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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determination Of The Expression Patterns Of Bovine Non-Classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) Class I Proteins, Parveen Parasar Dec 2013

Determination Of The Expression Patterns Of Bovine Non-Classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) Class I Proteins, Parveen Parasar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation hypothesis is that bovine trophoblast cells express cell-surface and secreted non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-Ib) proteins which inhibit NK cells and other leukocytes by binding to inhibitory receptors (e.g., LILRB1, LILRB2, KIR2DL4, and/or CD94/NKG2A).

Extremely polymorphic and ubiquitously expressed classical MHC class I (MHC-Ia) proteins, which present foreign antigenic peptides to CD8+ T lymphocytes, are involved in acceptance or rejection of tissue grafts. Non-classical MHC class I (MHC-Ib) glycoproteins, such as Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) and murine Qa-2, are important modulators of the maternal immune system during pregnancy. MHC-Ib proteins are: (a) oligomorphic ...


Winter Waterbird Ecology On The Great Salt Lake, Utah, And Interactions With Commercial Harvest Of Brine Shrimp Cysts, Anthony J. Roberts Dec 2013

Winter Waterbird Ecology On The Great Salt Lake, Utah, And Interactions With Commercial Harvest Of Brine Shrimp Cysts, Anthony J. Roberts

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Interactions among commercial fisheries and birds have been studied in open ocean ecosystems and at aquaculture facilities. On the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA, a commercial harvest of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs (i.e. cysts) occurs annually during fall and winter. Coinciding with commercial harvest is the use of the GSL by millions of waterbirds which has the potential to result in conflict among industry and birds. The objectives of my research were to examine fall and winter ecology of birds using the GSL and interactions with the brine shrimp cyst harvest. I examined the influence of temperature ...


Regulation And Expression Of Nanog, Oct4, And Sox2 In The Bovine Blastocyst Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, Justin Scott Hall May 2013

Regulation And Expression Of Nanog, Oct4, And Sox2 In The Bovine Blastocyst Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, Justin Scott Hall

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A live birth from a somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo represents a small percentage of donor cells that survived the reprogramming gauntlet. The inability to reprogram histone modifications in the donor cell line could add to the reprogramming deficiencies associated with SCNT. The effects of two histone modifications associated with transcriptional activation (H3K4m3 and H4K16ac) and two histone modifications associated with repressing transcription (H3K9m2 and H3K27me3) were evaluated in the context of their association to three genes known to contribute to maintaining totipotency: Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. A µChIP assay was utilized using antibodies specific for each histone modification ...


The Micronutrient Profile Of The Typical American Diet Enhances Colorectal Carcinogenesis, Stephany Del Carmen Perez Monsanto May 2013

The Micronutrient Profile Of The Typical American Diet Enhances Colorectal Carcinogenesis, Stephany Del Carmen Perez Monsanto

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The typical Western dietary pattern is characterized by the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and has been linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our research group previously developed the total Western diet (TWD) that emulates typical human dietary intakes of macro- (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) on an energy density basis for rodents. In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of TWD on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and obesity in comparison to a commercial 45% fat diet used for models of diet-induced obesity (DIO diet) and the standard basal AIN93G diet ...


Colorado River Cutthroat Habitat Resistance And Resilience To Climate Change, Kate Olsen May 2013

Colorado River Cutthroat Habitat Resistance And Resilience To Climate Change, Kate Olsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Colorado River cutthroat trout, Oncorhyncus clarki pleuriticus , occupy less than 12% of their historic range. Restoration and conservation of this species are currently under way across the upper Colorado River basin, but guidance to inform management decisions related to the impacts of climate change on cutthroat is lacking. Shifts in the thermal distribution of freshwater fish have been documented, and will continue to occur as cold water habitat is threatened by warming water temperatures. Coupled air and water temperature data allow for an estimation of potential resistance and resilience to warming, determining the effect that local air has on stream ...


Strategic Approaches To Develop Optimal Feeding Program Of Brown Midrib Corn Silage To Lactating Dairy Cows In The Intermountain West, Michael Shane Holt May 2013

Strategic Approaches To Develop Optimal Feeding Program Of Brown Midrib Corn Silage To Lactating Dairy Cows In The Intermountain West, Michael Shane Holt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In two lactation studies reported in this dissertation, it was hypothesized that feeding 35% brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS) and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis) would result in increased dry matter intake (DMI) around peak lactation compared with feeding conventional corn silage (CCS), causing longer peak milk production, and that feeding dairy cows in early lactation a 16% crude protein diet with fair quality alfalfa hay (FAH) in BMR-based diets would maintain milk production, reduce urinary N excretion, and improve N efficiency compared to those fed high quality alfalfa hay (HAH) in CCS- or BMR-based diets. A third experiment ...


Vital Rates, Population Trends, And Habitat-Use Patterns Of A Translocated Greater Sage-Grouse Population: Implications For Future Translocations, Orrin V. Duvuvuei May 2013

Vital Rates, Population Trends, And Habitat-Use Patterns Of A Translocated Greater Sage-Grouse Population: Implications For Future Translocations, Orrin V. Duvuvuei

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Translocations have been used as a management strategy to successfully augment declining native wildlife populations. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) population declines on Anthro Mountain, Utah prompted managers to translocate sage-grouse and test protocols from a successful translocation project in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Sage-grouse from Parker Mountain, Utah were used as the source population for Anthro Mountain and Strawberry Valley translocations. Sixty hens were translocated to Anthro Mountain in 2009 and 2010; I monitored vital rates of the 60 translocated hens and 32 resident hens from 2009-2012. My objective was to determine the overall success of the translocation 4 years ...


Cougar Predation Behavior In North-Central Utah, Dustin L. Mitchell May 2013

Cougar Predation Behavior In North-Central Utah, Dustin L. Mitchell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cougar (Puma concolor) predation has been identified as being one of several factors contributing to the decline of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) throughout the Western United States. In order to better understand how these elusive felines utilize their surroundings and prey, I examined and analyzed cougar predation behavior in North-Central Utah, using global positioning systems (GPS) data from 2002-2010. Twenty-three cougars were fitted with GPS collars and monitored for prey caching behavior. In total 775 potential cache sites were visited and 546 prey remains found. Mule deer comprised the majority of prey at cougar cache sites, but 11 other species ...


Assessing Vehicle-Related Mortality Of Mule Deer In Utah, Daniel D. Olson May 2013

Assessing Vehicle-Related Mortality Of Mule Deer In Utah, Daniel D. Olson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Roads are essential in modern societies, but as populations grow and traffic volumes rise, roads will continue to be built and expanded. As a result, the effects that roads have on wildlife will likely intensify, making it imperative that managers understand those effects so mitigation can be directed accordingly. In Utah, considerable areas of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) habitat have been bisected by roads. Mule deer are commonly involved in vehicle collisions and there is concern that roads and vehicle traffic are impacting populations. This project was conducted to determine the number and demographic effects of deer-vehicle collisions, to examine ...


Evaluation Of Survey Methods And Development Of Species Distribution Models For Kit Foxes In The Great Basin Desert, Stephen J. Dempsey May 2013

Evaluation Of Survey Methods And Development Of Species Distribution Models For Kit Foxes In The Great Basin Desert, Stephen J. Dempsey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) once occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, ranging from Idaho to central Mexico. Their range-wide decline has warranted the kit fox to be listed as endangered in Colorado, threatened in California and Oregon, and designated as a state sensitive species in Idaho and Utah. Once considered the most abundant carnivore in western Utah, the kit fox has been in steep decline over the past decade, creating a demand to determine kit fox presence. Currently there is little consensus on which survey methodology is best to detect kit fox presence. We tested ...


Winter Ecology Of Waterfowl On The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Josh L. Vest May 2013

Winter Ecology Of Waterfowl On The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Josh L. Vest

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I designed a suite of studies in coordination with Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) to evaluate waterfowl use of the GSL in winter and ecological aspects associated with GSL use. These studies provided insight into key information gaps previously identified by UDWR regarding management of GSL resources. Population surveys indicated total duck abundance was low when GSL surface elevations were low and wetland resources diminished because of persistent drought in the system. Also, ducks appear to use hypersaline parts of GSL more when freshwater habitats are limited from either drought or ice conditions. Common goldeneye, northern shoveler, and green-winged ...


Roads And The Reproductive Ecology Of Hesperidanthus Suffrutescens, An Endangered Shrub, Matthew B. Lewis May 2013

Roads And The Reproductive Ecology Of Hesperidanthus Suffrutescens, An Endangered Shrub, Matthew B. Lewis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I investigated the pollination ecology ofHesperidanthus suffrutescens, an endangered Utah shrub, as well as the effects that road dust and local plant density may have on successful reproduction. The breeding system study included four pollination treatments to determine the degree of self-compatibility. Flower visitors were collected and probable pollinators were identified. To determine the effects of road dust on reproduction, I measured dust deposition, plant size, and reproduction in plots of increasing distance from an unpaved road. I also measured dust effects on pollination success and stomatal conductance. I determined the number of individuals per plot and the relative isolation ...


Comparison Of Topographic Surveying Techniques In Streams, Sara G. Bangen May 2013

Comparison Of Topographic Surveying Techniques In Streams, Sara G. Bangen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fine-scale resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) created from data collected using high precision instruments have become ubiquitous in fluvial geomorphology. They permit a diverse range of spatially explicit analyses including hydraulic modeling, habitat modeling and geomorphic change detection. Yet, the intercomparison of survey technologies across a diverse range of wadeable stream habitats has not yet been examined. Additionally, we lack an understanding regarding the precision of DEMs derived from ground-based surveys conducted by different, and inherently subjective, observers. This thesis addresses current knowledge gaps with the objectives i) to intercompare survey techniques for characterizing instream topography, and ii) to characterize ...


Characterization And Potential Utility Of Porcine Trophoblast-Derived Stem-Like Cells, Edison A. Suasnavas May 2013

Characterization And Potential Utility Of Porcine Trophoblast-Derived Stem-Like Cells, Edison A. Suasnavas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before implantation. It is restricted to become the fetal portion of the placenta. We have isolated and cultured trophoblast-derived cells from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos. These cells demonstrate morphological and biological characteristics that make them unique. We have demonstrated that these cells can grow in vitro in a defined, serum-replacement medium for over a year without showing any signs of senescence. Trophoblast-derived cells placed into serum-containing medium, however, rapidly senesce and fail to proliferate. Gene expression analysis by RT-PCR and Fluidigm analysis of cells in culture from ...


Analysis Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Panels For Bovine Dna Identification, Kimberly A. Blanchard May 2013

Analysis Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Panels For Bovine Dna Identification, Kimberly A. Blanchard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single base-pair variations that exist between individuals. There are approximately a million or more SNPs located throughout the genome of each individual animal. Therefore, by taking advantage of these unique polymorphisms, SNPs can be used to resolve questions of unknown parentage in the livestock industry. Currently a panel of 88 SNPs, obtained from a panel of 121 SNPs originally created by USDA-MARC, is commercially available from Fluidigm®. The objective of this study was to determine whether the number of SNPs from the 88-SNP marker panel could be reduced to form a smaller, more cost-efficient parentage-testing ...


Apoptotic And Epigenetic Induction Of Embryo Failure Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, Aaron Patrick Davis May 2013

Apoptotic And Epigenetic Induction Of Embryo Failure Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, Aaron Patrick Davis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful tool for selective breeding, conservation, and production of transgenic animals. Despite the successful cloning of several species, high rates of embryo failure following SCNT prevent the wide-scale use of the technique. Embryos produced through cloning have a higher incidence of developmental arrest, decreased developmental potential, frequent implantation failures, and increased incidence of abortion. The objective of this dissertation research was to characterize the factors that lead to SCNT failures by examining epigenetic and apoptotic pathways that can negatively influence the development of cloned preimplantation embryos. Aberrant genome reprogramming is generally considered to ...


Growth Performance And Nutrient Metabolism Of Pasture-Finished Beef Steers And In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics Of Pasture Forages In Continuous Cultures, Cuk Tri Noviandi May 2013

Growth Performance And Nutrient Metabolism Of Pasture-Finished Beef Steers And In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics Of Pasture Forages In Continuous Cultures, Cuk Tri Noviandi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A 2-year grazing study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, ruminal fermentation, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid compositions in subcutaneous adipose tissue of beef steers grazing tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.; TF) pastures without or with N fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased crude protein concentration of TF pasture and average daily gain of beef steers. Increase in total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentrations were detected in steers grazing fertilized TF. In comparison with steers on feedlot, pasture-finished steers had greater proportions of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and C18:3 n-3, but lower n-6:n-3 ratio in adipose tissue ...


Ecology Of Coyotes On The Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico: Implications For Elk Calf Recruitment, Suzanne J. Gifford May 2013

Ecology Of Coyotes On The Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico: Implications For Elk Calf Recruitment, Suzanne J. Gifford

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) managers were concerned about low elk recruitment observed at the same time as an apparent increase in sightings of coyotes and observations of coyote predation on elk calves. The goal of this study was to describe coyotes’ ecological interactions with elk, particularly coyote diet and movements on the Valle Grande, a large grassland meadow in the southeastern portion of the VCNP.

We examined coyote diet by quantifying undigested remains of food items in coyote scats (feces). The most frequent taxa were rodents (montane voles and pocket gophers), elk (adult and calf), insects (grasshoppers and beetles ...