Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Iron Bioavailability And Consumer Acceptability Of Extruded Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Flour, Martin Mutambuka Jan 2013

Iron Bioavailability And Consumer Acceptability Of Extruded Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Flour, Martin Mutambuka

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Iron deficiency anemia continues to be a major nutritional challenge worldwide and is mainly caused by dependence on staple foods which are low in iron bioavailability. In many parts of the world, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important source of iron. Bean iron has very low bioavailability and household/industrial processing technologies have been shown to improve iron bioavailability. In this study, iron bioavailability of 16 Ugandan bean varieties was determined using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model and modeled with respect to key influencing factors; phytate, polyphenol, ferritin and iron content. The effect of extrusion ...


Analysis Of Sugars And Phenolic Compounds In Bio-Oil, Marjorie Ruth Rover Jan 2013

Analysis Of Sugars And Phenolic Compounds In Bio-Oil, Marjorie Ruth Rover

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this research is to develop methods for analyzing and recovering sugars and phenolic compounds from bio-oil. Specific objectives include (1) adapting analytical methods developed for sugar analysis in the food industry to measure total water-soluble sugars in the aqueous phase of bio-oil; (2) adapting analytical methods developed for total phenolic analysis of wine to measure total phenolic content of bio-oil; (3) separate the heavy fraction of bio-oil into a concentrated sugar solution and a phenolic oligomer-rich raffinate; and (4) determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the yield of sugars and phenolic compounds in bio-oil.

Recent ...


Studies On Mechanisms Of Resistant Starch Analytical Methods, Samuel Ahlias Moore Jan 2013

Studies On Mechanisms Of Resistant Starch Analytical Methods, Samuel Ahlias Moore

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to quantify resistant starch (RS) contents in native and modified starches from various botanical sources using standard methods for RS analysis (AOAC Methods 991.43, 2002.02, and the Englyst method) to better understand differences in RS contents of starchy foods analyzed using these methods. RS contents of octenyl succinic (OS) normal corn starch increased with increasing wt% substitution, whereas RS contents of OS-modified high-amylose maize starch decreased. Differences in RS contents of RS3 were within 10% regardless of the method used. The largest differences were observed in cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate and debranched high-amylose maize stearic-acid ...


Investigating The Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Uncured, No-Nitrate-Or-Nitrite-Added Ready-To-Eat Meat Products Using Natural Antimicrobial Ingredients And Post-Lethality Interventions, Nicolas Armando Lavieri Jan 2013

Investigating The Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Uncured, No-Nitrate-Or-Nitrite-Added Ready-To-Eat Meat Products Using Natural Antimicrobial Ingredients And Post-Lethality Interventions, Nicolas Armando Lavieri

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Restrictions on the use of conventional antimicrobials, combined with the restricted use of nitrite and nitrate, have generated concerns over the perceived risk for foodborne illness associated with natural and organic RTE meat and poultry products. Thus, the use of natural antimicrobial interventions alone and in combination with post-lethality interventions as a means to inhibit the recovery and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally cured RTE processed meats was the focus of the work reported in this dissertation. Natural antimicrobials evaluated were cranberry powder, vinegar, and vinegar and lemon juice concentrate. Post-lethality interventions studied were high hydrostatic pressure, lauric arginate ...


Sodium Polyphosphate Enhances The Antimicrobial Activities Of Whole And Fractionated Peanut Skin Extract Against Food Spoilage Yeasts In A Model Juice System, Merike Seaman Jan 2013

Sodium Polyphosphate Enhances The Antimicrobial Activities Of Whole And Fractionated Peanut Skin Extract Against Food Spoilage Yeasts In A Model Juice System, Merike Seaman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The efficacy of various fractions of Peanut Skin Extract (PSE) in combination with sodium polyphosphate (SPP; BekaPlusTM FS, BK Giulini) were tested in apple juice medium (AJM, a model juice system) against the economically important spoilage yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus.

Z. bailii (ATCC 60483) or Z. bisporus (Y108, an industrial isolate) were inoculated in AJM or AJM containing SPP, PSE or combinations of SPP and PSE, then incubated at 30°C for up to 120 h (5 d). Both whole PSE and 9 individual HPLC-separated PSE fractions were tested. A Bioscreen C automated turbidimeter determined the impact ...


Development And Optimization Of Algal Cultivation Systems, Martin Gross Jan 2013

Development And Optimization Of Algal Cultivation Systems, Martin Gross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes research done on two novel algae cultivation systems. The first system was an attached algal growth system to facilitate biomass harvest with improved biomass yield. In the attached system, algal cells were grown on the surface of a material rotating between the nutrient-rich liquid phase and the carbon dioxide-rich gaseous phase. The algal cells from the attached growth system were harvested by simply scraping off the algal biofilm. The operation conditions of the attached growth system were optimized to improve biomass productivity. A harvesting frequency of 7 days with a rotational speed of 4 rpm resulted in ...


The Effect Of Ph And Nitrite Concentration On The Antimicrobial Impact Of Celery Juice Compared With Sodium Nitrite On Listeria Monocytogenes, Ashley Horsch Jan 2013

The Effect Of Ph And Nitrite Concentration On The Antimicrobial Impact Of Celery Juice Compared With Sodium Nitrite On Listeria Monocytogenes, Ashley Horsch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasing consumer concerns of harmful preservatives have intensified consumers' demand for natural and organic alternatives. In response to this demand, uncured or no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added meat products which utilize celery juice concentrates as an alternative to sodium nitrite, have emerged on the market to replace conventional nitrite sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of celery juice pH for the impact of nitrite on L. monocytogenes growth. In addition, equal concentrations of nitrite in celery juice and conventional nitrite were evaluated to determine the impact of nitrite concentration from these sources on L. monocytogenes growth. These objectives were ...


Characterization Of The Skeletal Muscle Calpain/Calpastatin System In Growth Models In Swine And Cattle, Shannon Michelle Cruzen Jan 2013

Characterization Of The Skeletal Muscle Calpain/Calpastatin System In Growth Models In Swine And Cattle, Shannon Michelle Cruzen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of the work in this dissertation was to characterize -calpain, m-calpain, and calpastatin activities in order to learn more about the system in the live animal as well as its potential effects on postmortem proteolysis. Animal models of efficiency and growth were used to achieve this objective.

The first specific objective was to evaluate muscle protein turnover differences in pigs selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Muscle samples were collected, and insulin signaling, protein synthesis, and specific protein degradation proteins were analyzed for expression and activities in twelve gilts each from low (LRFI) and high (HRFI) RFI ...


Effect Of Dietary Resistant Starch On Inhibition Of Preneoplasia In Azoxymethane-Induced Rodent Models, Bridget Nelson Jan 2013

Effect Of Dietary Resistant Starch On Inhibition Of Preneoplasia In Azoxymethane-Induced Rodent Models, Bridget Nelson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Diet choices can play a role in disease incidence, especially diseases associated with the digestive system, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's disease, and colorectal cancer. Starch is a large component of the the human diet and the non-digestible portion, referred to as dietary fiber, has been implicated as a factor that decreases the risk for colorectal cancer. Modified or naturally occurring resistant starches share similar digestion resistant properties as dietary fiber and may produce similar protective effects. Two different animal models, F344 rats and A/J mice, were used to compare preneoplasia inhibition when fed one of three ...


Oxidative Stability Evaluation Of Milk From Cows Fed Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, By Sensory And Chemical Analysis, Gerui Li Jan 2013

Oxidative Stability Evaluation Of Milk From Cows Fed Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, By Sensory And Chemical Analysis, Gerui Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to dairy cows has been loosely implicated in formation of oxidized off-flavors in milk. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of feeding DDGS to dairy cows on the oxidative quality of milk by sensory and chemical analysis. Twenty-four cows were divided into two groups, fed a total mixed ration, with three incorporation levels of DDGS (0% (control), 10%, 25%) in a two-group three-period crossover design. Each group received each of the diets, such that each cow served as her own control. Milk was collected on days 14 ...


Structures, Properties, And Digestibility Of Resistant Starch, Yongfeng Ai Jan 2013

Structures, Properties, And Digestibility Of Resistant Starch, Yongfeng Ai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to understand effects of different treatments and modifications on the structures, properties, and digestibility of selected starches. Different lipids, including corn oil (CO), soy lecithin (SL), palmitic acid (PA), stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA), were selected for the study, and their impacts on the properties and digestibility of normal corn (NCS), tapioca (TPS), waxy corn (WCS) and high-amylose corn (HA7) starch were investigated to elucidate mechanisms of starch-lipid interactions. After cooking with the lipids (10%, w/w, dsb), NCS, TPS and HA7 showed significant decreases in the percentage enzymatic hydrolysis, and their ...