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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Diet-Induced Obesity Decreases Liver Iron Stores In Mice Fed Iron Deficient, Adequate, Or Excessive Diets, Brett J. Healy May 2013

Diet-Induced Obesity Decreases Liver Iron Stores In Mice Fed Iron Deficient, Adequate, Or Excessive Diets, Brett J. Healy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epidemiological and observational evidence suggests that obesity is related to poor Fe status. To determine interactions between obesity, dietary Fe intake and Fe status; male, weanling C57BL/6J mice were fed either high fat diets to induce obesity or a standard diet for 16 weeks. Fe concentrations of both the high fat or control diet (4.5 vs 3.8 kcal/g) were set at: 5, 50 or 500 mg Fe/kg diet. Mice fed the high fat diets had significantly higher percentage body fat (17.9%) compared to mice fed control diets (5.3%, P<0.001). Among obese mice, dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence body composition. Conversely among lean mice, mice fed the iron excessive diet had significantly less fat mass when compared to mice fed the iron deficient diet (P<0.05). Obesity and/or dietary Fe concentration did not significantly affect plasma Fe levels. ANOVA analysis showed significant effects of diet-induced obesity, dietary Fe and an interaction between both factors on liver Fe levels (P< 0.05). Obese mice had significantly lowered liver Fe levels compared to lean cohorts fed the same amount of dietary Fe (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Moreover, lean mice fed the Fe deficient diet (5 mg Fe/kg diet) had similar liver Fe levels (127 mg Fe/kg ± 0.04) compared to obese mice fed the 50 mg Fe/kg diet (132 mg Fe/kg ± 0.05). These data suggest that obesity, independent of dietary Fe intake, influences liver Fe stores.


Characterization Of Lactose Monolaurate For Its Antimicrobial And Emulsification Properties And Its Effect On Crystallization Behavior Of Anhydrous Milk Fat, Ashwini Wagh May 2013

Characterization Of Lactose Monolaurate For Its Antimicrobial And Emulsification Properties And Its Effect On Crystallization Behavior Of Anhydrous Milk Fat, Ashwini Wagh

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is a constant need of new synthetic emulsifiers in the food industry. Sugar esters are widely used as food grade synthetic emulsifiers, amongst which sucrose esters are the most common. Although sucrose esters are used very frequently, little is known about the use of lactose esters in food. There is a need for characterization of lactose esters before they can be used in foods. The objective of this study was to characterize a lactose ester, lactose monolaurate (LML) as an antimicrobial agent on food pathogens, evaluate its effect on 20 % oil-in-water emulsions as an emulsifier, and to explore its ...


Food Environments: What Is The Role Of Demographics In Figians' Decision Making Related To Food Choice And Overall Nutrition Behavior, Sandra Bradshaw May 2013

Food Environments: What Is The Role Of Demographics In Figians' Decision Making Related To Food Choice And Overall Nutrition Behavior, Sandra Bradshaw

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the recent increased quantity of nutrition-related diseases worldwide, current research recommends exploring environmental factors that influence this trend. The Islands of Fiji are of particular concern because of the growing number of non- communicable diseases. On the same small island, nutrition problems vary according to demographic. Thus, the different environments of each demographic constitute diverse food environments, which are manifested in varied nutrition concerns. This study explored environmental motivators of food choice for the Fijian population. Gathering the perspectives of Fijian Islanders using a narrative inquiry research format proved to be insightful in measuring the environmental influences of ...


A Multiday Record-Assisted Fruit, Vegetable, And Snack Questionnaire To Assess Intake Among Fourth And Fifth Grade Students, Anne B. Lambert May 2013

A Multiday Record-Assisted Fruit, Vegetable, And Snack Questionnaire To Assess Intake Among Fourth And Fifth Grade Students, Anne B. Lambert

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Assessing FV intake among young children is difficult and can be a time- consuming, resource-intensive, and burdensome. The aim of this study was to create a simple, self-assessment tool to estimate and detect changes in FV consumption among fourth and fifth graders. Such a tool would ease the complications and resources of other diet assessment options that are used to measure FV consumption when implementing school-based nutrition programs.
The questionnaire provided a moderately valid estimate of lunchtime FV consumption, but it was inconsistent at detecting small, yet important increases in FV consumption between time points. The ability of the questionnaire ...


Bioactivities Of Milk Polar Lipids In Influencing Intestinal Barrier Integrity, Systemic Inflammation, And Lipid Metabolism, Albert Lihong Zhou May 2013

Bioactivities Of Milk Polar Lipids In Influencing Intestinal Barrier Integrity, Systemic Inflammation, And Lipid Metabolism, Albert Lihong Zhou

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of lactation is for nutrient provision and also importantly for protection from various environmental stressors. Milk polar lipids reduce cholesterol, protect against bacterial infection, reduce inflammation and help maintain gut integrity. Dynamic interactions within dietary fat, lipid metabolism, gut permeability and inflammatory cytokines remain unclear in the context of obesity and systemic inflammation. A rat model and three mouse models were developed to test the hypotheses that dietary milk polar lipids may affect lipid metabolism and intestinal integrity and may protect against systemic inflammation in the context of stressful diet, systemic inflammation, and obesity. The milk polar lipids ...