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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluation Of The Tgf-ß Inhibitor Repsox On The Expression Of Pluripotency Pathways In Murine And Bovine Cells, Davin M. Larsen May 2013

Evaluation Of The Tgf-ß Inhibitor Repsox On The Expression Of Pluripotency Pathways In Murine And Bovine Cells, Davin M. Larsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells isolated from morula stage embryos or the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos. They are capable of differentiating into tissues of all three primary germ layers. In recent years pluripotent cell lines have been created from somatic cell types using various methods, the primary method being viral transduction of exogenous Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc or Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28 transgene constructs. The resulting cell lines are termed induced pluripotency stem cells, and are similar to embryonic stem cells in many ways. However, these cell lines are not acceptable for clinical applications ...


The Phosphoramidase Compentency Of Prototypical Phosphatase Catalytic Motifs, Mark P. Haney May 2013

The Phosphoramidase Compentency Of Prototypical Phosphatase Catalytic Motifs, Mark P. Haney

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The discovery that phosphorylation of proteins occurs on nitrogen by particular kinases raises the question of whether a separate class of phosphoramidases also exists, or if known phosphatases carry out the hydrolysis of phosphoramidates. The phosphoramidase activity of a number of phosphatases with different catalytic motifs was studied using the substrates N-phenylphosphoramidate (N-phPAM) and phosphoryl imidazole (PIm). The phosphatases assayed were: the protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH; alkaline phosphatase; the dual-specificity phosphatase VHR; prostatic acid phosphatase, PAcP; PHPT1, the only known phosphohistidine phosphatase; and, the serine/threonine phosphatases Lambda PP and PP1. The catalytic efficiencies, kcat/KM (s-1M-1), were compared for ...


Characterization Of The Product Specificity And Kinetic Mechanism Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1, Shanying Gui May 2013

Characterization Of The Product Specificity And Kinetic Mechanism Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1, Shanying Gui

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein arginine methylation is an essential post-translational modification catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Type I PRMTs transfer the methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the arginine residues and catalyze the formation of monomethylarginine (MMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Type II PRMTs generate MMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). PRMT-catalyzed methylation is involved in many biological processes and human diseases when dysregulated. As the predominant PRMT, PRMT1 catalyzes an estimated 85% of all protein arginine methylation in vivo. Nevertheless, the product specificity of PRMT1 remains poorly understood. A few articles have been published regarding the kinetic mechanism of PRMT1, yet with ...


Investigation Of The Oxidation/Reduction Of Prmt1, Substrate Interactions With Prmt1, And The Role Of Argining Methylation In Rna Surveillance, Damon V. Nitzel May 2013

Investigation Of The Oxidation/Reduction Of Prmt1, Substrate Interactions With Prmt1, And The Role Of Argining Methylation In Rna Surveillance, Damon V. Nitzel

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein arginine methylation is an abundant post-translational modification catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Arginine methylation plays important roles in a variety of cellular pathways and human diseases. PRMT1, the predominant PRMT, catalyzes approximately 85% of all protein arginine methylation in vivo. While many details of how PRMT1 functions have been uncovered through the past two decades, there are many details which remain unclear, including how arginine methylation is regulated, how PRMT1 binds substrates, and what role PRMTs play in RNA surveillance. Our recent data presented in this thesis showed that reduction of the PRMT1 enzyme, following recombinant expression and ...


Increased Production And Extraction Efficiency Of Triacylglycerides From Microorganisms And An Enhanced Understanding Of The Pathways Involved In The Production Of Triacylglycerides And Fatty Alcohols, Robert M. Willis May 2013

Increased Production And Extraction Efficiency Of Triacylglycerides From Microorganisms And An Enhanced Understanding Of The Pathways Involved In The Production Of Triacylglycerides And Fatty Alcohols, Robert M. Willis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The continued increase in the demand for fossil fuels combined with their ever dwindling supply has prompted the search for a suitable alternative fuel. The research contained within this dissertation seeks to increase the lipid content of cellular feedstocks, improve extraction efficiencies of lipids, and understand the pathways involved in the production of fatty alcohols and triacylglycerides from microbial feedstocks. As part of this research the diatom, Cheatoceros gracilis, was grown at small and large scale to determine optimal growing conditions. No apparent nutrient stress trigger was required to initiate the accumulation of the biodiesel precursor triacylglyceride, unlike other documented ...


Characterization And Potential Utility Of Porcine Trophoblast-Derived Stem-Like Cells, Edison A. Suasnavas May 2013

Characterization And Potential Utility Of Porcine Trophoblast-Derived Stem-Like Cells, Edison A. Suasnavas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before implantation. It is restricted to become the fetal portion of the placenta. We have isolated and cultured trophoblast-derived cells from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos. These cells demonstrate morphological and biological characteristics that make them unique. We have demonstrated that these cells can grow in vitro in a defined, serum-replacement medium for over a year without showing any signs of senescence. Trophoblast-derived cells placed into serum-containing medium, however, rapidly senesce and fail to proliferate. Gene expression analysis by RT-PCR and Fluidigm analysis of cells in culture from ...