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Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler Jan 2013

Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and is considered a major pathogen for a number of species including humans, swine, and avian species. Historically, the potential of avian and swine influenza A viruses, either through direct infection by intact virus or through incorporation of genetic information into human isolates, have presented major zoonotic risks to human health risks with epidemic and pandemic potential (98). Prior to the 2009 pandemic, experts were concerned that high pathogenic avian IAV, particularly H5N1, was going to become established in the human population and that such establishment would lead to ...


Innate Immune Responses To Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Age-Associated Changes, Terianne Maiko Wong Jan 2013

Innate Immune Responses To Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Age-Associated Changes, Terianne Maiko Wong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes ~64 million cases of respiratory disease and 200,000 deaths annually worldwide, yet there is no broadly effective prophylactic or treatment regimen. RSV can produce acute respiratory illness in patients of all ages but strikes the age extremes, infants and the elderly, with highest frequency presumably due to innate immune deficiencies. A higher morbidity and mortality has been reported for the elderly above 65 years of age, which has been attributed to immune senescence. Efforts to generate an effective vaccine have thus far been unsuccessful.

The innate immune system provides the first line of ...


Considerations For Improved Surveillance Of Influenzavirus A In Swine Populations, Christa Kalberer Goodell Jan 2013

Considerations For Improved Surveillance Of Influenzavirus A In Swine Populations, Christa Kalberer Goodell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and road map for contemporary swine surveillance programs, "Protecting our future - A road map for practical, real-time, on-farm infectious disease surveillance". Chapter 2, "Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation" has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. Chapter 3, "Probability of the detection of influenza A virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 in individual nasal swab and pen-based oral fluid specimens from pigs over time" has ...


Mammalian Orthoreovirus Localization To Stress Granules And Escape From Translation Shutoff, Kate Carroll Jan 2013

Mammalian Orthoreovirus Localization To Stress Granules And Escape From Translation Shutoff, Kate Carroll

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A clinically benign member of the dsRNA virus family Reoviridae, Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV) serves as a model system to determine the nuances of replication within the family. MRV is composed of ten dsRNA gene segments that are contained in a double capsid structure and encode 12-13 viral proteins. It has previously been shown that at early times in MRV infection, granules form throughout the cytoplasm of the host cells that have been termed stress granules (SGs). MRV induces the formation of these SGs by activation of the kinase Protein Kinase R (PKR) which subsequently phosphorylates the initiation factor eIF2α to ...


The Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like 3' Cap-Independent Translation Element: A Translation Enhancer That Functions In Mammalian Systems, Mariko Sada Peterson Jan 2013

The Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like 3' Cap-Independent Translation Element: A Translation Enhancer That Functions In Mammalian Systems, Mariko Sada Peterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In canonical eukaryotic translation initiation, the recognition of mRNA by the translation machinery is facilitated through the binding of the 5' m7G cap structure to eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). This recognition is necessary for efficient translation of the message to occur. In contrast, some viruses lack the 5' cap structure but have alternative mechanisms to initiate translation and express the viral proteins necessary for replication. The positive-strand RNA plant viruses of the panico-, carmo-, umbra-, (1-3) and aureusviruses (4) contain an RNA structure in their 3' UTRs that binds eIF4E (2) and through communication with the 5' UTR, are ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson Jan 2013

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus continues to be a significant problem for pork producers. The aim of this body of work was to help stakeholders control and prevention infection with this virus. A literature review of currently available diagnostic tests and guidelines for their interpretation serves as a resource for producers, practitioners, and researchers. The research focus was to evaluate two novel methods to develop improved modified live vaccines. The efficacy of viral chimeras constructed from a commercially available vaccine and a virulent wild-type isolate and the ability to attenuate wild-type isolates with a unique cell passage process are ...


Complete Genome Sequences And Phylogeny Of West Nile Virus Isolates From Southeastern United States, 2003-2012, Crystal Wedin Jan 2013

Complete Genome Sequences And Phylogeny Of West Nile Virus Isolates From Southeastern United States, 2003-2012, Crystal Wedin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study of the evolution and phylogeny of West Nile virus (WNV) has been an important area of research since the introduction of WNV in 1999. However, genome sequencing of isolates from the Southeastern part of the United States has been somewhat limited. To determine how WNV has evolved at a more localized level, ten isolates from Florida and Georgia from 2003-2012 were completely sequenced using Illumina's next-generation technology. In addition, a phylogenetic comparison of both the complete genome and select partial genomes was completed to ensure consistency among the results. This study further demonstrated the dominance of the ...


Molecular Interactions Between Pea Enation Mosaic Virus And Its Pea Aphid Vector, Lucas Benjamin Linz Jan 2013

Molecular Interactions Between Pea Enation Mosaic Virus And Its Pea Aphid Vector, Lucas Benjamin Linz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Insect transmission of plant viruses results in tremendous economic loss within the agricultural sector worldwide. Aphids account for nearly half of insect-borne plant virus transmission. Viruses in the family Luteoviridae are transmitted by aphids in a persistent-circulative manner that requires specific molecular interactions between the aphid and virus. Ingested virions cross the aphid gut and salivary gland epithelial barriers using receptors that have not been identified. We assessed the binding of a model luteovirid, Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum using a two-dimensional far-western blot method. Pea aphid membrane ...


Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun Jan 2013

Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive disorder in breeding pigs and respiratory symptoms in pigs of all ages. The virus continues to bring significant economic losses to swine industry, and is considered to be one of the most important swine pathogens. Vaccination has been utilized to aid or facilitate PRRS control. Among various types of vaccines used, attenuated live virus vaccines appear to be more efficacious than killed virus vaccines. However, the effect of vaccination with attenuated live virus vaccines is crippled by several safety and efficacy issues. First, the vaccine development process is time-consuming. Second, the ...


Prenatal Stress, Depression, And Herpes Viral Titers, Pao-Chu Hsu Jan 2013

Prenatal Stress, Depression, And Herpes Viral Titers, Pao-Chu Hsu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies suggest that some cases of prenatal depression may be associated with reactivation of latent infections of the herpesvirus family. The possible relationships among stress, prenatal depression, and herpes viral reactivation in pregnancy are understudied and the molecular pathways such as the neuroimmune biogenic amine pathway are unidentified. Chronic stress shifts the T helper-1 cell (Th1) cytokine profile to a Th2 profile, which favors virus induced pathogenesis and survival. Pregnancy is also associated with a similar Th2 dominance. In non-pregnant individuals, exposure to psychological or physical stress may be associated with latent herpes viral reactivation and could result in ...


Persistent Infection With Human Herpesvirus-6 In Patients With An Inherited Form Of The Virus: A Newly Described Disease, Shara Pantry Jan 2013

Persistent Infection With Human Herpesvirus-6 In Patients With An Inherited Form Of The Virus: A Newly Described Disease, Shara Pantry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are ubiquitous betaherpesviruses. Both viruses are associated with a variety of adult disorders including neurological disorder, such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. HHV-6 viruses are capable of establishing latency by integration into the telomeres of the host chromosome and are transmitted in a Mendelian manner in approximately one percent of the population. To date little is known about the immunological and neurological consequences of HHV-6 inheritance. This study focused on a unique population of individuals that inherited HHV-6 and present with chronic fatigue-like symptoms, including hypersomnia, generalized fatigue, headache, and short ...