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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Classical And Conservation Biological Control Of Pest Insects Within Prairie And Crop Systems, Rene Hessel Jan 2013

Classical And Conservation Biological Control Of Pest Insects Within Prairie And Crop Systems, Rene Hessel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The manipulation of beneficial insects can be done through purposeful releases of biological control organisms, or through manipulation of non-crop habitat. Both mechanisms are explored in various agroecosystems. In chapter 2, I determine if the parasitoid waspBinodoxys communis, imported from China, is able to colonize, and suppress soybean aphid, Aphis glycines in Iowa soybean fields. In addition, the effects of initial soybean aphid densities are measured. Binodoxys communis successfully colonized soybean aphids in Iowa soybean fields, but is not always effective at suppressing soybean aphid populations. Abiotic and biotic factors were more important for the suppression of soybean aphid ...


A Stigmergic Algorithm For Solving Inverse Thermal Systems, Peter Samuel Broen Finzell Jan 2013

A Stigmergic Algorithm For Solving Inverse Thermal Systems, Peter Samuel Broen Finzell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis proposes a novel method for solving inverse thermal systems problems based on stigmergy. Inverse problems are those problems that have a desired output but the inputs required to achieve that output are unknown. The example problem examined is an established inverse radiation heat transfer problem in which two parallel plates are separated by a distance. The temperature profile along the top plate is adjusted to achieve a specified temperature profile on the insulated bottom plate. This type of inverse radiation problem arises in annealing, industrial process ovens, and combustion chambers. Stigmergic processes rely on local instructions and interactions ...


Green Roof Biodiversity In Design: Influence Of Local And Contextual Attributes On Bird Usage, Henry Narigon Jan 2013

Green Roof Biodiversity In Design: Influence Of Local And Contextual Attributes On Bird Usage, Henry Narigon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This purpose of this research is to identify how species of birds use urban green roofs in Iowa with the intent to eventually develop a set of guidelines for optimizing habitat on green roofs. Ten green roofs were observed for bird usage five times each between May to August, 2013 for a total of fifty observations. Birds were identified by species and their behavior was recorded during the duration of the observations. Data shows that birds use green roofs for a number of uses including foraging and gathering nest material. Bird diversity data was then compared with both green roof ...


Inflorescence Branching In Maize: A Quantitative Genetics Approach To Identifying Key Players In The Inflorescence Development Pathway, Rebecca Lynne Weeks Jan 2013

Inflorescence Branching In Maize: A Quantitative Genetics Approach To Identifying Key Players In The Inflorescence Development Pathway, Rebecca Lynne Weeks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Inflorescence branch number in maize and other cereal crops has long been recognized as an important factor impacting grain yield. In maize, inflorescence architecture is determined by the collective actions of many genes. Among these, the ramosa mutants play an important role in regulating branch number by imposing short-branch identity on lateral meristems of the inflorescence. In addition, a number of QTL have been identified which alter the branching of male inflorescences, however few of these QTL co-localize with known inflorescence branching genes, indicating that some components of this pathway have yet to be discovered. We conducted a suppressor/enhancer ...


Computational Prediction Of Rna-Protein Interaction Partners And Interfaces, Usha Muppirala Jan 2013

Computational Prediction Of Rna-Protein Interaction Partners And Interfaces, Usha Muppirala

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

RNA-protein interactions play important roles in fundamental cellular processes involved in human diseases, viral replication and defense against pathogens in plants, animals and microbes. However, the detailed recognition mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the molecular recognition code for RNA-protein interactions, this dissertation has three related goals: i) to develop methods for predicting RNA-protein interaction partners; ii) to develop an approach for predicting interfacial residues in both the RNA and protein components of RNA-protein complexes; and iii) to develop computational tools and resources for investigating RNA-protein interactions.

First, we present machine learning classifiers ...


White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus Capucinus) Of Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica: Human Foods And Human Interactions, Jennifer Christine Campbell Jan 2013

White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus Capucinus) Of Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica: Human Foods And Human Interactions, Jennifer Christine Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cahuita National Park is an ecotourist destination in southeast Costa Rica. A troop of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) living in the park was reported by park officials as being problematic due to their food-raiding behavior. In May-June 2012 and again in December 2012-January 2013 I collected behavioral information in the form of scan samples and human-monkey interactions to assess the frequency and severity of these interactions. Type of food consumed was also noted, as consumption of human foods has been shown to cause both demographic and behavioral changes in non-human primate populations. Anthropogenic food sources accounted for 18% for the ...


Evaluating The Use Of Resistant Starch As A Beneficial Dietary Fiber And Its Effect On Physiological Response Of Glucose, Insulin, And Fermentation, Esther Haugabrooks Jan 2013

Evaluating The Use Of Resistant Starch As A Beneficial Dietary Fiber And Its Effect On Physiological Response Of Glucose, Insulin, And Fermentation, Esther Haugabrooks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistant starches (RS) are complex partly indigestible carbohydrates that have shown promise in improving digestive health, lowering postprandial blood glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) concentrations among other beneficial health effects. There are four types of RS and a fifth type is emerging; although there is very little experimental data on the physiological responses of RS type V. Three experiments were constructed to test the overarching hypothesis that RS (type II and V) can favorably impact human physiological responses of PPG, PPI, and microbial fermentation in the colon with minimal gastrointestinal distress. Two of the three experiments were randomized blind crossover ...


Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins Jan 2013

Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Echinacea is a medicinal plant that has a history of use for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. More recently there has been a renewed interest in alternative therapies including phytomedicinal preparations of Echinacea. Some important issues that remain to be addressed regarding the use of Echinacea therapeutically include plant species specific alterations of immune response and the effect of different preparation techniques (water as compared to ethanol) on immune response to viral infection. Results from multiple studies in mice, in cell culture, and in clinical trials in humans have suggested that water preparations provide a stimulatory effect on innate ...


Development Of Strategies For Synthesis Of Branched Caenorhabditis Elegans-Associated Oligosaccharides And Of Photo-Activated Lectin Capture Reagents, Randy Alan Benedict Jan 2013

Development Of Strategies For Synthesis Of Branched Caenorhabditis Elegans-Associated Oligosaccharides And Of Photo-Activated Lectin Capture Reagents, Randy Alan Benedict

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development and investigation of a new affinity proteomics probe and methodology are presented in this dissertation. A trifunctional affinity proteomics probe (TAPP) was envisioned and prepared to serve as a lectin capture reagent. The TAPP consists of a solid support to serve as a handle for captured protein as well as scaffold for multivalency, a saccharide of interest to fish for an unknown or elicit a suspected specific interaction, and a photoactivated cross-linking moiety to covalently capture binding proteins. The perfluorinated phenylazide cross-linker was shown to exhibit better performance relative to the parent phenylazide with respect to sensitivity and ...


Investigation Of The Process Of Snare Mediated Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis, Ying Lai Jan 2013

Investigation Of The Process Of Snare Mediated Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis, Ying Lai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Neurotransmitter release in synapses underlies major brain functions such as cognition, emotion, and memory. The precise temporal control of the release is essential for healthy brain activities. SNAREs are known to be the core fusion machinery in neuro-exocytotic pathways. SNARE complex formation in the chasm of two membranes is mediated by cognate coiled-coil motifs on v- and t-SNAREs: One such motif from t-SNARE syntaxin 1A, two from t-SNARE SNAP-25, and another from v-SNARE VAMP2 all form a parallel four-stranded coiled coil that brings about the apposition of two membranes. However, The SNARE proteins do not have the required regulatory function ...


Fall Armyworm Spodoptera Frugiperda And Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon Susceptibility And Avoidance To Bt Maize, And Implications For Global Insect Resistance Management, Rachel Renee Binning Jan 2013

Fall Armyworm Spodoptera Frugiperda And Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon Susceptibility And Avoidance To Bt Maize, And Implications For Global Insect Resistance Management, Rachel Renee Binning

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize (Zea mays) was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests are different and often have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. As these Bt maize products are commercialized in new geographies, insect resistance management (IRM) plans for those geographies need to consider these new pest and toxin combinations, instead of assuming the same refuge strategy applies to all pests in all geographies. Before implementing an IRM plan that includes size, placement and configuration of refuge ...


Sooty Blotch And Flyspeck Disease Of Apple: Expansion Of The Fungal Complex In Turkey And Evaluation Of A Warning System For The Upper Midwest, Derrick Anthony Mayfield Jan 2013

Sooty Blotch And Flyspeck Disease Of Apple: Expansion Of The Fungal Complex In Turkey And Evaluation Of A Warning System For The Upper Midwest, Derrick Anthony Mayfield

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a disease complex caused by nearly 80 fungal species that blemish the surface of apple fruit, reducing crop value in humid regions worldwide. The severity of SBFS is a concern for apple producers in northeastern Turkey. However, the composition of the SBFS complex in Turkey is unknown. Therefore, the first objective of my research was to isolate and characterize the species assemblage from SBFS infected apples collected in 2008 from the Rize Province, in Turkey. In this study, pressed SBFS colonies with subtending apple cuticle were shipped to Iowa State University for isolation. The ...


Process Optimization: Ultrasonic Welding Of Coextruded Polymer Film, Jessica Ann Riedl Jan 2013

Process Optimization: Ultrasonic Welding Of Coextruded Polymer Film, Jessica Ann Riedl

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of various weld and machine parameters on ultrasonic weld strength. Specifically, welds with six different triple-layer coextruded polyethylene and metallized polypropylene films were examined. These materials were welded in separate experimental studies using a bench top weld system and a high production volume packaging machine.

The first study investigated the effect of a range of weld forces, energies, and amplitudes in a lap joint geometry using a bench top ultrasonic plunge welding system. Weld strength was determined by measuring resistance to tearing and peel and shear strength. It was observed ...


Characterization Of The Putative Catalytic Domain Of Two Xyloglucan Xylosyltransferases (Xxts) Involved In The Biosynthesis Of Xyloglucan In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rachel Ann Morris Jan 2013

Characterization Of The Putative Catalytic Domain Of Two Xyloglucan Xylosyltransferases (Xxts) Involved In The Biosynthesis Of Xyloglucan In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rachel Ann Morris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Xyloglucan is the primary hemicellulosic component of the primary cell wall in dicotyledonous plants. It is characterized by a beta-(1-4)-D-glucan backbone that is substituted in a regular pattern with alpha-(1-6)-D-xylose, and can be substituted further with beta-(1-2)-D-galactose or beta-(1-2)-D-galactose-alpha(1-2)-L-fucose disaccharide. Three xyloglucan xylosyltransferases (XXTs), XXT1, XXT2, and XXT5, are responsible for the D-xylosylation of the beta-(1-4)-D-glucan backbone in Arabidopsis thaliana. They are Golgi-localized type II transmembrane proteins that have putative DXD catalytic centers. All have been shown to interact in a protein complex, XXT2 and XXT5 showing the ...


Allosteric Regulation Of Mammalian Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Yang Gao Jan 2013

Allosteric Regulation Of Mammalian Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Yang Gao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (D-fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase; EC 3. 1. 3; FBPase) is an essential regulatory enzyme in gluconeogenesis and has long been considered as a drug target towards type II diabete. In mammalian, the activity of FBPase is regulated by AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2). AMP is an allosteric inhibitor that binds to FBPase with positive coopertivity, and Fru-2,6-P2 is an active site inhibitor which is up-regulated by hormone. Despite the 30 Å distance between their binding sites, both of AMP and Fru-2,6-P2 transform FBPase from active R-state to inactive T-state. Large conformational rearrangements are coupled to ...


The Genetic Basis Of Host Response To Experimental Infection With The Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In Pigs, Nicholas James Boddicker Jan 2013

The Genetic Basis Of Host Response To Experimental Infection With The Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In Pigs, Nicholas James Boddicker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically important disease in the swine industry. The effects of PRRS are two fold in that it causes reproductive problems in breeding females and respiratory problems in growing animals. Vaccination has generally not been effective in the prevention of PRRS, partially due to the rapid mutation rate and evolution of the virus. The overall objective of this thesis was to discover the genetic basis of host response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) using data from the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium PRRS-CAP project by conducting genome-wide association analyses and estimating genetic parameters. Eight ...


Characterization Of A Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase From Leptospira Borgpetersenii And Assessment Of Pre And Posttesting In The Middle School Classroom, Joy Marie Jackson Jan 2013

Characterization Of A Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase From Leptospira Borgpetersenii And Assessment Of Pre And Posttesting In The Middle School Classroom, Joy Marie Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Spirochaete is a diverse phylum of Gram-negative bacteria that is located under the order, Spirochaetales, which is divided into three families: Spirochaetacea, Brachyspiraceae, and Leptospiraeae. Research was focused on the latter, specifically, the genus, Leptospira. Leptospira consists of many saprophytic, intermediate pathogenic, and pathogenic species, with L. interrogans (transmitted via contaminated water) and L. borpetersenii (acquired via host to host transmission) causing the majority of leptospirosis cases. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of Leptospira, a putative thiopurine S-methyltransferase (LBJ0800) was exploited. Because this gene is not present in any of the sequenced spirochetes, Brachyspira, Borrelia, Treponema, except Leptospira ...


Analysis Of Properties To Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) And Using Destoner And Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) To Utilize Ddgs, Weitao Zhang Jan 2013

Analysis Of Properties To Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) And Using Destoner And Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) To Utilize Ddgs, Weitao Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the rapid development of the ethanol industry, various research on distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a main co-product from the ethanol industry has been done in recent years. However, related research about basic properties to DDGS lacks of comprehensiveness. In addition, the efficient method and equipment to separate DDGS to high-valued fraction is still being investigated. Besides these, the possibility about using DDGS to produce ethanol is being explored, which is designed to own the advantages of comprehensiveness and systematicness.

This thesis is prepared in paper format, and is comprised of three manuscripts, as follow: the first ...


Investigation Of The Arabidopsis Nonhost Resistance Mechanism Against The Soybean Pathogen, Phytophthora Sojae, Rishi Sumit Jan 2013

Investigation Of The Arabidopsis Nonhost Resistance Mechanism Against The Soybean Pathogen, Phytophthora Sojae, Rishi Sumit

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nonhost resistance (NHR) provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient) genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide prehaustorial NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae that causes root and stem rot disease in soybean. The P. sojae susceptible (pss) 1 mutant is infected by both P. sojae and the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme that causes sudden death syndrome in soybean ...


Validation And Calibration Of Self-Report Methods: The Youth Activity Profile, Pedro Frederico De Saint-Maurice Maduro Jan 2013

Validation And Calibration Of Self-Report Methods: The Youth Activity Profile, Pedro Frederico De Saint-Maurice Maduro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of more accurate and precise methods of assessing physical activity behavior is an important public health research priority. Objective monitoring devices have advantages but the high cost and burden of data processing make them impractical for large scale applications. Subjective (survey-based) tools are inexpensive and easy to use but these suffer from questionable validity. Objective measures are often used to validate less accurate measures such as subjective instruments but this does not directly improve the accuracy or precision of the self-report instrument. The proposed line of research developed and tested a calibration equation approach that enabled data from ...


Identification And Characterization Of Effectors Secreted From Sedentary Endoparasitic Phytonematodes, William Brock Rutter Jan 2013

Identification And Characterization Of Effectors Secreted From Sedentary Endoparasitic Phytonematodes, William Brock Rutter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sedentary endoparasitic phytonematodes are a group of taxa comprised of cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) and root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. ), which are some of the most economically important crop pathogens on earth. These pests infect plant roots by creating elaborate feeding sites around the vasculature, which diverts nutrients away from the plant to feed the nematode and causes yield reduction in the plant. The nematodes create their feeding sites by delivering effector proteins into plant tissues. Effectors interact with plant components to modify development, metabolism, and defense pathways within plant cells, ultimately forming and maintaining the feeding site within ...


Biochar As A Replacement For Perlite In Greenhouse Soilless Substrates, Jake Northup Jan 2013

Biochar As A Replacement For Perlite In Greenhouse Soilless Substrates, Jake Northup

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Biochar is a solid, carbonaceous coproduct of the pyrolysis process used for biofuel production. Many field studies have shown improved chemical and physical properties of soil after amendment with biochar. The benefits of biochar may extend to soilless substrates used in the greenhouse industry, and the porous nature of biochar may make it a suitable replacement for perlite in greenhouse substrates. The objectives of this research were to determine the most suitable biochar particle size and percentage for use in a greenhouse substrate, to determine if biochar can eliminate the need for amendment with limestone, and to demonstrate plant growth ...


Evolutionary Proteomics Of Cotton, Guanjing Hu Jan 2013

Evolutionary Proteomics Of Cotton, Guanjing Hu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polyploidy has played a spectacular role in plant evolution. Through allopolyploidization, two or more divergent genomes are combined into a common nucleus, which is often followed by rapid as well as longer-term genomic and epigenetic responses. However, since mRNA abundance and protein amounts are poorly related, still little is known how the genomic changes associate with or affect the actual plant function and adaption. Within this context, this dissertation specifically explores the evolutionary history of cotton species on the proteomic level, involving natural polyploidization and human-mediated cotton fiber selection.

In the work presented here, cotton proteomes of mature seeds and ...


Characterization Of A Cell Death Suppressing Effector Broadly Conserved Across The Fungal Kingdom, Ehren Lee Whigham Jan 2013

Characterization Of A Cell Death Suppressing Effector Broadly Conserved Across The Fungal Kingdom, Ehren Lee Whigham

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The proteins used by pathogens to modify, suppress or evade host defenses (called effectors) are fascinating probes into plant defense pathways and are changing the way scientists think about host/pathogen interactions. Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, causal agent of barley powdery mildew disease, is a model system to study the nature of obligate biotrophy. In addition to the nearly 500 predicted effector candidates unique to the mildews, this pathogen contains at least one that is broadly conserved across the fungal kingdom. Understanding the functions and targets of both the unique and conserved effectors has the potential to reveal new ...


Effect Of Infection Site And Glyphosate Application On The Foliar Symptoms Expression Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome, Marcio Leizer Zaccaron Jan 2013

Effect Of Infection Site And Glyphosate Application On The Foliar Symptoms Expression Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome, Marcio Leizer Zaccaron

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, is an important root disease that can cause root rot and express foliar symptoms leading to premature defoliation and yield reduction. Earlier reports suggested that the germination of F. virguliforme macroconidia and penetration of their germination tube may differ among the sites along the root system of soybean plants. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] is a post-emergent broad spectrum non-selective herbicide that is largely used in soybean production systems. Previous study shows that infection does not always lead to disease in this host-pathogen interaction as the fungus can reach high level of ...


Sustainable Chemistry, Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Biologically Important Small Molecules, Gerald R. Pollock, Iii Jan 2013

Sustainable Chemistry, Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Biologically Important Small Molecules, Gerald R. Pollock, Iii

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With growing concerns for the environment, dwindling amounts of fossil fuels available for worldwide consumption and more resistant strains of diseases and infections becoming a reality, organic chemistry plays a vital role in the improvement and sustainability of modern society. Industrial chemicals from renewable sources has become an important area of research in recent years, while the synthesis and study of biologically active small molecules and their analogues leads to advancements which can help improve overall human health.

In this dissertation, we explore methods to create important industrial molecules from biorenewable sources, extend a novel cyclization to make heterocyclic compounds ...


Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by certain species of the genus Leishmania results in a significant disease burden worldwide. This is most pronounced in some of the world's poorest communities. In South America and the Mediterranean basin, dogs are the major domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, one cause of human VL. In addition, dogs infected with L. infantum have an immune response and pathophysiology similar to human cases, making them a representative naturally-occurring animal model of VL. Chronic infection with Leishmania infantum can result in asymptomatic infection for a long period of time or symptomatic, potentially life-threatening visceralizing disease. Immunopathology ...


Exploring And Understanding The Substrate Diversity Of B-Ketoacyl-Acp Synthase Iii Enzymes, Shivani Garg Jan 2013

Exploring And Understanding The Substrate Diversity Of B-Ketoacyl-Acp Synthase Iii Enzymes, Shivani Garg

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fatty acids are an integral part of the lipid membrane of bacteria and plants, and the enzyme that initiates fatty acid synthesis, β-ketoacyl-ACP Synthase III (KASIII), is one of the most diverse enzymes found in nature. KASIII exhibits vast diversity in its substrate specificity. By virtue of its substrate specificity, KASIII determines the fatty acid profile of the organism by dictating the nature of the ω-end of the fatty acids. For example, KASIIIs from many bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli) accept straight chain acyl-CoAs resulting in production of straight chain fatty acids and are, therefore, narrow in substrate specificity. In ...


Automated Inter-Plant Spacing Sensing Of Corn Plant Seedlings And Quantification Of Laying Hen Behaviors Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash Dev Nakarmi Jan 2013

Automated Inter-Plant Spacing Sensing Of Corn Plant Seedlings And Quantification Of Laying Hen Behaviors Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash Dev Nakarmi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Within-row plant spacing plays an important role in uniform distribution of water and nutrients among plants, hence affects the final crop yield. While manual in-field manual measurements of within-row plant spacing is time and labor intensive, little work has been carried out to automate the process. An automated system is developed using a state-of-the-art 3D vision sensor that accurately measures within-row corn plant spacing. The system is capable of processing about 1200 images captured from a 61 m crop row containing approximately 280 corn plants in about three and half minutes.

Stocking density of laying hens in egg production remains ...


The Effects Of Starter Fertilizer On Root And Shoot Growth Of Corn Hybrids And Seeding Rates And Plant-To-Plant Variability In Growth And Grain Yield, Warren Pierson Jan 2013

The Effects Of Starter Fertilizer On Root And Shoot Growth Of Corn Hybrids And Seeding Rates And Plant-To-Plant Variability In Growth And Grain Yield, Warren Pierson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Starter fertilizer often increases early-season growth of corn; however, yield responses have varied. Yield responses often occur on soils with low soil fertility, however, have occurred on soils with high fertility. Currently, farmers are attempting to reduce plant-to-plant variability in growth and development to maximize grain yield. Farmers have asked if placing starter fertilizer near the seed could reduce plant-to-plant variability with the hypothesis that uniform fertility will result in uniform plants. We conducted two experiments near Ames, Iowa, and Nashua, Iowa with similar treatments and data collection. Starter fertilizer was banded 5 cm below the seed and 5 cm ...