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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by certain species of the genus Leishmania results in a significant disease burden worldwide. This is most pronounced in some of the world's poorest communities. In South America and the Mediterranean basin, dogs are the major domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, one cause of human VL. In addition, dogs infected with L. infantum have an immune response and pathophysiology similar to human cases, making them a representative naturally-occurring animal model of VL. Chronic infection with Leishmania infantum can result in asymptomatic infection for a long period of time or symptomatic, potentially life-threatening visceralizing disease. Immunopathology ...


Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik Jan 2013

Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza virus is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that can cause severe respiratory tract infections in humans (along with other host animals such as horses, swine and poultry). Certain populations such as very young children, aged individuals, pregnant women and immunosuppressed individuals are more susceptible to influenza infections. One reason for the increased susceptibility to infection in the aged is a decreased efficacy of the seasonal influenza vaccine. As this particular section of our population continues to increase worldwide, research to improve vaccine efficacy is expanding along with efforts to identify lifestyle changes and interventions that can improve ...


Characterizing The Porcine Immune Response To An Environmental And Pathogenic Challenge: Swine Barn Dust And Salmonella Infection, Susan Knetter Jan 2013

Characterizing The Porcine Immune Response To An Environmental And Pathogenic Challenge: Swine Barn Dust And Salmonella Infection, Susan Knetter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pork is the most highly consumed meat worldwide, and the swine industry generates $34.5 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Maintaining pork safety and minimizing production losses associated with swine disease impacts profitability, food safety and animal health. As such, the research presented herein focused on characterizing aspects of the porcine immune response to two challenges that impact swine health: swine barn dust exposure and Salmonella infection.

In the first set of experiments, swine barn organic dust extract (ODE) treatment negatively affected porcine macrophage phagocytosis, intracellular bacterial killing and NF-kB translocation. Further, ODE stimulated production of inflammatory ...


Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer Jan 2013

Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines remain the most effective medical intervention to disease in which effective vaccines are available. Designing vaccines that elicit protective immunity while minimizing adverse events is difficult. Exacerbating the challenges of vaccine design is the increased emphasis on using pure preparation of antigens that alleviate safety concerns but also show decreased potency. Therefore the need for safe adjuvants to boost immunity of subunit immunizations is great. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel bio-erodible polyanhydride particle platform to enhance humoral and cellular immunity. Encapsulation of 25 µg of Ovalbumin (Ova) antigen in microparticles elicits humoral immune responses equivalent to ...


The Role Of Molecular Chaperones In The Etiology And Treatment Of Psychiatric Diseases In The Elderly, John Clarence O'Leary Jan 2013

The Role Of Molecular Chaperones In The Etiology And Treatment Of Psychiatric Diseases In The Elderly, John Clarence O'Leary

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The elderly are at increased risk for developing psychiatric diseases, which include Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety and suicide. The probability of multiple disease comorbidity is also increased in the elderly. At the cellular level, the loss of protein homeostasis is often at the root of disease emergence, and thus the scientific community is searching for ways to help maintain this balance. A vast group of proteins that are paramount to balancing and counterbalancing protein levels is the molecular chaperone protein group, which has evolved a tremendous variety of functions in the cell. They aid in protein trafficking, folding, receptor ...


Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris Jan 2013

Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is characterized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which originates in adipose tissue from adipocyte dysfunction as a consequence of adipocyte hypertrophy. Although rodent models have been pivotal to understanding the etiology of obesity and its co-morbidities, and the roles of specific genes, distinct differences between rodents and humans underscore the need for alternative comparative models. Swine are an attractive comparative model because of similar physiology and anatomy with humans. Ossabaw swine are of particular interest due to their "thrifty" genotype and predisposition to multiple risk factors for the metabolic syndrome.

Saturated fatty acids have the distinct ability ...


The Evaluation Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Species-Specific Antigens And Purified Protein Derivatives For The Detection Of Bovine Tuberculosis Using The Interferon-Gamma Release Assay, Kristin Elaine Bass Jan 2013

The Evaluation Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Species-Specific Antigens And Purified Protein Derivatives For The Detection Of Bovine Tuberculosis Using The Interferon-Gamma Release Assay, Kristin Elaine Bass

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle and the most common organism isolated from cattle with tuberculosis. The broad host range, low infective dose, and presence of wildlife reservoirs make eradication and control of bovine tuberculosis difficult. Current eradication and control programs are in need of improved ante mortem diagnostic assays to detect M. bovis infection. The Interferon-gamma release assay is a rapid and reliable assay for bovine tuberculosis; however the presence of conserved antigens within the Mycobacterium genus as well as vaccination status of animals against M. bovis decreases the accuracy of the assay. Therefore, new ...


Proteolytic Processing Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein During Apoptosis And Cell Cycle: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Tina N. Fiorelli Jan 2013

Proteolytic Processing Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein During Apoptosis And Cell Cycle: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Tina N. Fiorelli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques, made up primarily of Aϐ peptides, and neurofibrillary tangles, containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Aϐ is generated by sequential proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta and gamma secretases. The leading hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which suggests that amyloid is central to the disease process. However, tau pathology correlates more closely with cognitive dysfunction and follows a predictable anatomical course through the brain. We hypothesize that if Aϐ is upstream of tau pathology and tau pathology follows this predictable course through the ...


Development Of Immunotherapeutic Approaches To Achieve Xenophagy In Macrophages Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Mahesh Bhandari Jan 2013

Development Of Immunotherapeutic Approaches To Achieve Xenophagy In Macrophages Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Mahesh Bhandari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Macrophages are the host cells for Rhodococcus equi. Activation of FcγRI can induce phagocytosis, antigen presentation, cytokine production, antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction of autophagy machinery in macrophages. Here we observe enhanced macrophage bactericidal activity against intracellular R. equi concurrent with superoxide production and induction of autophagy. Following ligation of IFN-γ, TLR4 and FcγRI receptors, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, equine pulmonary-alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages were tested for superoxide production, induction of autophagy and bacterial load through multispectral imaging flow cytometry, western blot and confocal microscopy. Results show that ligation of these receptors alone ...


The Inflammatory Response Initiated By The Spleen To Ischemic Stroke, Hilary Seifert Jan 2013

The Inflammatory Response Initiated By The Spleen To Ischemic Stroke, Hilary Seifert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The peripheral immune system plays a role in delayed neural injury after stroke. This response originates from the spleen as splenectomy prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats significantly reduces infarct volume in the brain. This research is based on the hypothesis that inhibiting the splenic response will reduce neurodegeneration after stroke. Studies in animals have implicated lymphocytes as the immune cell type that is detrimental following MCAO. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) has been identified as a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is also detrimental following stroke. IFNγ is important because it activates microglia and macrophages in a pro-inflammatory nature that ...