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Anti-Cancer Effects Of Garcinol In Pancreatic Cancer Transgenic Mouse Model, Nadia Saadat Dec 2013

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Garcinol In Pancreatic Cancer Transgenic Mouse Model, Nadia Saadat

Wayne State University Dissertations

Adenocarcinoma of pancreas is recognized for its poor prognosis, as it progresses asymptomatically and is rarely diagnosed at early stage. According to American cancer society pancreatic cancer, it has lowest survival rate in all cancer types, with less than 6% five year survival rate. Surgical resection is only possible for 20% of diagnosed cases and current chemotherapy has only 15% response rate. Even the most favored drug, Gemcitabine, increases survival time only by a few months, depending on the stage at diagnosis. Some bioactive food components or nutraceuticals have shown chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects without added side effects. Garcinol is ...


Physical Activity And Exercise During Adolescence And Young Adulthood Can Act As Preventative Measures Against The Development Of Osteoporosis In Elderly People, Christine C. Center Apr 2013

Physical Activity And Exercise During Adolescence And Young Adulthood Can Act As Preventative Measures Against The Development Of Osteoporosis In Elderly People, Christine C. Center

Honors College Theses

Osteoporosis, “the silent killer,” is responsible for 8.9 million annual fractures. Although not bound to these factors, osteoporosis typically targets females that are post-menopausal and have a family history of the disease. Osteoporosis is caused by a decrease in bone mass density. Physical activity and exercise and often spoken about when the topic of osteoporosis is discussed because of the impact they have on maintaining bone mass density in an effort to delay osteoporosis. This paper first provides an overview of osteoporosis, explanation of methods of diagnosing osteoporosis, risk factors, complications and treatment for osteoporosis. Topics covered include, bone ...


Role Of Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Breast Cancer Associated Gene 2 (Bca2) In Sumoylation, Fareea Khaliq Apr 2013

Role Of Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Breast Cancer Associated Gene 2 (Bca2) In Sumoylation, Fareea Khaliq

Honors College Theses

As the occurrence of breast cancer increases around the world, the need for new therapeutic medicine becomes more vital to sustain the population. In order to accomplish this, specific mechanisms need to be understood to gain a perspective on the overall process of breast cancer development. One mechanism that is being researched is SUMOylation. The SUMOylation reaction uses small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins, which act as a type of post-translational modification that is necessary in order to preserve protein homeostasis and regulate cellular processes including apoptosis, cell proliferation, and response to stress. The SUMOs attach to a target protein through ...


The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Pathogenesis Of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Nicole Marie King Jan 2013

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Pathogenesis Of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Nicole Marie King

Wayne State University Dissertations

Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies yet the underlying pathophysiology is not clearly established. The disease is usually diagnosed in the advanced stage and carries a poor prognosis. The 5-year survival rate is greater than 75% if diagnosis of the cancer occurs at an early stage; however, this rate drops to 20% when the tumor has spread beyond its origin. Thus, a method for early detection is critically needed, which can help prolong, or even save lives. Currently, an effective screening test for ovarian cancer is lacking. Many tests have been evaluated but have been ...


Roles Of Neuregulin1 In Neuromuscular Junction Development, Jiajing Wang Jan 2013

Roles Of Neuregulin1 In Neuromuscular Junction Development, Jiajing Wang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development is a multistep process mediated by coordinated interactions between nerve terminals, target muscles, and peri-synaptic glial cells, and thus requires reciprocal signals derived from every cell type. Neuregulin1s (NRG1s) are a family of predominantly neuronal growth and differentiation factors that are important for many aspects of nervous system development. In this thesis, both the effects of NRG1 on NMJ development and reciprocal effects of neurotrophic factors on NRG1 expression were studied as a means to define the complex regulatory communication at the NMJ. Using the chicken embryo as a model, methods were developed to study the ...


Thick Ascending Limb Nitric Oxide Production And Inhibition Of Nkcc2 Activity Are Impaired In Angiotensin Ii-Induced Hypertension, Vanesa Daniela Ramseyer Jan 2013

Thick Ascending Limb Nitric Oxide Production And Inhibition Of Nkcc2 Activity Are Impaired In Angiotensin Ii-Induced Hypertension, Vanesa Daniela Ramseyer

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US. Hypertension, which affects about 30 % of the US population, is an important risk factor in the development of this disease. Inappropriately elevated sodium reabsorption by the kidney contributes to hypertension; therefore, studying the mechanisms that lead to enhanced sodium transport is important in understanding this pathology. The thick ascending limb (THAL) reabsorbs 30% of the filtered sodium chloride load. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase type 3 (NOS3) increases cyclic GMP (cGMP) and inhibits THAL transport by reducing Na/K/2Cl cotransporter type 2 (NKCC2) activity. Interestingly, in ...


Overcoming Tumor Drug Resistance By Activating Amp-Activated Protein Kinase And Destabilizing Oncoproteins, Min Shen Jan 2013

Overcoming Tumor Drug Resistance By Activating Amp-Activated Protein Kinase And Destabilizing Oncoproteins, Min Shen

Wayne State University Dissertations

Although considerable progress has been achieved in the field of cancer therapeutics, primary or acquired drug resistance remains a fundamental cause of therapeutic failure in cancer therapy. Among different mechanisms characterized that are responsible for tumor drug resistance, there is increasing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of gene expression, especially oncogene or tumor suppressor gene expression, at either gene transcription or protein synthesis level, can contribute to the drug-resistant phenotype. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a well-known major cellular energy sensor, which negatively regulates metabolic pathways such as protein synthesis, fatty acid oxidation and glucose consumption. Activation of AMPK may suppress ...


Impact Of Cryoablation On Tumor Immunity, Jesse Veenstra Jan 2013

Impact Of Cryoablation On Tumor Immunity, Jesse Veenstra

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background and Objectives: Percutaneous cryoablation is a minimally invasive procedure for tumor debulking, which has the potential to initiate or amplify tumor immunity through the release of tumor-associated antigens and endogenous danger signals. However, enhanced immunity is rarely observed in treated patients, suggesting the need for mechanistic analysis. The goal is to determine how cryoablation affects tumor specific immunity and if the response can be improved through exogenous TLR9 stimulation.

Methodology: We evaluated anti-Her2/neu immunity following cryoablation in wt BALB/c and tolerant NeuT mice inoculated with neu or Her2 expressing mammary tumors TUBO and D2F2/E2 respectively. Mice ...


Investigating Hfq-Mrna Interactions In Bacteria, Martha Audra Faner Jan 2013

Investigating Hfq-Mrna Interactions In Bacteria, Martha Audra Faner

Wayne State University Dissertations

Regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are essential for bacteria to thrive in diverse environments and they also play a key role in virulence [11]. Trans-sRNAs affect the stability and/or translation of their target mRNAs through complementary base-pairing. The base-pairing interaction is not perfect and requires the action of an RNA binding protein, Hfq. Hfq facilitates these RNA-RNA interactions by stabilizing duplex formation, aiding in structural rearrangements, increasing the rate of structural opening, and/or by increasing the rate of annealing [18-21]. Hfq has two well characterized binding surfaces: the proximal surface, which binds AU rich stretches typical of sRNAs, and the ...


Characterization Of High-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels In Retinal Bipolar Cells, Qi Lu Jan 2013

Characterization Of High-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels In Retinal Bipolar Cells, Qi Lu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Retinal bipolar cells, conveying visual information from photoreceptors to ganglion cells, segregate visual information into multiple parallel pathways through their diversified cell types and physiological properties. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be particularly important underlying the diversified physiological properties of different BCs. In this dissertation, I investigated the high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium current in retinal bipolar cells in mice. In the first part of my dissertation, I characterized multiple bipolar cell-expressing GFP and/or Cre transgenic mouse lines. In the second part of my dissertation, by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, I examined the electrophysiological properties of HVA calcium currents among CBCs ...


Mechanisms Of Cytokine-Induced Metabolic Dysfunction Of The Pancreatic Beta-Cell, Abiy Mussa Mohammed Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Cytokine-Induced Metabolic Dysfunction Of The Pancreatic Beta-Cell, Abiy Mussa Mohammed

Wayne State University Dissertations

MECHANISMS OF CYTOKINE-INDUCED METABOLIC DYSFUNCTION OF THE PANCREATIC BETA-CELL

by

ABIY MUSSA MOHAMMED

August 2013

Advisor: Dr. Anjaneyulu Kowluru

Major: Pharmaceutical Sciences

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Type I diabetes is characterized by an absolute insulin deficiency due to loss of pancreatic â-cell mass by autoimmune aggression. During the progression of the disease proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1â, TNFá and INFã are secreted by infiltrated and activated T-cells and macrophages which ultimately damage the pancreatic â-cell. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in cytokine-induced damage are only partially understood. Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase [NOX2] has been shown to play regulatory roles in the ...


The Drosophila Interactions Database: Integrating The Interactome And Transcriptome, Thilakam Murali Jan 2013

The Drosophila Interactions Database: Integrating The Interactome And Transcriptome, Thilakam Murali

Wayne State University Dissertations

In this thesis I describe the integration of heterogeneous interaction data for Drosophila into DroID, the Drosophilainteractions database, making it a one-stop public resource for interaction data. I have also made it possible to filter the interaction data using gene expression data to generate context-relevant networks making DroID a one-of-a kind resource for biologists. In the two years since the upgraded DroID has been available, several studies have used the heterogeneous interaction data in DroID to advance our understanding of Drosophila biology thus validating the need for such a resource for biologists. In addition to this, I have identified ...


Single-Molecule Studies Of Local And Global Nucleic-Acid Dynamics, Eric Muthuri Patrick Jan 2013

Single-Molecule Studies Of Local And Global Nucleic-Acid Dynamics, Eric Muthuri Patrick

Wayne State University Dissertations

Nucleic acids undergo both global and local conformational changes that are important for their function. Structural studies have over the decades been invaluable in elucidation of various biomolecular mechanisms, hence contributing significantly to the understanding of biological events. However, a clear understanding of how molecules function in the cellular context requires investigation of their interconversion between multiple conformations, including mapping the folding landscape and any coupled changes in conformation. Work in this thesis focuses on fluorescence experiments, mainly at a single-molecule level to investigate such processes.

First, a novel single-molecule approach is described focusing on local dynamics within nucleic acids ...


Towards Personalized Medicine Using Systems Biology And Machine Learning, Calin Voichita Jan 2013

Towards Personalized Medicine Using Systems Biology And Machine Learning, Calin Voichita

Wayne State University Dissertations

The rate of acquiring biological data has greatly surpassed our ability to interpret it. At the same time, we have started to understand that evolution of many diseases such as cancer, are the results of the interplay between the disease itself and the immune system of the host. It is now well accepted that cancer is not a single disease, but a “complex collection of distinct genetic diseases united by common hallmarks”. Understanding the differences between such disease subtypes is key not only in providing adequate treatments for known subtypes but also identifying new ones. These unforeseen disease subtypes are ...


Selenium Supplementation Increases Antioxidant Response In Vitro, Yasmin Fakhereddin Jan 2013

Selenium Supplementation Increases Antioxidant Response In Vitro, Yasmin Fakhereddin

Wayne State University Theses

Reactive oxygen species and free radicals are associated with the negative effects of aging. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms can defend cell structures from free radical damage. Selenium is an essential trace element necessary for cellular functions in the human body. A positive correlation between low serum selenium levels with the morbidity and mortality of a range of cancers has been illustrated in numerous studies. Glutathione Peroxidase catalyzes a reaction in which H2O2 oxidizes the reduced form of GSH and forms H2O. NADPH further reduces GSSG, the oxidized structure of glutathione, in a reaction catalyzed by glutathione reductase. Tissue culture was ...


Investigating The Metal Binding Affinity Of Bacterial Zinc Transporters: Zupt And Truncated Znta (Znta-Pina), Fei Nie Jan 2013

Investigating The Metal Binding Affinity Of Bacterial Zinc Transporters: Zupt And Truncated Znta (Znta-Pina), Fei Nie

Wayne State University Theses

Zinc is essential trace elements for all living organisms and serves as cofactor and structural cofactors for more than 300 enzymes. ZupT is one of the members of ZIP super family of transporter proteins, which were identified as iron and zinc transporter in Eukaryotes at first. However, recent evidence showed that some of members can also transport other metal ions, such as manganese or cadmium, and ZIP proteins also exist in bacteria. ZupT is responsible for zinc uptake in E. coli; however, its full metal selectivity is not yet characterized. In addition, the mechanism of transport is also unknown. Therefore ...


Regulation Of Nuclear Localization Of The Sole Sumo-Conjugating Enzyme, Ubc9, Palak Sekhri Jan 2013

Regulation Of Nuclear Localization Of The Sole Sumo-Conjugating Enzyme, Ubc9, Palak Sekhri

Wayne State University Theses

The covalent and reversible conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to hundreds of different cellular proteins is catalyzed by a cascade of enzymes including an E1-activating enzyme (SAE1/SAE2), an E2-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) and multiple E3 ligases. As the only E2 enzyme for SUMO-conjugation, Ubc9 localizes mainly in the nucleus and plays an essential role in regulation of many cellular processes including cell cycle progression through mitosis, cell migration, genome stability, stress response, transcription, and nuclear transport in eukaryotic cells. It is hypothesized that the nuclear localization of Ubc9 is required for efficient sumoylation inside the nucleus because both ...


The Xenopus Lefty (Xlefty) Prodomain Negatively Regulates Xlefty Activity And Is Necessary For Proper Xlefty Secretion, Adrian Amelio Vasquez Jan 2013

The Xenopus Lefty (Xlefty) Prodomain Negatively Regulates Xlefty Activity And Is Necessary For Proper Xlefty Secretion, Adrian Amelio Vasquez

Wayne State University Theses

In vertebrates, the TGF #914; superfamily of secreted peptides are stringently regulated since they are responsible for multiple cell processes and behaviors that give rise to the proper patterning of embryonic tissues. Examples of members of the TGF #914; superfamily are Nodal and Lefty. Dysregulation of these proteins can lead to many diseases and developmental syndromes in humans.

Lefty functions by antagonizing Nodal an essential organizer signal that patterns dorsal mesoderm and the embryonic axes. Loss of Lefty expression results in excess Nodal signaling which has been shown to cause several perturbations including metastatic cancer. Although studies have clearly shown ...


Oligospermines For Non-Viral Sirna Delivery, Maha Elsayed Jan 2013

Oligospermines For Non-Viral Sirna Delivery, Maha Elsayed

Wayne State University Theses

In this thesis, delivery systems for siRNA delivery are introduced with special attention to non-viral vectors. Many successful vectors used in vivo were reviewed. Our work focused on the effect of different architectures of oligospermine polmers on their suitability for siRNA delivery in lung cancer cells. Different archituctures showed different polyplex structures and variable transfection efficiencies. Moreover, we presented a review on nanoimprint lithography techniques with an outlook on possible biological applications in the field of gene and drug delivery.


Landscape Characteristics Of Upland Sandpiper Habitat In Michigan, Jacob Lawrence Korte Jan 2013

Landscape Characteristics Of Upland Sandpiper Habitat In Michigan, Jacob Lawrence Korte

Wayne State University Theses

Grassland bird populations have declined across North America due to habitat loss but at a disproportionately higher rate in the midwestern United States, where extensive coverage of grasslands and other open land ecosystems have been converted to other land cover types. The upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda Bechstein, UPSA) is a migratory, area-sensitive, terrestrial shorebird that breeds in grasslands and other open land ecosystem types across their North American range. Although breeding habitats of the Great Plains contain the greatest concentrations of this species, anthropogenic openings such as hayfields and pastures serve as surrogate habitat elsewhere, as do remnant patches of ...


Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of Classroom-Based Nutrition Intervention On Changes In Eating Behavior In African American Parents/Caregivers And Their Children., Nesrine Akil Jan 2013

Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of Classroom-Based Nutrition Intervention On Changes In Eating Behavior In African American Parents/Caregivers And Their Children., Nesrine Akil

Wayne State University Theses

Although obesity rate has increased steadily over the past 20 years in the US, a 2006 report showed that the obesity rate is expected to continue to rise, with 13.9% of children between the ages of 2 to 5 years are considered overweight. However, 26.2% were considered at risk of becoming overweight. The parents/caregivers are the key players for developing their children's healthy or unhealthy eating habits since they are the specific determinants of food selection, serving structured meals and being the role models to their children by eating the same food offered themselves. This reflects ...


Influence Of Mechanical Cues And The Extracellular Matrix On Cell Migration Patterns And The Proliferation Rates Of Cells, Tara Shane Alger Jan 2013

Influence Of Mechanical Cues And The Extracellular Matrix On Cell Migration Patterns And The Proliferation Rates Of Cells, Tara Shane Alger

Wayne State University Theses

The mechanical environment of a cell and its tissue can impact multiple biological processes including development, wound healing, and metastasis. Specific cellular behaviors influenced by the mechanical microenvironment include differentiation, morphology, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. In this thesis I have focused specifically on the effect of environmental stiffness and applied mechanical forces on cellular migration and proliferation, respectively. Using two different applications, both tailored to evaluate the mechanical forces alone on cellular behavior, I attempted to simulate the mechanical composition of the in vivo tissue microenvironments in vitro using polyacrylamide hydrogels. To test whether cells maintain a mechanical memory for ...


Role Of Phosphoylation Of The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Proteasome In Oxidative Stress Response And Regulation Of Homoserine Kinase (Thrb) In Corynebacterium Glutamicum, Heather Baun Jan 2013

Role Of Phosphoylation Of The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Proteasome In Oxidative Stress Response And Regulation Of Homoserine Kinase (Thrb) In Corynebacterium Glutamicum, Heather Baun

Wayne State University Theses

Part 1:

One-third of the world's population is infected with the latent form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis must be able to control this latent even in response to nitrosative and oxidative stress conferred by the host. It is not well known how M. tuberculosis controls this state.

One possibility for this control is through its eleven eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinases. Our lab has focused research on two eukaryotic-like ser/thr protein kinases, PknA and PknB. It has been found that PknA expression may affect the stability or the assembly of the proteasome complex, which is essential for ...


Protective Effects Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Adh1b Allele, Neil Dodge Jan 2013

Protective Effects Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Adh1b Allele, Neil Dodge

Wayne State University Theses

Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to African Americans, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in African American infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele ...


The Effect Of Alpha-Cyclodextrin On Acute Blood Lipid And Glycemic Responses To A Fat Containg Meal, Evan Neil Fletcher Jan 2013

The Effect Of Alpha-Cyclodextrin On Acute Blood Lipid And Glycemic Responses To A Fat Containg Meal, Evan Neil Fletcher

Wayne State University Theses

Obesity and hyperlipidemia have become major concerns in the United States over the past 30 years. Alpha-Cyclodextrin (á-CD), a naturally occurring soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to reduce dietary fat absorption and improve blood lipid levels in an animal model (mouse and rat) and in human studies. In the current double blind study, 34 healthy male and female participants were recruited to test if á-CD had any acute effect on blood lipid and glycemic responses to a fat containing meal. The participants received the á-CD on one occasion and a placebo the other to determine if there was any ...


Investigation Of Bacterial Rna-Directed Dna Methylation Via Dcm And Hfq, Dandan Li Jan 2013

Investigation Of Bacterial Rna-Directed Dna Methylation Via Dcm And Hfq, Dandan Li

Wayne State University Theses

Bacterial small RNAs and the RNA chaperone Hfq play crucial roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, often as parts of stress-response pathways, but little is known about their roles in regulation of gene transcription. A recent report showed that changes in methylation patterns caused by DNA cytosine methyltransferase (Dcm) were linked to gene regulation occurring during the transition to stationary phase. Here, we show that Dcm involves in the stress responses under nutrient starvation and cold stress. Dcm and Hfq together mediate gene expression under cold stress. Hfq promotes Dcm-catalyzed cytosine methylation at specific sites near the rpoS promoter, which is ...


Defining The Mechanism Of Enhanced Cellular Invasion Induced By Mechanical Stimulation, Snehal Sunil Ozarkar Jan 2013

Defining The Mechanism Of Enhanced Cellular Invasion Induced By Mechanical Stimulation, Snehal Sunil Ozarkar

Wayne State University Theses

Metastasis is a multistep process driven by various biochemical and mechanical factors, which eventually leads to formation of secondary tumors. The tumor mass is surrounded by basement membrane (BM) and stroma made of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. During metastasis tumor cells disseminate from the primary tumor, breach the BM, invade the stroma, travel through blood and lymph and colonize tissues distant from the primary tumor. Formation of secondary tumors by metastasis is a leading cause of death in cancer patients. Even though plenty of research has been focused on biochemical factors affecting metastasis, information on role of mechanical factors ...


Spliceosomal Prp24 Unwinds A Minimal U2/U6 Complex From Yeast, Chandani Manoja Warnasooriya Jan 2013

Spliceosomal Prp24 Unwinds A Minimal U2/U6 Complex From Yeast, Chandani Manoja Warnasooriya

Wayne State University Theses

Splicing plays a major role in eukaryotic gene expression by processing pre-mRNA to form mature mRNA. Pre-mRNAs undergo splicing to remove introns, non–protein coding regions, and religate exons, protein coding regions. This process is catalyzed by the spliceosome, which consists of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs: U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) and numerous protein factors. Proper assembly of spliceosomal components is critical for function, and thus, defects in assembly can be lethal. Several spliceosomal proteins facilitate structural rearrangements important for spliceosomal assembly and function. Prp24 is an essential factor in U6 snRNP assembly, and it has been ...


Antioxidant Properties Of Goji Berries, Jie Zhang Jan 2013

Antioxidant Properties Of Goji Berries, Jie Zhang

Wayne State University Theses

Antioxidants properties have been discussed for many years. Their benefits, especially for human health, have been more and more recommended and supported by nutritionists. It is necessary to obtain sufficient amounts of these compounds from dietary sources. Goji berries are particularly rich in antioxidants. Due to the roles they play in protecting the human body from oxidative damage, studies of the antioxidant absorption are more and more popular in recent years. In this study, the stability of antioxidant properties of goji berries was investigated. Sample of goji berry was tested for antioxidant properties via total phenolic content (TPC) assay, oxygen ...


Lc3i And Lc3ii As Autophagy Markers For The Development And Improvement Of Products And Techniques Used In Research, Caitlin Jane Williams Jan 2013

Lc3i And Lc3ii As Autophagy Markers For The Development And Improvement Of Products And Techniques Used In Research, Caitlin Jane Williams

Wayne State University Theses

Abstract

LC3I and LC3II as Autphagy Markers for the Development and Improvement of Products and Techniques used in Research

By

Caitlin J. Williams

May 2013

Advisor: Dr. Robert Akins

Major: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Degree: Master of Science

Autophagy is an intracellular process that functions to maintain homeostasis in the cell by degrading misfolded proteins, old or nonfunctioning organelles, and outside invaders such as bacteria or viruses. This process can be split into three different types, microautophagy, chaperone mediated autophagy and macroautophagy. Macroautophagy is the most commonly studied form and is believed to be regulated by Atg proteins, as well as ...