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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford Nov 2013

Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Computer generated three-dimensional (3-D) models are being used at increasing rates in the fields of entertainment, education, research, and engineering. One of the aspects of interest includes the behavior and function of the musculoskeletal system. One such tool used by engineers is the finite element method (FEM) to simulate the physics behind muscle mechanics. There are several ways to represent 3-D muscle geometry, namely a bulk, a central line of action and a spline model. The purpose of this study is to exmine how these three representations affect the overall outcome of muscle movement. This is examined in a series ...


Correlation Of Shoulder And Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity In College Baseball Pitchers, Eric Post Oct 2013

Correlation Of Shoulder And Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity In College Baseball Pitchers, Eric Post

Theses and Dissertations

Specific injuries at the elbow and glenohumeral joints have been linked to several kinetic variables that occur throughout the throwing motion. Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) sprains have been linked to excessive elbow valgus and shoulder external rotation torques occurring during the late-cocking phase of throwing. Shoulder external rotation torque during the late arm-cocking phase and shoulder distraction forces during the deceleration phase contribute to tears of the labrum. Additionally, it is believed that the peak distraction force generated during the arm deceleration phase also contributes to SLAP tears and rotator cuff pathologies. Very little research has been done to directly ...


Steeplechase Hurdle Economy, Mechanics, And Performance, Sarah Ingebretsen Jun 2013

Steeplechase Hurdle Economy, Mechanics, And Performance, Sarah Ingebretsen

Theses and Dissertations

Research surrounding the steeplechase is scarce, with most research focusing primarily on how biomechanical factors relate to maintaining running speed while crossing barriers. One area that has not been well explored is the relationship between biomechanical factors and hurdling economy. The purpose of this study was to investigate how performance times and biomechanical variables relate to hurdling economy during the steeplechase. This was accomplished by measuring running economy of collegiate and professional steeplechasers while running with and without hurdles. Biomechanical measures of approach velocity, take-off distance, clearance height, and lead knee extension while hurdling, as well as steeplechase performance times ...


Biomechanical Testing Of Salter-Harris Fractures Type I And Ii In The Distal Femur And Proximal Tibia, Margeaux Rogers May 2013

Biomechanical Testing Of Salter-Harris Fractures Type I And Ii In The Distal Femur And Proximal Tibia, Margeaux Rogers

All Theses

Salter-Harris fractures of the proximal tibia and distal femur are common in pediatric patients that present to orthopedic surgeons. Salter-Harris type I fractures are characterized by breaks that extend only through the physis while Salter-Harris II fractures are the most common, accounting for 85% of Salter-Harris fractures, and extend past the growth plate, exiting through the metaphyseal bone1. Fixation of these fracture types can be accomplished using a variety of methods including the use of Kirschner wires, cannulated screws, and a combination of both materials. Stability of fracture fixation is of utmost importance as persistent motion at the fracture margin ...


Examination Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During An Overhand Lacrosse Shot In Females, Brianna Millard May 2013

Examination Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During An Overhand Lacrosse Shot In Females, Brianna Millard

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study intends to provide a basic biomechanical understanding of a specific movement within the sport of lacrosse, an overhand goal shot. Its purpose is to identify the different muscles of the lower extremity and the roles they perform during each phase of the lacrosse shot. Specifically, the study will compare how active muscles are between phases as well as between two different shot speeds. This research provides insight into the importance of timing muscle contractions that lead to a more accurate and faster shot.

Subjects (n=5 females, age: 21.8 ± 2 years, height: 162.56 ± 15.24cm, mass ...


Integrating Biomechanics And Cell Physiology To Understanding Ivd Nutrition And Cell Homeostasis, Yongren Wu May 2013

Integrating Biomechanics And Cell Physiology To Understanding Ivd Nutrition And Cell Homeostasis, Yongren Wu

All Dissertations

Back pain associated with degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a major public health problem in Western industrialized societies. Degeneration of the IVD changes the osmotic and nutrient environment in the extracellular matrix (ECM) which affects cell behaviors, including: cell proliferation, cell energy metabolism, and matrix synthesis. In addition, a thin layer of hyaline cartilaginous end-plate (CEP) at the superior/inferior disc-vertebral interface was found to play an important role in nutrient supply as well as load distribution in the IVD. Therefore, our general hypothesis is that the CEP regulates the ECM osmotic and nutrient environment which further affects ...


Effects Of Footstrike Pattern On Low Back Posture, Shock Attenuation, And Comfort During Running, Traci L. Delgado, Emilia Kubera-Shelton, Robert R. Robb May 2013

Effects Of Footstrike Pattern On Low Back Posture, Shock Attenuation, And Comfort During Running, Traci L. Delgado, Emilia Kubera-Shelton, Robert R. Robb

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Purpose: Barefoot running (BF) is popular in the running community. Biomechanical changes occur with BF, especially when initial contact changes from rearfoot strike (RFS) to forefoot strike (FFS). In addition, changes in lumbar spine range of motion (ROM), particularly involving lumbar lordosis, have been associated with increased low back pain (LBP). However it is not known how changing from RFS to FFS affects lumbar lordosis or LBP. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a change from RFS to FFS would change lumbar lordosis, and/or decrease shock attenuation, and/or change comfort levels in healthy recreational ...


Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar Jan 2013

Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar

Open Access Theses

Walking or running while carrying loads has always been a tedious task, more so when the loads are heavy. Such a task of carrying loads not only requires extra effort but also leads to physical pain and in some cases injury. Prior studies on human locomotion with a suspended load have used models that are restricted in their DOFs and so are not able to take into account the fore aft movement in human beings. The objective of this thesis is to model the dynamics of sagittal plane center-of-mass locomotion with a suspended load and apply findings to carrying loads ...


Modeling The Human Gait Phases Using Granular Computing, Melaku Ayenew Bogale Jan 2013

Modeling The Human Gait Phases Using Granular Computing, Melaku Ayenew Bogale

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Gait analysis is applied for the provision of diagnosis, evaluation, and for the design of therapeutic intervention for subjects suffering from neurological disorders. The benefits accruing from gait analysis are well established. People with neurological disorders like mild traumatic brain injury, Cerebral Palsy and Multiple Sclerosis, suffer associated functional gait problems. The symptoms and sign of these gait deficits are different from subject to subject and even for the same subject at different stage of the disease. Identifying these gait related abnormalities helps in the treatment planning and rehabilitation process.

The dynamic behavior of gait parameters is cyclic and the ...


The Effect Of A Barefoot Running Training Program On Running Economy And Performance, Neil James Baroody Jan 2013

The Effect Of A Barefoot Running Training Program On Running Economy And Performance, Neil James Baroody

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Biomechanical Impact Of Lower-Body Ppe On The Football Athlete: An Evaluation And Redesign Of The Knee Pad, Brandon F. Moeller Jan 2013

Biomechanical Impact Of Lower-Body Ppe On The Football Athlete: An Evaluation And Redesign Of The Knee Pad, Brandon F. Moeller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although football personal protective equipment (PPE) has developed considerably since the game's conception, knee pad design has lagged behind. Players at all levels of competition are dissatisfied with the device, claiming it impedes performance more than it protects from injury. To date, no published research has studied the football knee pad's effect on athletic performance, and no ergonomic evaluation of the design has been completed.

This research first created a new knee pad design based on survey feedback from 138 collegiate and high school football athletes. This new design, called the Vastus And Patella Protection with Range of ...