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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Selenium Supplementation Increases Antioxidant Response In Vitro, Yasmin Fakhereddin Jan 2013

Selenium Supplementation Increases Antioxidant Response In Vitro, Yasmin Fakhereddin

Wayne State University Theses

Reactive oxygen species and free radicals are associated with the negative effects of aging. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms can defend cell structures from free radical damage. Selenium is an essential trace element necessary for cellular functions in the human body. A positive correlation between low serum selenium levels with the morbidity and mortality of a range of cancers has been illustrated in numerous studies. Glutathione Peroxidase catalyzes a reaction in which H2O2 oxidizes the reduced form of GSH and forms H2O. NADPH further reduces GSSG, the oxidized structure of glutathione, in a reaction catalyzed by glutathione reductase. Tissue culture was ...


Investigating The Metal Binding Affinity Of Bacterial Zinc Transporters: Zupt And Truncated Znta (Znta-Pina), Fei Nie Jan 2013

Investigating The Metal Binding Affinity Of Bacterial Zinc Transporters: Zupt And Truncated Znta (Znta-Pina), Fei Nie

Wayne State University Theses

Zinc is essential trace elements for all living organisms and serves as cofactor and structural cofactors for more than 300 enzymes. ZupT is one of the members of ZIP super family of transporter proteins, which were identified as iron and zinc transporter in Eukaryotes at first. However, recent evidence showed that some of members can also transport other metal ions, such as manganese or cadmium, and ZIP proteins also exist in bacteria. ZupT is responsible for zinc uptake in E. coli; however, its full metal selectivity is not yet characterized. In addition, the mechanism of transport is also unknown. Therefore ...


Regulation Of Nuclear Localization Of The Sole Sumo-Conjugating Enzyme, Ubc9, Palak Sekhri Jan 2013

Regulation Of Nuclear Localization Of The Sole Sumo-Conjugating Enzyme, Ubc9, Palak Sekhri

Wayne State University Theses

The covalent and reversible conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to hundreds of different cellular proteins is catalyzed by a cascade of enzymes including an E1-activating enzyme (SAE1/SAE2), an E2-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) and multiple E3 ligases. As the only E2 enzyme for SUMO-conjugation, Ubc9 localizes mainly in the nucleus and plays an essential role in regulation of many cellular processes including cell cycle progression through mitosis, cell migration, genome stability, stress response, transcription, and nuclear transport in eukaryotic cells. It is hypothesized that the nuclear localization of Ubc9 is required for efficient sumoylation inside the nucleus because both ...


The Xenopus Lefty (Xlefty) Prodomain Negatively Regulates Xlefty Activity And Is Necessary For Proper Xlefty Secretion, Adrian Amelio Vasquez Jan 2013

The Xenopus Lefty (Xlefty) Prodomain Negatively Regulates Xlefty Activity And Is Necessary For Proper Xlefty Secretion, Adrian Amelio Vasquez

Wayne State University Theses

In vertebrates, the TGF #914; superfamily of secreted peptides are stringently regulated since they are responsible for multiple cell processes and behaviors that give rise to the proper patterning of embryonic tissues. Examples of members of the TGF #914; superfamily are Nodal and Lefty. Dysregulation of these proteins can lead to many diseases and developmental syndromes in humans.

Lefty functions by antagonizing Nodal an essential organizer signal that patterns dorsal mesoderm and the embryonic axes. Loss of Lefty expression results in excess Nodal signaling which has been shown to cause several perturbations including metastatic cancer. Although studies have clearly shown ...


Oligospermines For Non-Viral Sirna Delivery, Maha Elsayed Jan 2013

Oligospermines For Non-Viral Sirna Delivery, Maha Elsayed

Wayne State University Theses

In this thesis, delivery systems for siRNA delivery are introduced with special attention to non-viral vectors. Many successful vectors used in vivo were reviewed. Our work focused on the effect of different architectures of oligospermine polmers on their suitability for siRNA delivery in lung cancer cells. Different archituctures showed different polyplex structures and variable transfection efficiencies. Moreover, we presented a review on nanoimprint lithography techniques with an outlook on possible biological applications in the field of gene and drug delivery.


Landscape Characteristics Of Upland Sandpiper Habitat In Michigan, Jacob Lawrence Korte Jan 2013

Landscape Characteristics Of Upland Sandpiper Habitat In Michigan, Jacob Lawrence Korte

Wayne State University Theses

Grassland bird populations have declined across North America due to habitat loss but at a disproportionately higher rate in the midwestern United States, where extensive coverage of grasslands and other open land ecosystems have been converted to other land cover types. The upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda Bechstein, UPSA) is a migratory, area-sensitive, terrestrial shorebird that breeds in grasslands and other open land ecosystem types across their North American range. Although breeding habitats of the Great Plains contain the greatest concentrations of this species, anthropogenic openings such as hayfields and pastures serve as surrogate habitat elsewhere, as do remnant patches of ...


Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of Classroom-Based Nutrition Intervention On Changes In Eating Behavior In African American Parents/Caregivers And Their Children., Nesrine Akil Jan 2013

Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of Classroom-Based Nutrition Intervention On Changes In Eating Behavior In African American Parents/Caregivers And Their Children., Nesrine Akil

Wayne State University Theses

Although obesity rate has increased steadily over the past 20 years in the US, a 2006 report showed that the obesity rate is expected to continue to rise, with 13.9% of children between the ages of 2 to 5 years are considered overweight. However, 26.2% were considered at risk of becoming overweight. The parents/caregivers are the key players for developing their children's healthy or unhealthy eating habits since they are the specific determinants of food selection, serving structured meals and being the role models to their children by eating the same food offered themselves. This reflects ...


Influence Of Mechanical Cues And The Extracellular Matrix On Cell Migration Patterns And The Proliferation Rates Of Cells, Tara Shane Alger Jan 2013

Influence Of Mechanical Cues And The Extracellular Matrix On Cell Migration Patterns And The Proliferation Rates Of Cells, Tara Shane Alger

Wayne State University Theses

The mechanical environment of a cell and its tissue can impact multiple biological processes including development, wound healing, and metastasis. Specific cellular behaviors influenced by the mechanical microenvironment include differentiation, morphology, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. In this thesis I have focused specifically on the effect of environmental stiffness and applied mechanical forces on cellular migration and proliferation, respectively. Using two different applications, both tailored to evaluate the mechanical forces alone on cellular behavior, I attempted to simulate the mechanical composition of the in vivo tissue microenvironments in vitro using polyacrylamide hydrogels. To test whether cells maintain a mechanical memory for ...


Role Of Phosphoylation Of The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Proteasome In Oxidative Stress Response And Regulation Of Homoserine Kinase (Thrb) In Corynebacterium Glutamicum, Heather Baun Jan 2013

Role Of Phosphoylation Of The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Proteasome In Oxidative Stress Response And Regulation Of Homoserine Kinase (Thrb) In Corynebacterium Glutamicum, Heather Baun

Wayne State University Theses

Part 1:

One-third of the world's population is infected with the latent form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis must be able to control this latent even in response to nitrosative and oxidative stress conferred by the host. It is not well known how M. tuberculosis controls this state.

One possibility for this control is through its eleven eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinases. Our lab has focused research on two eukaryotic-like ser/thr protein kinases, PknA and PknB. It has been found that PknA expression may affect the stability or the assembly of the proteasome complex, which is essential for ...


Protective Effects Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Adh1b Allele, Neil Dodge Jan 2013

Protective Effects Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Adh1b Allele, Neil Dodge

Wayne State University Theses

Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to African Americans, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in African American infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele ...


The Effect Of Alpha-Cyclodextrin On Acute Blood Lipid And Glycemic Responses To A Fat Containg Meal, Evan Neil Fletcher Jan 2013

The Effect Of Alpha-Cyclodextrin On Acute Blood Lipid And Glycemic Responses To A Fat Containg Meal, Evan Neil Fletcher

Wayne State University Theses

Obesity and hyperlipidemia have become major concerns in the United States over the past 30 years. Alpha-Cyclodextrin (á-CD), a naturally occurring soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to reduce dietary fat absorption and improve blood lipid levels in an animal model (mouse and rat) and in human studies. In the current double blind study, 34 healthy male and female participants were recruited to test if á-CD had any acute effect on blood lipid and glycemic responses to a fat containing meal. The participants received the á-CD on one occasion and a placebo the other to determine if there was any ...


Investigation Of Bacterial Rna-Directed Dna Methylation Via Dcm And Hfq, Dandan Li Jan 2013

Investigation Of Bacterial Rna-Directed Dna Methylation Via Dcm And Hfq, Dandan Li

Wayne State University Theses

Bacterial small RNAs and the RNA chaperone Hfq play crucial roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, often as parts of stress-response pathways, but little is known about their roles in regulation of gene transcription. A recent report showed that changes in methylation patterns caused by DNA cytosine methyltransferase (Dcm) were linked to gene regulation occurring during the transition to stationary phase. Here, we show that Dcm involves in the stress responses under nutrient starvation and cold stress. Dcm and Hfq together mediate gene expression under cold stress. Hfq promotes Dcm-catalyzed cytosine methylation at specific sites near the rpoS promoter, which is ...


Defining The Mechanism Of Enhanced Cellular Invasion Induced By Mechanical Stimulation, Snehal Sunil Ozarkar Jan 2013

Defining The Mechanism Of Enhanced Cellular Invasion Induced By Mechanical Stimulation, Snehal Sunil Ozarkar

Wayne State University Theses

Metastasis is a multistep process driven by various biochemical and mechanical factors, which eventually leads to formation of secondary tumors. The tumor mass is surrounded by basement membrane (BM) and stroma made of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. During metastasis tumor cells disseminate from the primary tumor, breach the BM, invade the stroma, travel through blood and lymph and colonize tissues distant from the primary tumor. Formation of secondary tumors by metastasis is a leading cause of death in cancer patients. Even though plenty of research has been focused on biochemical factors affecting metastasis, information on role of mechanical factors ...


Spliceosomal Prp24 Unwinds A Minimal U2/U6 Complex From Yeast, Chandani Manoja Warnasooriya Jan 2013

Spliceosomal Prp24 Unwinds A Minimal U2/U6 Complex From Yeast, Chandani Manoja Warnasooriya

Wayne State University Theses

Splicing plays a major role in eukaryotic gene expression by processing pre-mRNA to form mature mRNA. Pre-mRNAs undergo splicing to remove introns, non–protein coding regions, and religate exons, protein coding regions. This process is catalyzed by the spliceosome, which consists of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs: U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) and numerous protein factors. Proper assembly of spliceosomal components is critical for function, and thus, defects in assembly can be lethal. Several spliceosomal proteins facilitate structural rearrangements important for spliceosomal assembly and function. Prp24 is an essential factor in U6 snRNP assembly, and it has been ...


Antioxidant Properties Of Goji Berries, Jie Zhang Jan 2013

Antioxidant Properties Of Goji Berries, Jie Zhang

Wayne State University Theses

Antioxidants properties have been discussed for many years. Their benefits, especially for human health, have been more and more recommended and supported by nutritionists. It is necessary to obtain sufficient amounts of these compounds from dietary sources. Goji berries are particularly rich in antioxidants. Due to the roles they play in protecting the human body from oxidative damage, studies of the antioxidant absorption are more and more popular in recent years. In this study, the stability of antioxidant properties of goji berries was investigated. Sample of goji berry was tested for antioxidant properties via total phenolic content (TPC) assay, oxygen ...


Lc3i And Lc3ii As Autophagy Markers For The Development And Improvement Of Products And Techniques Used In Research, Caitlin Jane Williams Jan 2013

Lc3i And Lc3ii As Autophagy Markers For The Development And Improvement Of Products And Techniques Used In Research, Caitlin Jane Williams

Wayne State University Theses

Abstract

LC3I and LC3II as Autphagy Markers for the Development and Improvement of Products and Techniques used in Research

By

Caitlin J. Williams

May 2013

Advisor: Dr. Robert Akins

Major: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Degree: Master of Science

Autophagy is an intracellular process that functions to maintain homeostasis in the cell by degrading misfolded proteins, old or nonfunctioning organelles, and outside invaders such as bacteria or viruses. This process can be split into three different types, microautophagy, chaperone mediated autophagy and macroautophagy. Macroautophagy is the most commonly studied form and is believed to be regulated by Atg proteins, as well as ...


Extending Lifespan Using Various Prolongevity Interventions And Their Effects On Enhancing Dna Repair Activity, Sonia Ahmad Jan 2013

Extending Lifespan Using Various Prolongevity Interventions And Their Effects On Enhancing Dna Repair Activity, Sonia Ahmad

Wayne State University Theses

Aging is not a disease; it causes a decrease in the physiological functions of cells, tissues, and organs. Aging has been considered as one of the biggest risk factors for the development of various diseases such as cancer, type-2 diabetes, obesity, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegeneration. Numerous studies have shown that lifespan can be extended in mice by genetic, dietary, and pharmacological interventions. A few prolongevity interventions currently being studied include: the drug rapamycin, that has been found to inhibit mTOR expression and exhibit anticancer properties; reduced caloric intake, a broadly acting dietary intervention for preventing carcinogenesis, and ultimately extending ...


Effect Of Folate Deficiency And Aging On Mtor Signaling Network In The Liver Of Dna Polymerase B Haploinsufficient Mice, Amanda Lynn Arrabi Jan 2013

Effect Of Folate Deficiency And Aging On Mtor Signaling Network In The Liver Of Dna Polymerase B Haploinsufficient Mice, Amanda Lynn Arrabi

Wayne State University Theses

EFFECT OF FOLATE DEFICIENCY AND AGING ON mTOR SIGNALING NETWORK IN THE LIVER OF DNA POLYMERASE B HAPLOINSUFFICIENT MICE

by

AMANDA ARRABI

August 2013

Advisor: Dr. Ahmad R. Heydari

Major: Nutrition and Food Science

Degree: Masters of Science

The interaction between the dietary nutrients and the human genome causes some alterations in the molecular pathways that could significantly impact the development of cancer. The main approach to such concerns is to closely observe how the diet modifies the gene expressions that control several cellular processes in the human body. Folate deficiency (FD) has established an important role in modulating the ...


Studies Of Regulated Exocytosis From Neuroendocrine Cells, Madhurima Das Jan 2013

Studies Of Regulated Exocytosis From Neuroendocrine Cells, Madhurima Das

Wayne State University Theses

In this thesis we study cargo release and fusion pore dilation during calcium triggered exocytosis and the co-localization of calcium sensing proteins essential for exocytosis, in neuroendocrine cells.

Pancreatic beta cells secrete several hormones, the most studied one being insulin. C-peptide is a protein which is co-stored with and secreted from the same vesicles as insulin. It is found in the soluble phase unlike insulin, which is found in the dense core. The pancreatic beta cells also secrete the Chromogranin B (CgB) which is mostly found in the dense cores of secretory vesicles. In chapter 1, we found that CgB ...


Effect Of Garcinol On Change In Gene Expression In Pancreatic Cancer Mouse Model, Nurul Huda Razalli Jan 2013

Effect Of Garcinol On Change In Gene Expression In Pancreatic Cancer Mouse Model, Nurul Huda Razalli

Wayne State University Theses

Pancreatic cancer is currently ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in The United States making it so important to develop new approaches in order to improve the prognosis of this lethal disease. Chemotherapy drugs as treatment for pancreatic cancer are known to have adverse toxic reactions. Thus, development of treatments for pancreatic cancer that are relatively nontoxic is warranted. This thesis reports the potential anticancer effect of garcinol, a compound extracted from Garcinia indica fruit rind which may have promise for treating this lethal malignancy. Using KPC mouse-model for pancreatic cancer, this study has evaluated the mRNA ...


Characterizing Cyclin J By Identifying Conserved Protein-Protein Interactions, Phillip Jacob Selman Jan 2013

Characterizing Cyclin J By Identifying Conserved Protein-Protein Interactions, Phillip Jacob Selman

Wayne State University Theses

Cyclins are proteins that bind to Cyclin-dependent kinases, or Cdks, through a conserved domain called the Cyclin Box. Many Cyclins regulate the cell cycle. A few Cyclins impact cellular processes outside of the cell cycle. Also, a few Cyclins have poorly understood functions.

Cyclin J is a member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. Cyclin J is conserved among all metazoans, but is presently not well understood. All the research done on Cyclin J has been done in Drosophila.

Its mRNA is present in the early embryo, then disappears, only to reappear in adult females. When probing protein extracts with ...


Effects Of Tocotrienol Rich Fractions On Lipid Profiles In Hemodialysis Patients, Rami Hanna Jan 2013

Effects Of Tocotrienol Rich Fractions On Lipid Profiles In Hemodialysis Patients, Rami Hanna

Wayne State University Theses

Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients have an increased risk of cardio vascular diseases (CVD) driven by dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. Vitamin E isomers (tochopherols and tocotrienols) are fat-soluble anti oxidants. Tocotrienol isomers (T3) are fewer studies than tochopherol isomers, but they have multifaceted effects on oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid metabolism. We investigated the lipid modifying effects of tocotrienol rich fractions (TRF) on CKD patients receiving HD in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial on 81 patients (43M, 38F). Subjects (n=41) were given 220 mg/day of either TRF (180mg TRF, comprising of 34% áT3, 3%âT3, 50% ãT3 ...


Nutritional Status In A Cohort Of Hemodialysis Patients Receiving Tocotrienol Supplementation, Rajeev Shahani Jan 2013

Nutritional Status In A Cohort Of Hemodialysis Patients Receiving Tocotrienol Supplementation, Rajeev Shahani

Wayne State University Theses

Kidney disease is defined by a loss of kidney function over time [1]. It is expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate at five stages calculated by the MDRD formula [5]. The fifth stage (<15 mL/min/1.73m2) is designed as end stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis [5]. This requires the use of an artificial kidney (dialyzer) to filter out by-products from the blood for excretion [8]. The issue arises when toxin accumulation due to decreased renal function, dialytic factors such as incompatible dialyzer membranes reacting with blood, and co-morbid conditions such as infection or diabetes mellitus [3]. This increases inflammation within the body, leading to a negative nutrient/energy balance, resulting in a loss of body mass thereby increasing the mortality risk [10]. Tocotrienols (T3), a more potent and underutilized form of Vitamin E, are being administered to attenuate this increase in inflammation via supplementation in addition to food intake. In order to attend to this issue, the nutritional status was assessed utilizing three measures: examining nutrient intake profiles (while supplementation was taken into consideration), obtaining anthropometric findings of body mass index, and analyzing biochemical profiles of serum albumin and pro-inflammatory markers (i.e. IL-6). This data was obtained via a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of 81 dialysis patients. At two times over the course of 16 weeks, blood collection for serum albumin and inflammatory markers was analyzed and dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour diet recalls and Nutritionist Pro software. Statistical analyses of paired t-tests and correlation studies revealed no significant differences between the two groups later showing no noticeable effect of T3 supplementation. Reasoning may be multifactorial such as underestimation of food intake, transcription of diet recalls may not be truly representative, or T3 supplements may not have had an effect on the nutritional statuses. It may be beneficial for patients to receive more extensive nutritional counseling as opposed to nutritional supplementation to ensure compliancy with recommended intakes.


Impact Of Folate Depletion On Expression Of Folate Metabolizing Enzymes, Yizhen Wu Jan 2013

Impact Of Folate Depletion On Expression Of Folate Metabolizing Enzymes, Yizhen Wu

Wayne State University Theses

Folate is a water-soluble vitamin B that plays a critical roles in the de novo nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, DNA methylation, and cellular growth. By involved in the one-carbon metabolic pathways, folate influences the thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and the purine nucleotides synthesis, consequently affect the DNA synthesis and repair. Through the one-carbon pathway, the folate level also influences the DNA methylation, consequently affect the gene expression.

In this study, we inspected the change of gene expression of 14 genes which are related to the folate metabolism in two different cell lines. One is MEF cell line and the other one ...


Cysteine Desulfurase And Isd11: A Drosophila Model, Rahul Ravindran Nair Jan 2013

Cysteine Desulfurase And Isd11: A Drosophila Model, Rahul Ravindran Nair

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

Cysteine desulfurase and Isd11: A Drosophila model

Iron-sulfur clusters are cofactors with evolutionary origins that date back to the pre-biotic world. Ever since life originated, these cofactors have intermingled with proteins to play vital roles in sustaining life. My research focuses on one such protein, the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs) that has the PLP cofactor incorporated in its active site and avails of the catalytic property of PLP to provide sulphur for Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and assembly in a cell. Interestingly, in a eukaryotic cell, despite the versatility of PLP, cysteine desulfurase's role as a "sulphur-extractor" is incomplete without ...


Optimization Of Labeling Techniques; Determination Of Best Parameter For Olfactory Mucosal Progenitor Cell Delivery And Study Of Effects Of Methylene Blue And Polyethylene Glycol In An Animal Model Of Spinal Cord Injury, Kiran Kumar Rokkappanavar Jan 2013

Optimization Of Labeling Techniques; Determination Of Best Parameter For Olfactory Mucosal Progenitor Cell Delivery And Study Of Effects Of Methylene Blue And Polyethylene Glycol In An Animal Model Of Spinal Cord Injury, Kiran Kumar Rokkappanavar

Wayne State University Theses

In the United States, the incidence of TSCI is about 40 per million persons per year, with approximately 250,000 living survivors of TSCI in the United States in July 2005. A number of human clinical trials (85) are ongoing using stem cells to evaluate the methods to reduce the injury following TBI. Among the stem cells, olfactory mucosal progenitor cells have several advantages with respect to ease of obtaining, fate of cells, etc. Our study was intended to optimize the labeling technique and to determine the best parameter to deliver the stem cells to the site of injury. We ...