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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effect Of Supplemental Vitamin C On Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Carcass Characteristics, And Meat Quality Of Steers Fed High Sulfur Finishing Diets, Danielle Jaye Pogge Jan 2013

The Effect Of Supplemental Vitamin C On Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Carcass Characteristics, And Meat Quality Of Steers Fed High Sulfur Finishing Diets, Danielle Jaye Pogge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The incorporation of ethanol industry co-products, such as dried distillers grains plus solubles, to feedlot diets in the United States may be inadvertently exposing cattle to high amounts of dietary sulfur. High sulfur diets have repeatedly been reported to decrease growth and carcass performance, health, and copper status; however, little to no information is available concerning the implications that high sulfur diets have on the antioxidant capacity or meat quality of cattle. Thus, the subsequent research trials were designed to: 1) examine the impacts of high dietary S on diet digestibility and macro and micro mineral absorption and retention, 2 ...


Iron Bioavailability And Consumer Acceptability Of Extruded Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Flour, Martin Mutambuka Jan 2013

Iron Bioavailability And Consumer Acceptability Of Extruded Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Flour, Martin Mutambuka

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Iron deficiency anemia continues to be a major nutritional challenge worldwide and is mainly caused by dependence on staple foods which are low in iron bioavailability. In many parts of the world, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important source of iron. Bean iron has very low bioavailability and household/industrial processing technologies have been shown to improve iron bioavailability. In this study, iron bioavailability of 16 Ugandan bean varieties was determined using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model and modeled with respect to key influencing factors; phytate, polyphenol, ferritin and iron content. The effect of extrusion ...


Evaluating The Use Of Resistant Starch As A Beneficial Dietary Fiber And Its Effect On Physiological Response Of Glucose, Insulin, And Fermentation, Esther Haugabrooks Jan 2013

Evaluating The Use Of Resistant Starch As A Beneficial Dietary Fiber And Its Effect On Physiological Response Of Glucose, Insulin, And Fermentation, Esther Haugabrooks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistant starches (RS) are complex partly indigestible carbohydrates that have shown promise in improving digestive health, lowering postprandial blood glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) concentrations among other beneficial health effects. There are four types of RS and a fifth type is emerging; although there is very little experimental data on the physiological responses of RS type V. Three experiments were constructed to test the overarching hypothesis that RS (type II and V) can favorably impact human physiological responses of PPG, PPI, and microbial fermentation in the colon with minimal gastrointestinal distress. Two of the three experiments were randomized blind crossover ...


Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins Jan 2013

Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Echinacea is a medicinal plant that has a history of use for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. More recently there has been a renewed interest in alternative therapies including phytomedicinal preparations of Echinacea. Some important issues that remain to be addressed regarding the use of Echinacea therapeutically include plant species specific alterations of immune response and the effect of different preparation techniques (water as compared to ethanol) on immune response to viral infection. Results from multiple studies in mice, in cell culture, and in clinical trials in humans have suggested that water preparations provide a stimulatory effect on innate ...


Mitigation Strategies To Ameliorate Acute And Chronic Heat Stress Utilizing Supplemental Methionine Or Embryonic Thermal Conditioning In Chickens, Kevin Bolek Jan 2013

Mitigation Strategies To Ameliorate Acute And Chronic Heat Stress Utilizing Supplemental Methionine Or Embryonic Thermal Conditioning In Chickens, Kevin Bolek

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Experiments were conducted exploring potential strategies to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress in chickens. In the first experiment, broilers were placed in environments which were heat treated (HT), thermoneutral (TN), or thermo-neutral coupled with pair-feeding (TN-PF). Birds were fed diets containing either DL-methionine (DLM) or 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (HMTBA) formulated to adequate or super-adequate levels of digestible sulfur amino acids (DSAA). Reduced (GSH), oxidized (GSSG), and total (TGSH) glutathione as well glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were measured to assess antioxidant capacity. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured to assess lipid peroxidation. Several blood variables were also measured. Responses ...


Associations Between Vitamin D Status And Blood Lipid Parameters In Healthy, Older Adults, Felicia L. Steger Jan 2013

Associations Between Vitamin D Status And Blood Lipid Parameters In Healthy, Older Adults, Felicia L. Steger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background. One explanation for the relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality could be related to altered serum lipids. This study aimed to determine the association between 25OHD and serum lipid concentrations in healthy, older adults.

Methods. Serum lipid panels and 25OHD concentrations were obtained on 190 adults (median age 67 years) after a 12-hour overnight fast. 25OHD was measured by the DiaSorin Liason system. Subjects were stratified by 25OHD concentrations: <20.0 ng/mL, 20.0-29.9 ng/mL, 30.0-39.9 ng/mL and ≥40 ng/mL. One-way ANOVA was used to observe unadjusted differences and Student's t-tests were used to determine differences between groups. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the ability of 25OHD to predict serum lipid concentrations when accounting for BMI, sex, age, and statin use. Stepwise regression analyses were used to establish the best prediction model for each outcome.

Results. There was a significant relationship between 25OHD and BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p=0.042), TG (p=0.020), TC (p<0.001), LDL (p<0.001) and the TC:HDL ratio (p<0.001), but not for blood pressure, HDL, or TG:HDL ratio. When comparing subjects with 25OHD ≥40.0 ng/mL to those with <20 ng/mL, those in the highest group had a significantly lower BMI (26.1 0.7 and 29.9 0.8 kg/m2), TG (100.9 7.8 and 130.4 9.5 mg/dL), TC (182.7 5.2 and 217.4 6.3 mg/dL), LDL (100.3 4.5 and 131.2 5.4 mg/dL), and calcium (9.67 0.05 and 9.50 0.06 mg/dL) concentrations, and had significantly lower TC:HDL (3.09 0.15 and 4.15 0.08) and TG:HDL (1.79 0.22 and 2.56 0.27) ratios.

When adjusting for confounders, the relationship between 25OHD and TC (p<0.001) and LDL (p<0.001) remained significant, but that between TC:HDL and TG:HDL did not. When a stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the best model for predicting serum lipid parameters, each 10 ng/mL increase in 25OHD predicted a statistically significant 6.72 mg/dL decline in TC (p<0.001) and 5.55 mg/dL decline in LDL (p<0.001).

Conclusions. 25OHD status is associated ...


Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris Jan 2013

Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is characterized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which originates in adipose tissue from adipocyte dysfunction as a consequence of adipocyte hypertrophy. Although rodent models have been pivotal to understanding the etiology of obesity and its co-morbidities, and the roles of specific genes, distinct differences between rodents and humans underscore the need for alternative comparative models. Swine are an attractive comparative model because of similar physiology and anatomy with humans. Ossabaw swine are of particular interest due to their "thrifty" genotype and predisposition to multiple risk factors for the metabolic syndrome.

Saturated fatty acids have the distinct ability ...


Early Prevention Of Childhood Obesity: Impact Of Maternal Physical Activity On Pregnancy And Child Outcomes, Kai Ling Kong Jan 2013

Early Prevention Of Childhood Obesity: Impact Of Maternal Physical Activity On Pregnancy And Child Outcomes, Kai Ling Kong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain cause a perpetuating "vicious cycle" of obesity, where obese women or women who gain excess gestational weight have a higher risk of giving birth to large for gestational age infants, who then, years later, can become obese adults entering into their own pregnancies. Many observational studies have supported the role of physical activity (PA) in helping pregnant women to minimize, if not prevent, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Since maternal PA has potential to prevent excessive GWG and decrease the risk for delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, identifying strategies to help pregnant women increase ...


Blossom Project 2: Longitudinal Assessment Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet Quality, And Weight Gain During Pregnancy, Diana Rose Di Fabio Jan 2013

Blossom Project 2: Longitudinal Assessment Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet Quality, And Weight Gain During Pregnancy, Diana Rose Di Fabio

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The benefits of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy have been well documented, but little is known about the contribution of activity sub-components including sleep, sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity on gestational weight gain (GWG). Additionally, the relationship between diet quality and GWG has yet to be determined. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted during 2nd and 3rd trimester to objectively quantify and identify modifiable aspects of total PA including sleep, sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, and dietary intake. Participants (n=46) wore a SenseWear Armband and an activPALTM activity monitor for seven consecutive days during which a ...


Characterization Of The Effects Of Intestinal Physiology Modified By Exogenous Enzymes And Direct-Fed Microbial On Intestinal Integrity, Energy Metabolism, Body Composition And Performance Of Laying Hens And Broiler Chickens, Ganapathi Raj Murugesan Jan 2013

Characterization Of The Effects Of Intestinal Physiology Modified By Exogenous Enzymes And Direct-Fed Microbial On Intestinal Integrity, Energy Metabolism, Body Composition And Performance Of Laying Hens And Broiler Chickens, Ganapathi Raj Murugesan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation was to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes (EE) and direct-fed microbial (DFM) supplementation on bird intestinal integrity, energy metabolism, body composition and performance of laying hens and broiler chickens. The effects of reduced dietary metabolizable energy (ME) on performance, intestinal integrity and body composition of laying hens were evaluated in two experiments. A reduction of 90 kcal/kg of dietary ME over a period of 12 weeks did not significantly alter performance or nitrogen corrected apparent ME (AMEn), but reduced abdominal fat pad. In the follow-up experiment, no significant differences were noted in performance ...


"They Come, But They Don't Spend As Much Money": Livelihoods, Dietary Diversity, Food Security, And Nutritional Status In Two Roatan Communities In The Wake Of Global Crises In Food Prices And Finance, Racine Marcus Brown Jan 2013

"They Come, But They Don't Spend As Much Money": Livelihoods, Dietary Diversity, Food Security, And Nutritional Status In Two Roatan Communities In The Wake Of Global Crises In Food Prices And Finance, Racine Marcus Brown

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This dissertation explores the associations between recent global crises in staple food prices and finance and the following aspects of life in two communities on the island of Roatàn, Islas de La Bahia (Bay Islands), Honduras: household livelihoods; food commoditization; dietary diversity; food security; and nutritional status. The aims of this study are: ) assess the geographic and economic source(s) of foods consumed by two different communities on Roatàn; b) discover how the most recent economic and food crises have affected foodways and nutrition on Roatàn; c) assess how these crises have affected economic growth of the tourism sector ...


Oral S-Adenosyl Methionine (Sam) Mediates Disruptions In Methyl Group Metabolism Due To Retinoic Acid Therapy And Alters Neurotransmitter Metabolism: Implications For Major Depressive Disorder, Anne Smazal Jan 2013

Oral S-Adenosyl Methionine (Sam) Mediates Disruptions In Methyl Group Metabolism Due To Retinoic Acid Therapy And Alters Neurotransmitter Metabolism: Implications For Major Depressive Disorder, Anne Smazal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Disruptions in methyl group metabolism have been associated with a number of disease states, including birth defects, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, characterization of the factors that regulate folate and methyl group supply is essential for the development of disease treatments and prevention. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), an enzyme essential to methyl group balance, is markedly increased by retinoic acid treatment. Furthermore, retinoid therapy has been shown to impact neurotransmitter metabolism, thereby contributing to the development of major depressive disorder. Recently, it has been shown that depressed patients have low levels of folate, other B-vitamins, and s-adenosylmethionine (SAM), all compounds ...


Effects Of Diets Containing Digestion-Resistant Starch On Wnt Pathway Control Of Proliferation And Differentiation Of The Colorectal Mucosa, Nicole Cray Jan 2013

Effects Of Diets Containing Digestion-Resistant Starch On Wnt Pathway Control Of Proliferation And Differentiation Of The Colorectal Mucosa, Nicole Cray

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistant starch (RS) is not digested in the small intestine and is available for fermentation by the colonic microbiota, producing metabolites including short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). We hypothesized that diets containing resistant starch, serving as a prebiotic, will have inhibitory effects, mediated through the products of microbial fermentation, on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, we examined the molecular and morphologic effects of diets containing resistant starches on the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-induced rat and mouse models. The first study examined the effects of diets containing naturally occurring resistant starch from Latin American ...