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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler Jan 2013

Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and is considered a major pathogen for a number of species including humans, swine, and avian species. Historically, the potential of avian and swine influenza A viruses, either through direct infection by intact virus or through incorporation of genetic information into human isolates, have presented major zoonotic risks to human health risks with epidemic and pandemic potential (98). Prior to the 2009 pandemic, experts were concerned that high pathogenic avian IAV, particularly H5N1, was going to become established in the human population and that such establishment would lead to ...


Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins Jan 2013

Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Echinacea is a medicinal plant that has a history of use for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. More recently there has been a renewed interest in alternative therapies including phytomedicinal preparations of Echinacea. Some important issues that remain to be addressed regarding the use of Echinacea therapeutically include plant species specific alterations of immune response and the effect of different preparation techniques (water as compared to ethanol) on immune response to viral infection. Results from multiple studies in mice, in cell culture, and in clinical trials in humans have suggested that water preparations provide a stimulatory effect on innate ...


Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik Jan 2013

Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza virus is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that can cause severe respiratory tract infections in humans (along with other host animals such as horses, swine and poultry). Certain populations such as very young children, aged individuals, pregnant women and immunosuppressed individuals are more susceptible to influenza infections. One reason for the increased susceptibility to infection in the aged is a decreased efficacy of the seasonal influenza vaccine. As this particular section of our population continues to increase worldwide, research to improve vaccine efficacy is expanding along with efforts to identify lifestyle changes and interventions that can improve ...


Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer Jan 2013

Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines remain the most effective medical intervention to disease in which effective vaccines are available. Designing vaccines that elicit protective immunity while minimizing adverse events is difficult. Exacerbating the challenges of vaccine design is the increased emphasis on using pure preparation of antigens that alleviate safety concerns but also show decreased potency. Therefore the need for safe adjuvants to boost immunity of subunit immunizations is great. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel bio-erodible polyanhydride particle platform to enhance humoral and cellular immunity. Encapsulation of 25 µg of Ovalbumin (Ova) antigen in microparticles elicits humoral immune responses equivalent to ...


Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross Jan 2013

Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Avian influenza A H5N1 is rapidly gaining the potential to be the next influenza pandemic threat. Human cases of H5N1 have proven to be approximately 60% fatal with a growing number of strains becoming resistant to antiviral treatments. Therefore, there is a strong need for new research to develop a pandemic H5N1 avian influenza vaccine. In this work, a synthetic polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccine (or nanovaccine) platform for respiratory pathogens such as H5N1 was designed. In particular, the work focused on the design of a subunit vaccine based on antigens specific to H5N1 avian influenza.

Intranasal administration of vaccines can increase ...