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Evolution And Functional Morphology Of The Cephalic Lobes In Batoids, Samantha Lynn Mulvany Dec 2013

Evolution And Functional Morphology Of The Cephalic Lobes In Batoids, Samantha Lynn Mulvany

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cephalic lobes are unique structures derived from the anterior pectoral fins, found in select myliobatid stingrays. Many benthic batoids utilize undulatory locomotion and use their pectoral fins for both locomotion and prey capture. Pelagic myliobatids that possess cephalic lobes utilize oscillatory locomotion, using their pectoral fins to locomote and their cephalic lobes for prey capture. Despite differences in habitat usage and locomotor modes, these batoids feed on very similar benthic organisms. The purpose of this study was to 1.) compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in lobed and lobeless species, looking at skeletal elements, musculature ...


Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler Jan 2013

Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and is considered a major pathogen for a number of species including humans, swine, and avian species. Historically, the potential of avian and swine influenza A viruses, either through direct infection by intact virus or through incorporation of genetic information into human isolates, have presented major zoonotic risks to human health risks with epidemic and pandemic potential (98). Prior to the 2009 pandemic, experts were concerned that high pathogenic avian IAV, particularly H5N1, was going to become established in the human population and that such establishment would lead to ...


Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins Jan 2013

Immunomodulation Of Influenza Infection By Echinacea And Obesity, Susan Renee Hodgkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Echinacea is a medicinal plant that has a history of use for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. More recently there has been a renewed interest in alternative therapies including phytomedicinal preparations of Echinacea. Some important issues that remain to be addressed regarding the use of Echinacea therapeutically include plant species specific alterations of immune response and the effect of different preparation techniques (water as compared to ethanol) on immune response to viral infection. Results from multiple studies in mice, in cell culture, and in clinical trials in humans have suggested that water preparations provide a stimulatory effect on innate ...


Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by certain species of the genus Leishmania results in a significant disease burden worldwide. This is most pronounced in some of the world's poorest communities. In South America and the Mediterranean basin, dogs are the major domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, one cause of human VL. In addition, dogs infected with L. infantum have an immune response and pathophysiology similar to human cases, making them a representative naturally-occurring animal model of VL. Chronic infection with Leishmania infantum can result in asymptomatic infection for a long period of time or symptomatic, potentially life-threatening visceralizing disease. Immunopathology ...


Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik Jan 2013

Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza virus is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that can cause severe respiratory tract infections in humans (along with other host animals such as horses, swine and poultry). Certain populations such as very young children, aged individuals, pregnant women and immunosuppressed individuals are more susceptible to influenza infections. One reason for the increased susceptibility to infection in the aged is a decreased efficacy of the seasonal influenza vaccine. As this particular section of our population continues to increase worldwide, research to improve vaccine efficacy is expanding along with efforts to identify lifestyle changes and interventions that can improve ...


Characterizing The Porcine Immune Response To An Environmental And Pathogenic Challenge: Swine Barn Dust And Salmonella Infection, Susan Knetter Jan 2013

Characterizing The Porcine Immune Response To An Environmental And Pathogenic Challenge: Swine Barn Dust And Salmonella Infection, Susan Knetter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pork is the most highly consumed meat worldwide, and the swine industry generates $34.5 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Maintaining pork safety and minimizing production losses associated with swine disease impacts profitability, food safety and animal health. As such, the research presented herein focused on characterizing aspects of the porcine immune response to two challenges that impact swine health: swine barn dust exposure and Salmonella infection.

In the first set of experiments, swine barn organic dust extract (ODE) treatment negatively affected porcine macrophage phagocytosis, intracellular bacterial killing and NF-kB translocation. Further, ODE stimulated production of inflammatory ...


Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer Jan 2013

Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines remain the most effective medical intervention to disease in which effective vaccines are available. Designing vaccines that elicit protective immunity while minimizing adverse events is difficult. Exacerbating the challenges of vaccine design is the increased emphasis on using pure preparation of antigens that alleviate safety concerns but also show decreased potency. Therefore the need for safe adjuvants to boost immunity of subunit immunizations is great. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel bio-erodible polyanhydride particle platform to enhance humoral and cellular immunity. Encapsulation of 25 µg of Ovalbumin (Ova) antigen in microparticles elicits humoral immune responses equivalent to ...


Considerations For Improved Surveillance Of Influenzavirus A In Swine Populations, Christa Kalberer Goodell Jan 2013

Considerations For Improved Surveillance Of Influenzavirus A In Swine Populations, Christa Kalberer Goodell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and road map for contemporary swine surveillance programs, "Protecting our future - A road map for practical, real-time, on-farm infectious disease surveillance". Chapter 2, "Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation" has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. Chapter 3, "Probability of the detection of influenza A virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 in individual nasal swab and pen-based oral fluid specimens from pigs over time" has ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson Jan 2013

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus continues to be a significant problem for pork producers. The aim of this body of work was to help stakeholders control and prevention infection with this virus. A literature review of currently available diagnostic tests and guidelines for their interpretation serves as a resource for producers, practitioners, and researchers. The research focus was to evaluate two novel methods to develop improved modified live vaccines. The efficacy of viral chimeras constructed from a commercially available vaccine and a virulent wild-type isolate and the ability to attenuate wild-type isolates with a unique cell passage process are ...


Validity Of Consumer-Based Physical Activity Monitors And Calibration Of Smartphone For Prediction Of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure, Jung-Min Lee Jan 2013

Validity Of Consumer-Based Physical Activity Monitors And Calibration Of Smartphone For Prediction Of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure, Jung-Min Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accelerometry-based activity monitors have become the standard objective method for assessing physical activity (PA) in field-based research [1]. They are small, non-invasive, easy-to use, and provide an objective indicator of physical activity over extended periods of time. The main advantage from a research perspective is they provide an objective indicator of physical activity behavior, thereby avoiding common sources of error in subjective measurement (e.g., self-report). Because of their storage data capacity, it is possible to monitor behavior over extended periods of time and easy to download the information to a computer for processing. Numerous studies have been published on ...


Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris Jan 2013

Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is characterized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which originates in adipose tissue from adipocyte dysfunction as a consequence of adipocyte hypertrophy. Although rodent models have been pivotal to understanding the etiology of obesity and its co-morbidities, and the roles of specific genes, distinct differences between rodents and humans underscore the need for alternative comparative models. Swine are an attractive comparative model because of similar physiology and anatomy with humans. Ossabaw swine are of particular interest due to their "thrifty" genotype and predisposition to multiple risk factors for the metabolic syndrome.

Saturated fatty acids have the distinct ability ...


The Evaluation Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Species-Specific Antigens And Purified Protein Derivatives For The Detection Of Bovine Tuberculosis Using The Interferon-Gamma Release Assay, Kristin Elaine Bass Jan 2013

The Evaluation Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Species-Specific Antigens And Purified Protein Derivatives For The Detection Of Bovine Tuberculosis Using The Interferon-Gamma Release Assay, Kristin Elaine Bass

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle and the most common organism isolated from cattle with tuberculosis. The broad host range, low infective dose, and presence of wildlife reservoirs make eradication and control of bovine tuberculosis difficult. Current eradication and control programs are in need of improved ante mortem diagnostic assays to detect M. bovis infection. The Interferon-gamma release assay is a rapid and reliable assay for bovine tuberculosis; however the presence of conserved antigens within the Mycobacterium genus as well as vaccination status of animals against M. bovis decreases the accuracy of the assay. Therefore, new ...


Blossom Project 2: Longitudinal Assessment Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet Quality, And Weight Gain During Pregnancy, Diana Rose Di Fabio Jan 2013

Blossom Project 2: Longitudinal Assessment Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet Quality, And Weight Gain During Pregnancy, Diana Rose Di Fabio

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The benefits of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy have been well documented, but little is known about the contribution of activity sub-components including sleep, sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity on gestational weight gain (GWG). Additionally, the relationship between diet quality and GWG has yet to be determined. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted during 2nd and 3rd trimester to objectively quantify and identify modifiable aspects of total PA including sleep, sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, and dietary intake. Participants (n=46) wore a SenseWear Armband and an activPALTM activity monitor for seven consecutive days during which a ...


Optimization Of Methods For Culturing Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis From Bovine Milk And Colostrum And Application To Samples Collected From Naturally Infected Dairy Cows, Laura Kaitlan Bradner Jan 2013

Optimization Of Methods For Culturing Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis From Bovine Milk And Colostrum And Application To Samples Collected From Naturally Infected Dairy Cows, Laura Kaitlan Bradner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous enteritis of the small intestine of ruminants, taking many years for clinical symptoms to develop. Though primarily transmitted through ingestion of contaminated feces, MAP also can be transmitted through milk and colostrum. Unfortunately, many other microorganisms are present in milk along with MAP. Therefore, a decontamination protocol must be applied to the milk before culture. The objective of this research was to optimize a decontamination and culture protocol for the recovery of MAP from milk. The optimal protocol then was applied to milk ...


Exploring Potential Risk Factors Of Fetal Origins Of Diabetes: Maternal Stressors During Pregnancy And Birth Outcomes Among Women In A Hospital In The Municipality Of Caguas, Puerto Rico, Juan Pablo Arroyo Jan 2013

Exploring Potential Risk Factors Of Fetal Origins Of Diabetes: Maternal Stressors During Pregnancy And Birth Outcomes Among Women In A Hospital In The Municipality Of Caguas, Puerto Rico, Juan Pablo Arroyo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Puerto Rico has the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes, low birth-weight, and the second highest prevalence of preterm-birth in all the U.S. and its non-incorporated territories. These conditions are related. Birth-weight at both ends of the spectrum and preterm-birth are associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and immune-inflammatory dysregulations. Maternal psychosocial stressors during pregnancy have also been recognized as potential risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and have been consistently associated with preterm-birth and low birth-weight across populations. Current evidence points toward epigenetic fetal metabolic-programming as the mechanism that underlies the increased risk for ...


The Effectiveness Of Self-Monitoring Tools And Texting Prompts To Increase Physical Activity In The Workplace, Molly Webb Jan 2013

The Effectiveness Of Self-Monitoring Tools And Texting Prompts To Increase Physical Activity In The Workplace, Molly Webb

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lack of physical activity is one contributing factor to the obesity epidemic currently affecting the United States. Increasingly sedentary jobs have added to this societal lack of activity, so worksites are a promising location for interventions to increase physical activity. Such interventions have shown mixed results and can be costly. New technologies including self-monitoring devices, text messaging reminders, and online health coaching are promising tools to improve such interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness on increasing physical activity of employees in a worksite setting of the combined use of a self-monitoring device (SWA) along with ...


Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun Jan 2013

Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive disorder in breeding pigs and respiratory symptoms in pigs of all ages. The virus continues to bring significant economic losses to swine industry, and is considered to be one of the most important swine pathogens. Vaccination has been utilized to aid or facilitate PRRS control. Among various types of vaccines used, attenuated live virus vaccines appear to be more efficacious than killed virus vaccines. However, the effect of vaccination with attenuated live virus vaccines is crippled by several safety and efficacy issues. First, the vaccine development process is time-consuming. Second, the ...


Development Of Immunotherapeutic Approaches To Achieve Xenophagy In Macrophages Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Mahesh Bhandari Jan 2013

Development Of Immunotherapeutic Approaches To Achieve Xenophagy In Macrophages Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Mahesh Bhandari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Macrophages are the host cells for Rhodococcus equi. Activation of FcγRI can induce phagocytosis, antigen presentation, cytokine production, antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction of autophagy machinery in macrophages. Here we observe enhanced macrophage bactericidal activity against intracellular R. equi concurrent with superoxide production and induction of autophagy. Following ligation of IFN-γ, TLR4 and FcγRI receptors, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, equine pulmonary-alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages were tested for superoxide production, induction of autophagy and bacterial load through multispectral imaging flow cytometry, western blot and confocal microscopy. Results show that ligation of these receptors alone ...


Relationship Between Dysphoric Moods, Risk-Taking Behaviors, And Toxoplasma Gondii Antibody Titers In Female Veterans, Allyson Radford Duffy Jan 2013

Relationship Between Dysphoric Moods, Risk-Taking Behaviors, And Toxoplasma Gondii Antibody Titers In Female Veterans, Allyson Radford Duffy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The number of female veterans is increasing daily. Previous research conducted on veterans has focused primarily on males or with small samples of females. Depression and suicidality are becoming increasingly evident in returning veterans. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that is common in the Middle East and has been reported to cause changes in personality and behavior.

The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between T. gondii antibody titer and socioeconomic variables, dysphoric moods, and risk-taking behaviors in a sample of 70 female veterans. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for T. gondii antibody titer and ...


The Inflammatory Response Initiated By The Spleen To Ischemic Stroke, Hilary Seifert Jan 2013

The Inflammatory Response Initiated By The Spleen To Ischemic Stroke, Hilary Seifert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The peripheral immune system plays a role in delayed neural injury after stroke. This response originates from the spleen as splenectomy prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats significantly reduces infarct volume in the brain. This research is based on the hypothesis that inhibiting the splenic response will reduce neurodegeneration after stroke. Studies in animals have implicated lymphocytes as the immune cell type that is detrimental following MCAO. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) has been identified as a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is also detrimental following stroke. IFNγ is important because it activates microglia and macrophages in a pro-inflammatory nature that ...


Proteolytic Processing Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein During Apoptosis And Cell Cycle: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Tina N. Fiorelli Jan 2013

Proteolytic Processing Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein During Apoptosis And Cell Cycle: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Tina N. Fiorelli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques, made up primarily of Aϐ peptides, and neurofibrillary tangles, containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Aϐ is generated by sequential proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta and gamma secretases. The leading hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which suggests that amyloid is central to the disease process. However, tau pathology correlates more closely with cognitive dysfunction and follows a predictable anatomical course through the brain. We hypothesize that if Aϐ is upstream of tau pathology and tau pathology follows this predictable course through the ...


Regulation Of The Tumor Suppresser P53 And Survivin By Ras And Ral Gtpases:Implications For Malignant Transformation, Awet G. Tecleab Jan 2013

Regulation Of The Tumor Suppresser P53 And Survivin By Ras And Ral Gtpases:Implications For Malignant Transformation, Awet G. Tecleab

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Although the critical role of the small GTPases Ras and Ral in oncogenesis has been well documented, much remains to be investigated about the molecular mechanism by which these GTPases regulate malignant transformation. The work under this thesis made two major contributions to this field. The first is the discovery that K-Ras, RalA and/or RalB are required for the maintenance of the high levels of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin in some human cancer cells, and the second is the demonstration that down regulation of K-Ras, RalA and/or RalB, but not Raf-1 or Akt1/2, stabilizes the tumor ...


Evaluation Of Occupational Risk Factors For Nurses And Cnas: Analysis Of Florida Workers' Compensation Claims Database, Sheila Mohammed Jan 2013

Evaluation Of Occupational Risk Factors For Nurses And Cnas: Analysis Of Florida Workers' Compensation Claims Database, Sheila Mohammed

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Musculoskeletal injuries lead to most claims even though needlestick injuries receive the most attention. In 2010, health expenditures in the United States neared $2.6 trillion. CNAs, orderlies, and attendants had the highest rates of musculoskeletal disorders of all occupations with an incidence of 249 per 10,000 compared to 34 per 10,000 for all workers. The financial burden of back injuries in the healthcare industry is estimated to add up to $20 billion annually. Data was extracted for cause of injury, nature of injury and body part injured. Extracted data was analyzed both descriptively and by logistic and ...


The Role Of Molecular Chaperones In The Etiology And Treatment Of Psychiatric Diseases In The Elderly, John Clarence O'Leary Jan 2013

The Role Of Molecular Chaperones In The Etiology And Treatment Of Psychiatric Diseases In The Elderly, John Clarence O'Leary

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The elderly are at increased risk for developing psychiatric diseases, which include Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety and suicide. The probability of multiple disease comorbidity is also increased in the elderly. At the cellular level, the loss of protein homeostasis is often at the root of disease emergence, and thus the scientific community is searching for ways to help maintain this balance. A vast group of proteins that are paramount to balancing and counterbalancing protein levels is the molecular chaperone protein group, which has evolved a tremendous variety of functions in the cell. They aid in protein trafficking, folding, receptor ...


Prenatal Stress, Depression, And Herpes Viral Titers, Pao-Chu Hsu Jan 2013

Prenatal Stress, Depression, And Herpes Viral Titers, Pao-Chu Hsu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies suggest that some cases of prenatal depression may be associated with reactivation of latent infections of the herpesvirus family. The possible relationships among stress, prenatal depression, and herpes viral reactivation in pregnancy are understudied and the molecular pathways such as the neuroimmune biogenic amine pathway are unidentified. Chronic stress shifts the T helper-1 cell (Th1) cytokine profile to a Th2 profile, which favors virus induced pathogenesis and survival. Pregnancy is also associated with a similar Th2 dominance. In non-pregnant individuals, exposure to psychological or physical stress may be associated with latent herpes viral reactivation and could result in ...


Histone Deacetylases As Targets For Melanoma Immunotherapy, David Michael Woods Jan 2013

Histone Deacetylases As Targets For Melanoma Immunotherapy, David Michael Woods

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cancer represents the second leading cause of death in the United States. For many malignancies, currently available treatment options offer little long-lasting survival benefits to patients. However, recent studies have shown immunotherapeutic approaches to be an attractive strategy to cancer treatment. While many current immunotherapeutic strategies convey durable responses, such responses are only seen in a minority of patients. An increased understanding of the mechanisms governing tumor immunogenicity and the biology of immune responses is crucial to improving upon the efficacy of current and future cancer immunotherapies. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes classically associated with regulation of gene expression, have been ...


Asbestos Exposure In The Research Laboratory, Ediberto D. Garcia Jan 2013

Asbestos Exposure In The Research Laboratory, Ediberto D. Garcia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Asbestos has been employed in a myriad of industrial applications for more than a century. Of the 181 Mt of asbestos produced worldwide, over 31 Mt was consumed in the U.S. The production and consumption of this mineral eventually was found to cause asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. While the brunt of the human exposure to asbestos occurred in insulation work, many more workers in other jobs were expose to asbestos fibers. Very little is known about the potential exposure to asbestos in research labs.

Goal: In order to investigate potential research lab work exposures, we simulated lab ...