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Estimating The Economic Losses From Diseases And Extended Days Open With A Farm-Level Stochastic Model, Di Liang Jan 2013

Estimating The Economic Losses From Diseases And Extended Days Open With A Farm-Level Stochastic Model, Di Liang

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

This thesis improved a farm-level stochastic model with Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the impact of health performance and market conditions on dairy farm economics. The main objective of this model was to estimate the costs of seven common clinical dairy diseases (mastitis, lameness, metritis, retained placenta, left displaced abomasum, ketosis, and milk fever) in the U.S. An online survey was conducted to estimate veterinary fees, treatment costs, and producer labor data. The total disease costs were higher in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Left displaced abomasum had the greatest costs in all parities ($404.74 in primiparous ...


Evaluation Of The Effects Of Vitamin K On Growth Performance And Bone Health In Swine, James S. Monegue Jan 2013

Evaluation Of The Effects Of Vitamin K On Growth Performance And Bone Health In Swine, James S. Monegue

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The role of vitamin K in the blood clotting cascade has been well documented. Vitamin K has recently been implicated in improving bone health. The current studies were conducted to determine the effects of vitamin K in diets with and without mycotoxin contaminated corn on growth performance, bone characteristics, and related blood metabolites in pigs from weaning to market. Menadione sodium bisulfite complex (MSBC, 33% vitamin K) was chosen as the source of supplemental vitamin K because it is the most common form fed to swine. Vitamin K was tested at 0, 0.5, and 2.0 ppm in a ...


Analysis Of Antiviral And Chemoprotective Effects Of Strawberry Anthocyanins, Jennifer A. Willig Jan 2013

Analysis Of Antiviral And Chemoprotective Effects Of Strawberry Anthocyanins, Jennifer A. Willig

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

This study investigated the antiviral, chemoprotective and proliferative effects of strawberry anthocyanins on herpes simplex virus type-1, cancerous cell lines HT-29 and AGS, and normal cell lines Hs 738.St/Int and CCD-18Co. Antiviral properties were measured by infecting vero cells from adult grivet (Cercopithecus aethiops) with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and treating with a concentration of 1.25-20 µg/mL of strawberry anthocyanins. Infectivity and replication were quantified for herpes simplex virus type-1 using the direct plaque assay and reporting PFU/mL. Strawberry anthocyanins (>20 µg/mL) inhibited the herpes simplex virus infectivity in vero cells by 100 ...


Effects Of Endophyte Infected Fescue Alkaloid Ingestion On Energy Metabolism, Nitrogen Balance, In Situ Feed Degradation, And Ruminal Passage Rates, Anne F. Koontz Jan 2013

Effects Of Endophyte Infected Fescue Alkaloid Ingestion On Energy Metabolism, Nitrogen Balance, In Situ Feed Degradation, And Ruminal Passage Rates, Anne F. Koontz

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The decrease in productivity caused by fescue toxicosis has been estimated to cost the United States livestock industry more than $1 billion per year due to reduced growth and diminished reproductive efficiency. This goal of the research presented in this dissertation is to enhance the knowledge base concerning the underlying physiological changes that occur during fescue toxicosis that lead to reduced intake and weight gain in cattle.

As one of the factors associated with fescue toxicosis is a reduction in feed intake, achieving a consistent and adequate intake of toxins can be a complication. Results from experiment 1demonstrate that ruminal ...


Antilisterial Characteristics Of Volatile Essential Oils, Leeann L. Slaughter Jan 2013

Antilisterial Characteristics Of Volatile Essential Oils, Leeann L. Slaughter

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

This study explored the in vitro and in situ antilisterial inhibitory activity of 16 essential oils during indirect exposure: Spanish Basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), Bay oil (Pimenta racemosa), Italian Bergamot oil (Citrus bergamia), Roman Chamomile oil (Anthemis nobilis), Sir Lanka Cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Citral, Clove Bud oil (Syzygium aromaticum), Cumin Seed oil (cuminum cyminum), Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus), Eugenol, Geranium extract (Pelargonium graveolens), Marjoram oil (Origanum majorana), Neroli extract (Citrus aurantium), Peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.), Rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),and Spanish Sage oil (Salvia officinalis L.). All essential oils were tested against Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 4644). In ...


Effect Of Ergot Alkaloids On Bovine Foregut Vasculature, Nutrient Absorption, And Epithelial Barrier Function, Andrew P. Foote Jan 2013

Effect Of Ergot Alkaloids On Bovine Foregut Vasculature, Nutrient Absorption, And Epithelial Barrier Function, Andrew P. Foote

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue are thought to be the causative agent of fescue toxicosis, a syndrome affecting cattle in the eastern United States. Many of the observed signs of fescue toxicosis are thought to be attributed to peripheral vasoconstriction; however, there are data indicating that ergot alkaloids can alter blood flow to the gut. An experiment was conducted using right ruminal artery and vein collected from heifers shortly after slaughter. Vessels were mounted in a multi-myograph to determine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergot alkaloids present in E+ tall fescue. Results indicated ergot alkaloids have the potential ...


Use Of Mtb-100tm, Provided Through A Mineral Mix, To Reduce Toxicity When Lactating Beef Cows Graze Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue, Melanie E. Hoar Jan 2013

Use Of Mtb-100tm, Provided Through A Mineral Mix, To Reduce Toxicity When Lactating Beef Cows Graze Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue, Melanie E. Hoar

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Two experiments were conducted at the University of Kentucky, Eden Shale Farm, Owenton, KY to evaluate the use of MTB-100TM (Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to alleviate the symptoms of fescue toxicity when lactating Angus x Beefmaster cows and their calves grazed endophyte-infected KY-31 tall fescue. Experiment 1 provided a carbohydrate based toxin adsorbent, MTB-100TM, ad libitum in a commercial mineral supplement to project a daily consumption rate of 0, 20 or 40 g of MTB-100TM per cow. Cows were weighed, assigned a body condition score (BCS) and hair coat score (HC), rectal temperatures were recorded and fecal ...


Detection Of Antibodies Against Parascaris Equorum Excretory-Secretory Antigens, Steffanie V. Burk Jan 2013

Detection Of Antibodies Against Parascaris Equorum Excretory-Secretory Antigens, Steffanie V. Burk

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Parascaris equorum is a nematode parasite that infects young horses, sometimes causing unthriftiness, respiratory signs, or intestinal impaction in severe cases. Infection can be diagnosed by detection of eggs in feces, but this is only possible after the worms are fully mature. The goal of this study was to develop an antibody-based test for prepatent diagnosis of P. equorum infection. To produce western blot (WB) antigen, P. equorum larvae were cultured for collection of excretory-secretory antigens (ESA). Sera from 18 pregnant broodmares, their subsequent foals, and a group of 12 older mares and geldings were analyzed. In order to check ...


Effect Of Amylose And Protein Oxidation On The Thermal, Rheological, Structural, And Digestive Properties Of Waxy And Common Rice Flours And Starches, Jing Liu Jan 2013

Effect Of Amylose And Protein Oxidation On The Thermal, Rheological, Structural, And Digestive Properties Of Waxy And Common Rice Flours And Starches, Jing Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of oxidation by sodium hypochlorite (0, 0.8, 2, and 5%, NaOCl), the presence of endogenous proteins, and amylose content on waxy and common rice flours (WF, CF) and starches (WS, CS) were investigated in terms of in vitro starch digestibility, morphology and surface properties, and thermal and rheological characteristics.

The concentration of NaOCl had an effect on all the samples including WF, CF, WS, and CS. The carbonyl and carboxyl group contents increased up to 25 and 10 folds (P < 0.05) of oxidized starches (WS, CS), respectively. Only mild oxidation (P < 0.05) occurred in flours (WF, WS). In addition, endogenous proteins were oxidized according to amino acid analysis and SDS–PAGE results. Glu+Gln, Gly, His, Arg, Tyr, and Lys were more sensitive to NaOCl oxidation. Disulfide bonds, hydrophobic force, and hydrogen bonds were involved in protein polymerization after NaOCl oxidative modification. In granular state, the in vitro starch digestibility of WF, WS, and CS decreased by 5% NaOCl oxidation. After gelatinization ...


Effects Of A Proprietary Premix On Productive Performance And Egg Quality Of White And Brown Egg Laying Hens Fed Diets High In Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Megan D. Van Benschoten Jan 2013

Effects Of A Proprietary Premix On Productive Performance And Egg Quality Of White And Brown Egg Laying Hens Fed Diets High In Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Megan D. Van Benschoten

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The objective of this thesis was to evaluate inclusion of up to 35% by-product DDGS (with reduced Ca and P) with and without addition of a proprietary premix (enzyme and antioxidant; Alltech Inc.) on productive performance and egg quality of white and brown egg laying hens. A total of 288 white or brown hens were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal (control), 2) 25% DDGS, 3) 25% DDGS plus premix, 4) 35% DDGS, and 5) 35% DDGS plus premix. Hen body weight values were impaired with addition of 25 and 35% DDGS when compared to ...


Management And Technology Solutions For Improving Milk Quality, Amanda E. Sterrett Jan 2013

Management And Technology Solutions For Improving Milk Quality, Amanda E. Sterrett

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Mastitis is one of the most common and expensive dairy cattle diseases. Mastitis prevention and management are key factors in herd health and improved milk quality. One objective of this research was to evaluate management solutions to maintain a low somatic cell count, based on survey responses from Kentucky dairy producers. Because hyperkeratosis may increase mastitis incidence, another objective of this research was to examine changes in teat end hyperkeratosis in a herd transitioning from a standard pulsation milking system to an individual quarter pulsation milking system. The last objective of this research was to evaluate technologies that monitored rumination ...


The Effect Of Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction On Protein Metabolism And Insulin Sensitivity In Aged Horses, Laurel M. Mastro Jan 2013

The Effect Of Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction On Protein Metabolism And Insulin Sensitivity In Aged Horses, Laurel M. Mastro

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) typically occurs in horses older than 15 years of age and is characterized by hair coat abnormalities, muscle atrophy and decreased insulin sensitivity. The first objective of this research was to compare the rate of whole body protein metabolism and relative abundance of key factors in the signaling pathways associated with muscle protein synthesis and protein breakdown in response to feeding in Control and PPID horses. No differences (P > 0.05) were seen between the PPID and Control groups in whole-body protein metabolism or post-prandial activation of the muscle signaling pathways regulating skeletal muscle ...


Compost Bedded Pack Barns: Management Practices And Economic Implications, Randi Alyson Black Jan 2013

Compost Bedded Pack Barns: Management Practices And Economic Implications, Randi Alyson Black

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Compost bedded pack (CBP) barn design and pack maintenance procedures vary considerably, making advising and problem-solving challenging. One objective of this research was to characterize herd performance and management practices employed by Kentucky CBP managers (42 farms and 47 CBP facilities). Producer satisfaction, changes in historical bulk-tank somatic cell count, and improvement in herd performance parameters after transitioning to a CBP barn support reported CBP barn system benefits. Daily milk production increased from before moving into the CBP barn to the second year after (29.3 ± 0.3 vs. 30.7 ± 0.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.05) for farms using the CBP barn as the primary housing facility (n = 8). Increasing stirring frequency, stirring depth, and ambient temperatures increased pack temperature. Increased drying rate decreased CBP moisture. Increased 20.3 cm depth CBP temperature and ambient temperatures improved cow hygiene. Mastitis-causing bacteria thrive in conditions similar to optimal composting bacteria conditions, making reduction of these bacteria difficult in an active composting environment. Producers must pay attention to other management areas where preventive measures can be employed. The New Dairy Housing Investment Analysis Dashboard provides users an interactive and flexible decision tool to make more informed facility investment decisions.


Effect Of Estradiol Supplementation On Blood Estradiol And Metabolite Levels, And Hepatic Protein Expression, In Growing, Mature, And Senescent Beef Cattle, Edwena D. Miles Jan 2013

Effect Of Estradiol Supplementation On Blood Estradiol And Metabolite Levels, And Hepatic Protein Expression, In Growing, Mature, And Senescent Beef Cattle, Edwena D. Miles

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Estradiol (Compudose®, COM) implants are extensively used in beef cattle production systems to alter body composition and feed efficiency. Little information exists about the physiological mechanisms affected by COM treatment in growing, mature, and senescent female cattle. Moreover, no reports describe the level of blood estradiol resulting from COM treatment. The effect of COM on levels of plasma estradiol and blood metabolites and proteins, and relative content of glutamine synthetase (GS) and other amino acid nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes in liver tissue, was studied using three experimental models relevant to cow-calf production regimens: senescent cows (Trial 1), young mature (young) versus senescent ...


Impact Of Direct-Fed Microbials On Nutrient Utilization In Beef Cattle, Nicole Kenney Jan 2013

Impact Of Direct-Fed Microbials On Nutrient Utilization In Beef Cattle, Nicole Kenney

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The impact of lactate producing direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance and rumen fermentation in beef cattle was explored in four studies. Experiment 1 studied the interaction between DFM and degradable intake protein (DIP) supply in receiving cattle. No differences (P≥0.06) in intake, morbidity, or immune response were observed; however, during the first 28 d gain and efficiency responses to DFM were dependent on DIP (DIP×DFM P≤0.05). Experiment 2 showed that in vitro gas production and select endpoint metabolites differed (P≤0.04) with DFM application. Experiment 3 compared lactate producing DFM to a lactate ...


Evaluating Food Safety Systems Development And Implementation By Quantifying Haccp Training Durability, Marienne A. Anandappa Jan 2013

Evaluating Food Safety Systems Development And Implementation By Quantifying Haccp Training Durability, Marienne A. Anandappa

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

HACCP-based food safety programs have been widely acclaimed, accepted and implemented as an effective means of managing food safety risks. While HACCP training is a cornerstone of managing HACCP programs, there is little information about the effectiveness of HACCP training and the durability of HACCP knowledge. Findings reveal a link between involvement level in HACCP activities and the accuracy of HACCP knowledge over time. Opportunities for peer training in HACCP, irrespective of overall experience in the food industry provide favorable circumstances for maintaining accuracy of HACCP knowledge. The optimal window for engaging employees in HACCP is directly following the completion ...


The Effects Of Actigen® And Threonine Supplementation On Growth Parameters, Immune Function, And Intestinal Health In Monogastrics, Lindsay Good Jan 2013

The Effects Of Actigen® And Threonine Supplementation On Growth Parameters, Immune Function, And Intestinal Health In Monogastrics, Lindsay Good

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The objectives of these experiments were to evaluate the main effects and interactive effects between dietary supplementation of a mannan oligosaccharide based product, Actigen® (ACT), and different levels of threonine in monogastrics, as evidenced by growth parameters, immune function, and intestinal health characteristics.

In nursery piglets, ACT supplementation decreased average daily feed intake (P=0.04), but had no effect on body weight or feed conversion ratio. There were no noted differences between threonine levels on performance traits. There were no consistent differences in complete blood count or cytokine gene expression profiles in the blood. The highest level of threonine ...


Dietary Antioxidant Supplementation (Economase–Bioplex) To Alleviate Adverse Impacts Of Oxidized Oil On Broiler Meat Quality: A Chemical, Textural, Enzymatic, And Proteomic Study, Rebecca Delles Jan 2013

Dietary Antioxidant Supplementation (Economase–Bioplex) To Alleviate Adverse Impacts Of Oxidized Oil On Broiler Meat Quality: A Chemical, Textural, Enzymatic, And Proteomic Study, Rebecca Delles

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin (SK) packaging systems during retail display 2–4 °C for up to 14, 7, and 21 d, respectively. Broilers were fed a diet either with a low-oxidized oil (peroxide vale POV 23 meq O2/kg) or with a high-oxidized oil (POV 121 meq O2/kg), supplemented with an antioxidant pack (200 ppm EconomasE and organic minerals ...


Phosphorus Digestibility And Phytate Degradation In Long Yearlings And Mature Horses, Ashley Fowler Jan 2013

Phosphorus Digestibility And Phytate Degradation In Long Yearlings And Mature Horses, Ashley Fowler

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Much of the phosphorus (P) in grain-based concentrates fed to growing horses is in the form of phytate-P. Little is known about the ability of young horses to degrade phytate-P or whether age affects mineral digestion in horses. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of age on P, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) digestibility and phytate-P degradation. Four long yearling geldings and 4 mature geldings were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes, timothy cubes and a pelleted concentrate. The diet contained 0.28% total P and 17.4% of that P was in the phytate form ...