase and Isd11: A Drosophila model

Iron-sulfur clusters are cofactors with evolutionary origins that date back to the pre-biotic world. Ever since life originated, these cofactors have intermingled with proteins to play vital roles in sustaining life. My research focuses on one such protein, the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs) that has the PLP cofactor incorporated in its active site and avails of the catalytic property of PLP to provide sulphur for Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and assembly in a cell. Interestingly, in a eukaryotic cell, despite the versatility of PLP, cysteine desulfurase's role as a "sulphur-extractor" is incomplete without ...


An Evolutionarily Conserved Role For Autophagy In Antiviral Defense, Ryan Moy Jan 2013

An Evolutionarily Conserved Role For Autophagy In Antiviral Defense, Ryan Moy

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection and depends on the use of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Virus recognition subsequently triggers an assortment of effector responses that are critical for clearing the invading pathogen. Among known antiviral pathways, autophagy, a biological process that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic components, may be one of the most ancient. We previously demonstrated that autophagy is essential for resistance to the Rhabdovirus Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in flies. However, the mechanism by which autophagy is triggered during VSV infection remained unclear. Through a ...


Developing The Yeast Disaggregase Hsp104 As A Treatment For Polyglutamine Disease In Drosophila, Mary Cushman Nick Jan 2013

Developing The Yeast Disaggregase Hsp104 As A Treatment For Polyglutamine Disease In Drosophila, Mary Cushman Nick

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

There is currently no cure for neurodegenerative disease or the underlying burden of protein aggregation that is associated with symptom development. A novel approach to combat this accumulation of misfolded protein species is surprisingly found in a protein disaggregase in yeast, the heat shock protein Hsp104. To investigate whether Hsp104 can be introduced into an animal system and harnessed to attack disease-associated protein inclusions, we created a transgenic Drosophila model expressing Hsp104 and investigated whether this would mitigate toxicity and alter the load of protein accumulations. We found that Hsp104 indeed suppressed toxicity of a disease-associated protein fragment containing an ...


Characterization Of The Ribosomal Protein L22e Family In Drosophila Melanogaster: Evidence For Functional Diversification Of Duplicated Ribosomal Protein Genes, Michael G. Kearse Jan 2013

Characterization Of The Ribosomal Protein L22e Family In Drosophila Melanogaster: Evidence For Functional Diversification Of Duplicated Ribosomal Protein Genes, Michael G. Kearse

Theses and Dissertations

Gene duplication is a contributing factor to genome evolution in eukaryotes. With an additional copy, selective pressure is relieved, allowing for accumulation of genetic variation and possible development of new or altered functions. Ribosomal protein (Rp) genes are a common class of duplicated genes found throughout eukaryotes. Typically encoding highly similar or identical proteins at separate loci, duplicated Rps were originally thought to be redundant and to relieve the high demand for translation. However, recent reports in yeast have shown phenotypic differences between Rp paralogue knockouts, suggesting functional non-redundancy. Little effort has been devoted toward elucidating the function of Rp ...


Regulation Of Actin Dynamics During Drosophila Germband Extension, Ashley M. Motlong Jan 2013

Regulation Of Actin Dynamics During Drosophila Germband Extension, Ashley M. Motlong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Convergent extension is a process that occurs in the development of a wide variety of organisms, including gastrulation in the Drosophila embryo to begin to lay out the adult body plan. In fly embryos, this is known as germband extension and is mainly driven by cell intercalation or neighbor exchange by planar polarized cell-cell interface contraction to shorten the tissue along the dorsal-ventral axis. In this thesis, I show that interface contraction consists of phases of fast interface shortening and intervals of stable interface size. My data also suggests that regulation of F-actin aggregates at these shrinking interfaces is important ...