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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Swat Model Simulation Of Bioenergy Crop Impacts In A Tile-Drained Watershed, Chelsie Marie Werling Boles Jan 2013

Swat Model Simulation Of Bioenergy Crop Impacts In A Tile-Drained Watershed, Chelsie Marie Werling Boles

Open Access Theses

Tile drains are an important component of agricultural production in the Midwest, and their inclusion in modeling studies is important in watersheds where they are a principal hydrologic pathway. The new tile drainage simulation method in the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was parameterized and tile flow results were compared with reviewed literature. Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient outputs were compared to measured values and simulated crop yields were examined with respect to average county yields. Plant growth stressors were examined to account for differences between simulated and published yields. The bioenergy crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was applied over the watershed ...


Cowbird Behavioral Responses To Lights Tuned To Their Visual System: Implications For Bird-Aircraft Collisions, Megan S. Doppler Jan 2013

Cowbird Behavioral Responses To Lights Tuned To Their Visual System: Implications For Bird-Aircraft Collisions, Megan S. Doppler

Open Access Theses

Collisions between birds and aircraft cause extensive monetary expenses and are a risk to human lives, as well as the lives of endangered and threatened birds. Birds are highly visual organisms with visual system substantially different from humans. Previously, studies show that the use of white broad-spectrum lights have the potential to enhance bird avoidance behavior; however, no study has investigated the effects of light colors that would be more salient from the avian perspective. The purpose of this project was to assess detection and avoidance responses of brown-headed cowbirds exposed to a radio-controlled (RC) aircraft with a lighting system ...


Design And Use Of An Adjustable Clearance Flailing Knife Biomass Shredder To Mechanically Increase Particle Surface Area, Shawn Gregory Ehlers Jan 2013

Design And Use Of An Adjustable Clearance Flailing Knife Biomass Shredder To Mechanically Increase Particle Surface Area, Shawn Gregory Ehlers

Open Access Theses

A flailing knife shredder was designed and tested as an alternative to a hammermill for processing biomass. The machine was comprised of two cylinders with four rungs, each with five free-swinging blades. Each of the two cylinders had adjustable clearance hoods and variable speed drives. Energy usage, output characteristics and device capacities were compared with corn stover processed at moisture contents (MC) of 10%, 35% and 50% wet basis (WB). The hammermill produced a more uniform particle size distribution in comparison to the shredder. Accessibility, indicated by conductivity index, to plant constituents, revealed that the method of treatment was not-significant ...


How Population Density Influences Agricultural Intensification And Productivity: Evidence From Ethiopia, Anna Leigh Josephson Jan 2013

How Population Density Influences Agricultural Intensification And Productivity: Evidence From Ethiopia, Anna Leigh Josephson

Open Access Theses

We use household-level panel data to estimate how population density impacts agricultural intensification and farm income in Ethiopia. We hypothesize that increases in population density affect agricultural intensification and farm income directly through information flows, institutional development, and reduction in transactions costs. Increases in population density also affect agricultural intensification and farm income indirectly through farm size, agricultural wage rates, and staple crop prices. We find that increases in population density lead to lower farm sizes, which has major implications for agricultural intensification and household well-being. Our analysis indicates that increases in population density cause farmers to purchase more inorganic ...


Effects Of Housing And Calcium-Deficient Diet On Health And Egg Production In Bovans Brown Hens., Jiaying Hu Jan 2013

Effects Of Housing And Calcium-Deficient Diet On Health And Egg Production In Bovans Brown Hens., Jiaying Hu

Open Access Theses

Public concern about the welfare of hens kept in conventional cages has become an important issue worldwide. The conventional cage system has been banned by the European Union since 2012. Several housing systems, including free range, have been developed as welfare friendly alternatives to the conventional cage system. Experiment 1, the study examined the effects of housing environment, conventional cages vs. floor pens, on hens' health and egg production. A total of 84 19-wk-old Bovans Brown hens were randomly assigned into 2-bird cage with 12 replications (n=12), providing 968 cm2 floor space per hen or 10-bird floor pen with ...


Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment Of Cantaloupe And Residue Analysis, Simran Kaur Jan 2013

Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment Of Cantaloupe And Residue Analysis, Simran Kaur

Open Access Theses

Chlorine dioxide is a selective oxidant and powerful antimicrobial agent. Previous work has shown that treatment of cantaloupe with chlorine dioxide gas at 5 mg/L for 10 minutes results in a 4.6 and 4.3 log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes respectively. A significant reduction (p

Current analytical methods for chlorine dioxide and chloroxyanions are only applicable to aqueous samples. Some of these methods have been used to determine surface residues in treated products by analyzing rinse-water. In order to quantify residues in the tissues of a more complex food matrix, while reducing interference ...


Impacts Of Insecticide Treatments On Platytetranychus Multidigituli (Acari:Tetranychidae) And Predatory Mites On Gleditsia Triacanthos Var. Inermis (Honeylocust), Adam Robert Witte Jan 2013

Impacts Of Insecticide Treatments On Platytetranychus Multidigituli (Acari:Tetranychidae) And Predatory Mites On Gleditsia Triacanthos Var. Inermis (Honeylocust), Adam Robert Witte

Open Access Theses

Spider mite outbreaks can occur in urban forests after insecticides are applied to control early season pests. We used thornless honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis) and honeylocust spider mite (Platytetranychus multidigituli) as a model to investigate this phenomenon by applying both topical and systemic insecticides to treat early season pests of honeylocust. Impacts of these applications on populations of P. multidigituli and its associated predatory mites were assessed. Early season applications of bifenthrin caused outbreaks of honeylocust spider mite and drastically reduced phytoseiids but not the stigmaeid mite, Zetzellia mali. In contrast later season applications suppressed populations of P. multidigituli ...


A Land Data Assimilation System (Ldas) Based Dataset For Regional Agro-Climatic Assessments, Xing Liu Jan 2013

A Land Data Assimilation System (Ldas) Based Dataset For Regional Agro-Climatic Assessments, Xing Liu

Open Access Theses

This study is part of a USDA sponsored project ----Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The broader objective includes improving farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing climate/weather data into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community.

The specific tasks of this research are: (1) Build a high-resolution (4 km, daily) agro-climatic dataset using a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS). (2) Estimate regional corn yield across the Corn Belt with crop models and the agro-climatic dataset. (3) Evaluate the impacts of climate variability ...


Improving Model Performance For Invasive Plant Species Distribution Using Global-Scale Presence-Only Data: Parameterization And Data Quality, Feng Yu Jan 2013

Improving Model Performance For Invasive Plant Species Distribution Using Global-Scale Presence-Only Data: Parameterization And Data Quality, Feng Yu

Open Access Theses

Invasive species have significant ecological and economic impacts. To control species' invasion, risk assessment provides the most essential information for identification and evaluation of the potential risk of the invasive species, especially in their early invasion stages. Species distribution models (SDMs) is the foundation for risk assessment, in terms of both the practical and theoretical interest in our understanding of species invasion process. SDMs contribute to the proactive invasion management and the test of ecological or biogeographical hypotheses about species distributions in relation to their environment.

However, modeling of invasive species at large spatial scale (i.e., cross-continental) is rarely ...


Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar Jan 2013

Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar

Open Access Theses

Walking or running while carrying loads has always been a tedious task, more so when the loads are heavy. Such a task of carrying loads not only requires extra effort but also leads to physical pain and in some cases injury. Prior studies on human locomotion with a suspended load have used models that are restricted in their DOFs and so are not able to take into account the fore aft movement in human beings. The objective of this thesis is to model the dynamics of sagittal plane center-of-mass locomotion with a suspended load and apply findings to carrying loads ...


Slurry Seeding Cover Crops, Edwin Alexander Suarez Jan 2013

Slurry Seeding Cover Crops, Edwin Alexander Suarez

Open Access Theses

Cover crops improve soil quality through increased organic matter, biological activity, aggregate stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling. Slurry seeding, the co-application of cover crop seed and swine (Sus domesticus) manure, is a new practice that saves fuel, time and labor. High salinity and/or ammonia, among other components in swine manure, may reduce cover crop seed germination and limit the use of slurry seeding. Ten cover crop species were evaluated to compare the effects of swine manure components on cover crop seed germination. Seed germination percentages and rates were affected by swine manure but not by equivalent salinity levels ...


Rheological Properties Of Gluten Free Dough Systems, Stephany Aurea Tandazo Jan 2013

Rheological Properties Of Gluten Free Dough Systems, Stephany Aurea Tandazo

Open Access Theses

Bread is the one of the oldest processed foods and a major wheat based product. The basic process involves mixing of ingredients until the flour is converted into dough, followed by baking the dough into a loaf. A very important step in breadmaking is to know how to make good quality dough. However, the increasing knowledge of people being diagnosed with celiac disease (gluten intolerance) has encouraged scientists to develop healthier and better quality gluten-free products that would greatly improve the quality of life of celiac patients. The main objective of this study was to create a dough system composed ...


Habitat Restoration Of A Constructed Ohio River Embayment, Caleb Michael Rennaker Jan 2013

Habitat Restoration Of A Constructed Ohio River Embayment, Caleb Michael Rennaker

Open Access Theses

Backwater habitats of large rivers provide habitat for aquatic biota and influence important predator-prey interactions in fishes and other aquatic organisms. However, these areas often exhibit turbid conditions and lack habitat complexity. Restoration of lentic habitats through direct habitat manipulations has shown success in prior efforts, but these methods have not been tested in backwater habitats of large rivers. I attempted to create habitat in an Ohio River embayment by establishing founder colonies of aquatic macrophytes coupled with the placement of underwater gravel beds. I also evaluated the effects of total suspended solids (TSS) on overwintering structures of American Pondweed ...


Impact Of High Calcium Intake From Calcium Carbonate Or Dairy On Cardiovascular Function, Coronary Artery Calcification And Coronary Artery Disease Burden In Ossabaw Miniature Swine, Alyssa K. Phillips Jan 2013

Impact Of High Calcium Intake From Calcium Carbonate Or Dairy On Cardiovascular Function, Coronary Artery Calcification And Coronary Artery Disease Burden In Ossabaw Miniature Swine, Alyssa K. Phillips

Open Access Theses

Recent secondary analyses have associated supplemental calcium use with increased risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular-related death in healthy, older adults. Subsequent concern over the safety of calcium supplements has spurred a calcium controversy, because calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that is critical for bone health and a mainstay of osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The proposed mechanism by which calcium intake may detriment cardiovascular health is through the acceleration of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a clinical indicator of coronary artery disease (CAD) that has been associated with mortality risk. However, causal evidence to support this hypothesis is lacking. Determining ...


Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright Jan 2013

Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright

Open Access Theses

Long term preservation of functional engineered tissues can significantly advance tissue engineering industry and regenerative medicine. Several preservation techniques have been proposed and investigated for this purpose, and cryopreservation is a leading candidate. While tissues are cryopreserved, ice forms in both the extracellular and intracellular spaces and causes freezing-induced spatiotemporal deformation of the tissue. During this process the cells undergo dehydration by the freezing-induced osmotic pressure difference and mechanical deformation, transmitted through cell-extracellular matrix adhesions. However, the significance and interaction of these cellular level transport and mechanics processes are not well understood. Therefore, this study aims to establish mechanistic understanding ...


Developing White Ash With Resistance To The Emerald Ash Borer, Kaitlin Joy Palla Jan 2013

Developing White Ash With Resistance To The Emerald Ash Borer, Kaitlin Joy Palla

Open Access Theses

Hypocotyls isolated from mature embryos germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the pBI121-8D2 vector containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene and a full length, codon-optimized Bacillus thuringiensis Cry8Da protoxin gene (cry8D2). Explants were transformed in a bacterial suspension with 100 µM acetosyringone using 90 s sonication and 10 min vacuum-infiltration. Four independent lines of transformed shoots were selectively regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 µM BA, 0.5 µM TDZ, 50 mg L-1 adenine sulfate, 10 ...


Effect Of Anaerobic Dairy Manure Co-Digestion And Effluent Solid Separation On Volatile Fatty Acids During Manure Storage, Laura Page Jan 2013

Effect Of Anaerobic Dairy Manure Co-Digestion And Effluent Solid Separation On Volatile Fatty Acids During Manure Storage, Laura Page

Open Access Theses

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are among the most abundant organic compounds found in animal manure and act as important intermediates in the production of methane under anaerobic digestion (AD). However, VFA also contribute to odor emissions from manure. Anaerobic digestion and separation of solids may help to reduce odor pollution during manure storage and subsequent land application by reducing VFA concentrations.

Little information about the characteristics and concentrations of VFA in dairy manure related to AD is available. This thesis presents the results of VFA production during two three-month storage studies of dairy manure collected from four different sources on ...


Development Of A Starch-Based Mussel-Mimetic Adhesive Polymer, Jeffrey Kazimir De Kozlowski Jan 2013

Development Of A Starch-Based Mussel-Mimetic Adhesive Polymer, Jeffrey Kazimir De Kozlowski

Open Access Theses

Mussel-mimetic adhesive polymers have gained lots of attention for their strong adhesive strength, moisture resistance, and unique ability to crosslink. These properties are mainly attributed to the high content of catecholic 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in mussel adhesive proteins. While there has been success in creating mussel-mimetic synthetic polymers, less effort has been given to create a renewable, green, biocompatible counterpart. This thesis explores the possibilities of starch-based mussel-mimetic adhesives. Carboxymethyl starch of various molecular weights and degree of substitution was synthesized and subsequent conjugation of dopamine to these polymers by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide was investigated. The polymers suffered from very ...


Analysis Of Sources Of Variation And Relationships Among Sow Productivity Traits, Richard L. Cutshaw Jan 2013

Analysis Of Sources Of Variation And Relationships Among Sow Productivity Traits, Richard L. Cutshaw

Open Access Theses

The swine industry has witnessed major changes in the past three decades in terms of selection tools and implementation of effective selection. As the pork industry continues to consolidate, it is increasingly important to be able to accurately predict and direct future performance toward increased overall profitability. Overall, sow productivity greatly affects a pork producer's ability to be profitable in the industry and have sufficient knowledge of production levels to improve the likelihood of remaining profitable into the future.

The relationships among sow productivity traits including total number born, litter birth weight, number weaned, preweaning survival, mean piglet birth ...


Pickering Stabilization Of Oil-Water Interfaces By Heated B-Lactoglobulin/Pectin Particles, Laura Kathryn Zimmerer Jan 2013

Pickering Stabilization Of Oil-Water Interfaces By Heated B-Lactoglobulin/Pectin Particles, Laura Kathryn Zimmerer

Open Access Theses

The use of natural biopolymer particles as Pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions was investigated. B-lactoglobulin microgels and B-lactoglobulin/pectin complexes were created by heating appropriate biopolymer solutions at pH 5.8 and 4.75, respectively. Resultant particles exhibited spherical morphology with diameters of 100-300 nm and possessed significant negative surface charge. Particles were first homogenized with 1% corn oil at 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.25% (wt/ wt) particle concentrations. All emulsions appeared stable over seven days with only a thin, creamed ring forming after several hours. Corn oil emulsions were most stable with 0.25% heated complexes, with ...


A Spatially Explicit Watershed Scale Optimization Of Cellulosic Biofuels Production, Jingyu Song Jan 2013

A Spatially Explicit Watershed Scale Optimization Of Cellulosic Biofuels Production, Jingyu Song

Open Access Theses

Producing biofuels from energy crops is one such alternative. They can result in relatively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional energy sources. Up to now, corn grain is the most researched energy crop. Cellulosic perennial crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus and fast growing trees are also promising energy crops and are expected to help with the energy supply. The 2007 Renewable Fuel Standard requires 16 billion gallons of a total of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels to be cellulosic biofuels by 2022. Many studies are being done to evaluate costs and feasibility of different potential feedstocks and the ...


Effects Of Selected Pesticides On Calico Scale And Its Natural Enemies, Carlos Roberto Quesada Machigua Jan 2013

Effects Of Selected Pesticides On Calico Scale And Its Natural Enemies, Carlos Roberto Quesada Machigua

Open Access Theses

Calico scale (Eulecanium cerasorum) is an exotic pest of shade and ornamental trees. It feeds on phloem sap, reduces tree vigor and can ultimately kill trees. We observed effects of four foliar applied (bifenthrin, pyriproxyfen, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole) and two soil applied pesticides (dinotefuran, imidacloprid) on calico scales and their natural enemies on infested thornless honeylocust trees (Gleditsia triacanthos inermis) over three years. Bifenthrin, dinotefuran and cyantraniliprole provided the largest reductions in scale populations when they were applied to egg laying females on branches early in the season. In contrast, bifenthrin and pyriproxyfen provided the most consistent reductions in scales ...


Biology And Ecology Of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed, Kabelo Segobye Jan 2013

Biology And Ecology Of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed, Kabelo Segobye

Open Access Theses

Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) is a competitive annual plant found in disturbed landscapes and is the most troublesome weed in Indiana and the US Corn Belt. It is one of the most common and problematic weeds in corn and soybean production. The introduction of herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine in early 1970's provided farmers with a better and low-cost tool to control weeds. The use of glyphosate drastically increased after the development of glyphosate resistant agronomic crops in 1996 and was use as a post-emergence selective herbicide. This led to overreliance and repeated use of glyphosate for weed ...


Inclusion Of Ethanol Co-Products In Beef Cow Diets: Impact On Cow Performance And Developmental Programming Of The Progeny, Christie N. Shee Jan 2013

Inclusion Of Ethanol Co-Products In Beef Cow Diets: Impact On Cow Performance And Developmental Programming Of The Progeny, Christie N. Shee

Open Access Theses

The main goal for a cow-calf producer is profitability, which requires optimum reproductive performance, while keeping feed costs low and ensuring that nutritional needs are met. Cow herds are grazed on pasture or crop residues, but these may not always meet nutritional requirements. Ethanol co-products such as dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and condensed distiller's solubles (CDS) may be supplemented to increase the energy and protein concentration of the diet. Recently it has been discovered that maternal diet can have long lasting effects on progeny growth and development. Thus, the effects of feeding the ethanol co-products DDGS ...


Specific Salt Effects On The Formation And Thermal Transitions Among Β-Lactoglobulin And Pectin Electrostatic Complexes, Stacey Ann Hirt Jan 2013

Specific Salt Effects On The Formation And Thermal Transitions Among Β-Lactoglobulin And Pectin Electrostatic Complexes, Stacey Ann Hirt

Open Access Theses

Factors of ion specificity and ionic strength (I~0-100) were studied in the electrostatic complex formation and protein particle formation by thermal treatment for a β-lactoglobulin and pectin system. ζ-potential showed β-lactoglobulin and pectin began to interact near pH 5.50 and interactions were strengthened with decrease in pH. Visible light turbidimetry and light scattering at 90° revealed a trend in critical pH transitions for electrostatic complex formation based on both the ionic strength and the anion of the salt species, while effects of the monovalent cation was insignificant. Critical pH values for complex formation and separation (pHc and pHΦ ...


Estimation Of Watershed Nitrate Loads On Drained Agricultural Lands, Yan Jiang Jan 2013

Estimation Of Watershed Nitrate Loads On Drained Agricultural Lands, Yan Jiang

Open Access Theses

Estimation of nutrient load is critical for many applications in water quality management; however, infrequent data monitoring and measurement error could raise considerable uncertainty in the load estimations. The objectives of this study were to quantify the overall uncertainty in annual nitrate-N load estimates, and develop a statistical model to predict nitrate loads based on subsurface drainage characteristics in Indiana watersheds. Nitrate was selected as the study object because of the high loads common in Midwestern streams, and its important influence on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

A standard error propagation method was used to quantify the uncertainty from ...


Improved Integrated Vegetation Management Strategies For Indiana Roadsides, Jamie Mariah Herold Jan 2013

Improved Integrated Vegetation Management Strategies For Indiana Roadsides, Jamie Mariah Herold

Open Access Theses

With over 90,000 miles of road in Indiana, it is important that adjoining vegetation be maintained for safety, road structure maintenance and aesthetics. An understanding of vegetation management tools, the disturbance they cause and the effect of that disturbance on the plant community are important when designing an integrated vegetation management (IVM) program. In this study, I examine multiple components of an IVM plan for the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT), including mowing regimes, selective broadleaf control, plant growth regulators and native species plantings.

The first portion of this study examines the use of herbicide and mowing at six ...


Interaction Between Centromeric Histone H3 Variant And Shugoshin, Visarut Buranasudja Jan 2013

Interaction Between Centromeric Histone H3 Variant And Shugoshin, Visarut Buranasudja

Open Access Theses

Precise and faithful segregation of chromosome segregation during mitosis depends on the ability of the cell to regulate chromosome bi-orientation on the mitotic spindle. Shugoshin (Sgo1), the protector of meiotic centromeric cohesin, is required for proper establishment of chromosome bi-orientation. Sgo1 plays a crucial role as part of a mitotic tension sensor between sister chromatids. Recently, Sgo1 has been reported to interact with histone H3 at the pericentromere region, as an important factor for tension sensing and chromosome segregation. However, the role of Sgo1 in tension sensing at centromere is still elusive. The centromere is the region of attachment of ...


Modeling Tools For Conformal Orthotic Devices, Steven David Riddle Jan 2013

Modeling Tools For Conformal Orthotic Devices, Steven David Riddle

Open Access Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to advance the design of conformal orthotic devices through the development of two modeling tools to address knowledge gaps in the field.

The field of human orthotics has been continually troubled by identifying successful methods of harnessing devices to the body. Past orthotics have utilized a rigid framework with minimal degrees of freedom (DOFs) driven by hard actuators attached to the body at select anchor points. Many devices design the structure and anchor points such that they reduce the degrees of freedom of a targeted joint, limiting the user's mobility and often causing ...


Impact Of Microwave Processing On Quality Of High Value Shelf Stable Fruit Products, Milena Maria Leon Garcia Jan 2013

Impact Of Microwave Processing On Quality Of High Value Shelf Stable Fruit Products, Milena Maria Leon Garcia

Open Access Theses

Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of health promoting micronutrients and phytochemicals, and their consumption has been associated with reduction of many chronic and degenerative disease. Thermal processing techniques are used to preserve quality and extent of the shelf life of foods, although these traditional processes are associated with specific quality changes in fruits and vegetables. Compared to traditional thermal processing methods, microwave heating provides the potential to improve product quality by virtue of its energy transfer mechanism that provides rapid volumetric heating of food and can potentially enhance overall quality of processed fruit and vegetable products. Though direct ...