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Theses/Dissertations

2013

University of Kentucky

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak Jan 2013

Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Plant diseases remain a major obstruction to meeting the world’s increased demand for soybean oil and protein. Reducing the losses caused by diseases in order to improve crop production is a high priority for agricultural research. The need for novel strategies for plant disease control cannot be overstated. In the present study, selected defense-related genes were silenced and/or overexpressed in soybean using a virus-based vector and the resultant plants were tested for their responses to pathogens. The first part of the study focused on Rps1k (Resistance to Phytophthora sojae) gene. The two conserved domains encoding ‘P-Loop NTPase’ and ...


Characterization And Distribution Of Novel Non-Ltr Retroelements Driving High Telomere Rflp Diversity In Clonal Lines Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, John H. Starnes Jan 2013

Characterization And Distribution Of Novel Non-Ltr Retroelements Driving High Telomere Rflp Diversity In Clonal Lines Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, John H. Starnes

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

The filamentous ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a pathogen of over 50 genera of grasses. Two important diseases it can cause are gray leaf spot in Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and blast in Oryza sativa (rice). The telomeres of M. oryzae isolates causing gray leaf spot are highly variable, and can spontaneously change during fungal culture. In this dissertation, it is shown that a rice-infecting isolate is much more stable at the telomeres than an isolate from gray leaf spot. To determine the molecular basis of telomere instability several gray leaf spot isolates telomeres were cloned, which revealed two non-LTR ...


Alternative Methods Of Control For Phytophthora Nicotianae Of Tobacco, Anna M. Holdcroft Jan 2013

Alternative Methods Of Control For Phytophthora Nicotianae Of Tobacco, Anna M. Holdcroft

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Kentucky is the nation’s leading producer of burley tobacco and the crop’s most economically important disease is black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae (Pn). Current management is effective, however, problems with expense and pathogen persistence are issues. Two alternative methods for control of Pn were examined: biofumigation and soil application of an organic, yeast fermentation‐derived product (Soil‐Set). Field studies in 2009 and 2010 found no effect on populations of fungi, disease severity of Pn, and yield between mustard‐ and wheat‐amended plots. Experiments in the greenhouse suggested that survival of Pn was impacted by biomass rather ...


Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng Jan 2013

Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Many cerebral diseases are associated with abnormal cerebral hemodynamics and impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA). CA is a mechanism to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) stable when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates. Evaluating these abnormalities requires direct measurements of cerebral hemodynamics and MAP. Several near-infrared diffuse optical instruments have been developed in our laboratory for hemodynamic measurements including near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), hybrid NIRS/DCS, and dual-wavelength DCS flow-oximeter. We utilized these noninvasive technologies to quantify CBF and cerebral oxygenation in different populations under different physiological conditions/manipulations. A commercial finger plethysmograph was used to continuously monitor MAP ...


The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood Jan 2013

The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The effects of mechanical forces on endothelial cell function and behavior are well documented, but have not been fully characterized. Specifically, fluid pressure has been shown to elicit physical and chemical responses known to be involved in the initiation and progression of endothelial cell-mediated vascularization. Central to the process of vascularization is the formation of tube-like structures. This process—tubulogenesis—is essential to both the physiological and pathological growth of tissues. Given the known effects of pressure on endothelial cells and its ubiquitous presence in the vasculature, we investigated pressure as a magnitude-dependent parameter for the regulation of endothelial tubulogenic ...


Cellular And Molecular Aspects Of The Interaction Betwen Maize And The Anthracnose Pathogen Colletotrichum Graminicola, Maria F. Torres Jan 2013

Cellular And Molecular Aspects Of The Interaction Betwen Maize And The Anthracnose Pathogen Colletotrichum Graminicola, Maria F. Torres

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Maize anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, is an economically important species contributing to major yield losses. C. graminicola is a hemibiotroph; initially it invades its host while it is alive, and then it switches to destructive necrotrophic growth and the host is killed. Establishment of compatible interactions by biotrophic pathogens is usually associated with suppression of host defenses and cell death, while necrotrophic pathogens typically secrete phytotoxic compounds and induce cell death. To understand the relationship of hemibiotrophy in C. graminicola to biotrophy and necrotrophy, I compared a compatible and an incompatible interaction, utilizing a non-pathogenic mutant strain ...


Injury Establishes Constitutive Μ-Opioid Receptor Activity Leading To Lasting Endogenous Analgesia And Dependence, Gregory F. Corder Jan 2013

Injury Establishes Constitutive Μ-Opioid Receptor Activity Leading To Lasting Endogenous Analgesia And Dependence, Gregory F. Corder

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Injury causes increased pain sensation in humans and animals but the mechanisms underlying the emergence of persistent pathological pain states, which arise in the absence of on-going physical damage, are unclear. Therefore, elucidating the physiological regulation of such intractable pain is of exceptional biomedical importance. It is well known that endogenous activation of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) provides relief from acute pain but the consequences of prolonged endogenous opioidergic signaling have not been considered. Here we test the hypothesis that the intrinsic mechanisms of MOR signaling promote pathological sensitization of pain circuits in the spinal cord. We found that tissue inflammation ...


Post Use Analysis Of Firefighter Turnout Gear- Phase Iii, Meredith Laine Cinnamon Jan 2013

Post Use Analysis Of Firefighter Turnout Gear- Phase Iii, Meredith Laine Cinnamon

Theses and Dissertations--Retailing and Tourism Management

The purpose of this research was to perform a post-use evaluation of retired firefighter turnout gear. Garments were categorized as 10-12 years old, 13-17 years old and 18-21 years old. Inspection and test procedures required by National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1851 and NFPA 1971 were followed to determine if the current recommended 10 year wear life (retirement age) is appropriate. Testing included a visual inspection (closure system functionality, light evaluation, leakage evaluation and flashlight test) and performance properties (Thermal Protective Performance (TPP), flammability, breaking strength, tear strength, seam strength and water penetration) completed on 108 garments. Ten-year retirement, care ...


Polychlorinated Biphenyl Ligands Of The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Promote Adipocyte-Mediated Diabetes, Nicki A. Baker Jan 2013

Polychlorinated Biphenyl Ligands Of The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Promote Adipocyte-Mediated Diabetes, Nicki A. Baker

Theses and Dissertations--Nutritional Sciences

Numerous epidemiology studies suggest a correlation between exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the development and severity of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous studies demonstrated that PCBs that are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) promote the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), that are linked to insulin resistance in adipocytes. To explore potential mechanisms linking PCB exposures to diabetes, we developed a mouse model of glucose and insulin intolerance induced by acute and chronic exposures to PCB-77. We hypothesized that PCB ligands of AhR result in adipocyte-specific elevations in TNF-α ...


Nmda Receptors In The Dorsal Vagal Complex Of Normal And Diabetic Mice, Eva C. Bach Jan 2013

Nmda Receptors In The Dorsal Vagal Complex Of Normal And Diabetic Mice, Eva C. Bach

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

The dorsal vagal complex (DVC), containing the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), plays a pivotal role in autonomic regulation. Afferent fibers from peripheral organs and higher brain centers synapse in the NTS, which integrates these synaptic connections as well as information from systemically circulating hormones and metabolites. The integrated information is relayed to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), which in turn, projects motor fibers to elicit parasympathetic control of digestive and other viscera. Physiological functions mediated by the DVC are disrupted in diabetic patients and ...


The Role Of Macrophages In Exercise And Insulin Resistance In Human Skeletal Muscle, Jason S. Groshong Jan 2013

The Role Of Macrophages In Exercise And Insulin Resistance In Human Skeletal Muscle, Jason S. Groshong

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, post eccentric exercise, post aerobic training, and after training followed by eccentric exercise from adults with different health status. In Cell Western analysis of pAkt/Akt ratio suggests that muscle cells isolated from baseline biopsies respond to insulin in a dose dependent manner that tracks with sensitivity to insulin of the host; however, this is uncoupled from glucose disposal in vitro. Nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of free radical damage, was employed to assess the efficacy of the exercise paradigm. NY immunohistochemistry on muscle cross-sections revealed that eccentric exercise significantly increased damage in older (>55 ...


On T Cell Fate Decisions: Retinol, Metabolism And Itreg Differentiation, Gavin I. Ellis Jan 2013

On T Cell Fate Decisions: Retinol, Metabolism And Itreg Differentiation, Gavin I. Ellis

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

The mammalian immune system is equipped to both eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and tumors, while remaining in homeostasis with commensal species at mucosal surfaces and tolerant towards self. Suppressor regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a major sentinel of this immunological tolerance. Induced Tregs (iTregs) arise in the periphery following the integration of cues from the metabolites, cytokines, etc. which make up its milieu. Dysregulation of iTreg development, function or homing underlies the etiology of many autoimmune diseases and immunopathologies. The amelioration or prevention of multiple murine disease models by boosting Treg cell numbers foreshadows clinical efficacy of iTreg therapy, but an ...


Impact Of Transformational Leadership: Exploring The Transformational Leadership Qualities Of Selected Secondary Agriculture Teachers, Ryan H. Thomas Jan 2013

Impact Of Transformational Leadership: Exploring The Transformational Leadership Qualities Of Selected Secondary Agriculture Teachers, Ryan H. Thomas

Theses and Dissertations--Community & Leadership Development

The purpose of this study is to determine if transformational leadership styles of agriculture teachers in Jessamine County has an impact on successful transitions of program completers. To be more specific, the focus was to look at agriculture teachers at Jessamine Career and Technology Center (JCTC) to see if they exhibit components of transformational leadership. If so, does transformational leadership of those teachers assist students with successful transitions after graduation? Successful transition is deemed by the Kentucky Department of Education as students that seek post-secondary education, employed full-time or enlist in a branch of armed services.

The population for this ...


Analyzing Healthy, Local Food Systems: A Case Study Of Owensboro, Kentucky, Callie Hayden Jan 2013

Analyzing Healthy, Local Food Systems: A Case Study Of Owensboro, Kentucky, Callie Hayden

Theses and Dissertations--Community & Leadership Development

Across the US, support is ever-growing for the local food movement. This growing trend promotes food security, supports farming families, ensures universal access to safe and healthy food products, enhances local economies, and encourages environmental and social well-being. People around the US are implementing sustainable local food systems as a means of meeting their individual community’s needs. While this movement is being popularized dramatically around the world, many cities and regions have yet to address it. This study reviews the existing literature on local food system models in an effort to answer the research question: What are the “ingredients ...


A Novel Computational Framework For Transcriptome Analysis With Rna-Seq Data, Yin Hu Jan 2013

A Novel Computational Framework For Transcriptome Analysis With Rna-Seq Data, Yin Hu

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

The advance of high-throughput sequencing technologies and their application on mRNA transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) have enabled comprehensive and unbiased profiling of the landscape of transcription in a cell. In order to address the current limitation of analyzing accuracy and scalability in transcriptome analysis, a novel computational framework has been developed on large-scale RNA-seq datasets with no dependence on transcript annotations. Directly from raw reads, a probabilistic approach is first applied to infer the best transcript fragment alignments from paired-end reads. Empowered by the identification of alternative splicing modules, this framework then performs precise and efficient differential analysis at automatically detected ...


Characterization Of G-Patch Motif Contribution To Prp43 Function In The Pre-Messenger Rna Splicing And Ribosomal Rna Biogenesis Pathways, Daipayan Banerjee Jan 2013

Characterization Of G-Patch Motif Contribution To Prp43 Function In The Pre-Messenger Rna Splicing And Ribosomal Rna Biogenesis Pathways, Daipayan Banerjee

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The DExD/H-box protein Prp43 is essential for two biological processes: nucleoplasmic pre-mRNA splicing and nucleolar rRNA maturation. The biological basis for the temporal and spatial regulation of Prp43 remains elusive. The Spp382/Ntr1, Sqs1/Pfa1 and Pxr1/Gno1 G-patch proteins bind to and activate the Prp43 DExD/H box-helicase in pre-mRNA splicing (Spp382) and rRNA processing (Sqs1, Pxr1). These Prp43-interacting proteins each contain the G-patch domain, a conserved sequence of ~48 amino acids that includes 6 highly conserved glycine (G) residues. Five annotated G-patch proteins in baker’s yeast (i.e., Spp382, Pxr1, Spp2, Sqs1 and Ylr271) and with ...


Physical Dormancy In Seeds, With Special Reference To Geraniaceae: Morpho-Anatomy, Development, Physiology, Biomechanics And Classification Of Water-Gap Complexes, Nalin Suranjith Gama Arachchige Jan 2013

Physical Dormancy In Seeds, With Special Reference To Geraniaceae: Morpho-Anatomy, Development, Physiology, Biomechanics And Classification Of Water-Gap Complexes, Nalin Suranjith Gama Arachchige

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The primary aims of this dissertation were to (1) identify and characterize the water-gap complex in seeds of Geraniaceae, (2) investigate its role in physical dormancy (PY) break and (3) develop a new classification system for water-gap complexes in seeds of angiosperms. The winter annuals Geranium carolinianum and G. dissectum were selected as the main representative species for the study, and seeds of an additional 29 species from the Geraniaceae were used to compare the water-gap complex within the family. A new classification system for water-gap complexes in species with PY was developed by comparing the morpho-anatomical features of PY ...


The Causes And Consequences Of Individual Variation In Parental Care Behavior, Daniel P. Wetzel Jan 2013

The Causes And Consequences Of Individual Variation In Parental Care Behavior, Daniel P. Wetzel

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Behavioral traits can be remarkably flexible depending on the conditions in which they are expressed, yet, in spite of this flexibility, persistent differences between individuals appear to limit the potential expression of behaviors. For example, despite evidence that parents provide variable amounts of parental care in response to changing environmental conditions, they also differ in the overall level of care they provide. I used a behavioral reaction norm approach to study individual variation in parental care behavior in free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus). I investigated the nature of this variation by studying the relationship between different forms of parental care ...


Axolotl Paedomorphosis: A Comparison Of Juvenile, Metamorphic, And Paedomorphic Ambystoma Mexicanum Brain Gene Transcription, Carlena Johnson Jan 2013

Axolotl Paedomorphosis: A Comparison Of Juvenile, Metamorphic, And Paedomorphic Ambystoma Mexicanum Brain Gene Transcription, Carlena Johnson

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Unlike many amphibians, the paedomorphic axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) rarely undergoes external morphological changes indicative of metamorphosis. However, internally, some axolotl tissues undergo cryptic metamorphic changes. A previous study examined interspecific patterns of larval brain gene expression and found that these species exhibited unique temporal expression patterns that were hypothesized to be morph specific. This thesis tested this hypothesis by examining differences in brain gene expression between juvenile (JUV), paedomorphic (PAED), and metamorphic (MET) axolotls. I identified 828 genes that were expressed differently between JUV, PAED, and MET. Expression estimates from JUV were compared to estimates from PAED and MET brains ...


The Regulation And Packaging Of Synaptic Vesicles Related To Recruitment Within Crayfish And Fruit Fly Neuromuscular Junctions: Variations In Low- And High-Output Terminals, Wenhui Wu Jan 2013

The Regulation And Packaging Of Synaptic Vesicles Related To Recruitment Within Crayfish And Fruit Fly Neuromuscular Junctions: Variations In Low- And High-Output Terminals, Wenhui Wu

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS and at the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of invertebrate. The characteristic similarities to CNS glutamatergic synapses in vertebrate and the anatomical simplicity of invertebrate NMJs favor the investigation of glutamatergic synaptic functions in this system. This dissertation mainly aimed to physiologically separate two functional vesicle groups, the reserve pool (RP) and readily releasable pool (RRP) within presynaptic nerve terminals of Procambarus Clarkii and Drosophila melanogaster. This was addressed in part by blocking the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGlut) with bafilomycin A1. Various frequencies of motor nerve stimulation, exposure time, and concentration of bafilomycin ...


Factors Influencing The Establishment And Survival Of Native Hardwood Tree Seedlings Of The Kentucky Inner Bluegrass Blue Ash-Oak Savanna-Woodland, James D. Shaffer Jan 2013

Factors Influencing The Establishment And Survival Of Native Hardwood Tree Seedlings Of The Kentucky Inner Bluegrass Blue Ash-Oak Savanna-Woodland, James D. Shaffer

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Historically, the Kentucky Inner Bluegrass blue ash-oak savanna-woodland was the primary ecosystem of the Inner Bluegrass Region (IBR) of Kentucky. After European settlement, the majority (>99%) of Bluegrass savanna was converted to agricultural and urban land uses. Currently remnant savanna tree species are failing to recruit. Therefore, a long-term restoration ecology project researching competition and disturbance on seedling establishment, survival, and growth has been established at Griffith Woods (the largest remaining savanna in Kentucky) in Harrison Co., KY. Fourteen native hardwood tree species (a total of 6,168 seedlings) have been experimentally planted. Light, soil, surrounding vegetation, and herbivory, factors ...


The Contribution Of Two Related Bbp-Binding Gyf Proteins, Smy2 And Syh1, To Cellular Rna Abundance And Genome Stability, Min Chen Jan 2013

The Contribution Of Two Related Bbp-Binding Gyf Proteins, Smy2 And Syh1, To Cellular Rna Abundance And Genome Stability, Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Nuclear precursor of mature messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is one of the most highly regulated processes in eukaryotic organisms. In addition to its role in the removal of constitutive or alternative introns present in the pre-mRNA, splicing is also highly integrated into other layers of gene expression. This study investigates the potential role of the nuclear branchpoint binding protein (BBP) outside of the pre-mRNA splicing cycle. More specifically, we were interested in the biological relevance of its association with two cytoplasmic proteins Smy2 and Syh1. Smy2 and Syh1 belong to the GYF family of poly-proline binding proteins, and their roles ...


Selective Utilization Of Microhabitats By Web-Building Spiders, Kelton D. Welch Jan 2013

Selective Utilization Of Microhabitats By Web-Building Spiders, Kelton D. Welch

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Natural enemies are members of complex ecological communities, and their ability to contribute to the biological control of pest organisms is strongly influenced by a convoluted network of ecological interactions with many other organisms within these communities. Researchers must develop an understanding of the mechanisms that shape trophic webs to predict and promote top-down effects of predators. The behavior of predators can have a strong influence on their potential as biological control agents.

Web-building spiders are a useful example organism for the study of natural enemy behavior because of the experimentally tractable nature of their foraging behavior. Specifically, patterns in ...


Endosymbiotic Prevalence And Reproductive Manipulation Of The Spider Mermessus Fradeorum, Meghan M. Curry Jan 2013

Endosymbiotic Prevalence And Reproductive Manipulation Of The Spider Mermessus Fradeorum, Meghan M. Curry

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Spiders are host to a plethora of heritable endosymbiotic bacteria. Broad-taxa screening studies indicate that endosymbionts are particularly common among spiders, however, little is known about how these bacteria affect their spider hosts. In insects these bacteria ensure vertical transmission by either conveying a benefit to the host or manipulating host reproduction to eliminate males that serve as evolutionary dead-ends for maternally-inherited bacteria. Common modes of reproductive manipulation include parthenogenesis, male killing, feminization, and cytoplasmic incompatibility. Screening an assemblage of Mermessus genus spiders, I detected a high frequency and diversity of endosymbiont infection. Within a single species, M. fradeorum, I ...


Influence Of Surface Modification On Properties And Applications Of Complex Engineered Nanoparticles, Binghui Wang Jan 2013

Influence Of Surface Modification On Properties And Applications Of Complex Engineered Nanoparticles, Binghui Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Complex engineered nanoparticles (CENPs) are being used on various applications. Their properties are different from those of neat nanoparticles. The dissertation explores these differences from four aspects: 1) Modify carbon nanomaterials’ inert surfaces and investigate the effect on thermal and rheological behavior of their dispersions; 2) Generate self-assembly bi-layer structure of oxide nanoparticles via surface modification; 3) Study interaction between lysozyme and different surface-charged ceria nanoparticles; 4) Investigate the biodistribution and transformations of CENPs in biological media.

An environment-friendly surface modification was developed to modify surfaces of carbon nanomaterials for increasing their affinity to non-polar fluid. It can offset formation ...


The Cellular Nucleic Acid Binding Protein In Aging And Disease, Robin Webb Jan 2013

The Cellular Nucleic Acid Binding Protein In Aging And Disease, Robin Webb

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3 encodes the cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP), a ubiquitously expressed, 177 amino acid (≈19.5kDa) protein that is highly conserved among vertebrates. The function of the protein is largely unknown, however an expansion in the first intron of the protein results in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), a multisystemic disease featuring cardiac arrhythmia, muscle wasting, cataracts, and a range of neuropathologies. Remarkably, we recently discovered that CNBP is involved in regulating the activity of β-secretase, the enzyme that produces the first cleavage event in the generation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The progressive ...


The Disordered Regulation Of Calcineurin: How Calmodulin-Induced Regulatory Domain Structural Changes Lead To The Activation Of Calcineurin, Victoria B. Dunlap Jan 2013

The Disordered Regulation Of Calcineurin: How Calmodulin-Induced Regulatory Domain Structural Changes Lead To The Activation Of Calcineurin, Victoria B. Dunlap

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Calcineurin (CaN) is a highly regulated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase that plays critical roles in learning and memory, cardiac development and function, and immune system activation. Alterations in CaN regulation contribute to multiple disease states such as Down syndrome, cardiac hypertrophy, Alzheimer’s disease, and autoimmune disease. In addition, CaN is the target of the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and cyclosporin A. Despite its importance, CaN regulation is not well understood on a molecular level. Full CaN activation requires binding of calcium-loaded calmodulin (CaM), however little is known about how CaM binding releases CaN’s autoinhibitory domain from the active site ...


Critical Events In Human Metapneumovirus Infection: From Entry To Egress, Brent A. Hackett Jan 2013

Critical Events In Human Metapneumovirus Infection: From Entry To Egress, Brent A. Hackett

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a respiratory pathogen in Paramyxovirus family that demonstrates extremely high morbidity in the population, with most individuals having been infected by the age of five. Despite the prevalence of this negative-sense RNA virus in the population for decades, it was only identified in 2001. As such, there is currently no specific treatment for HMPV and the potentially severe consequences of infection for elderly and immunocompromised individuals and particularly infants make development of antivirals targeting HMPV of high significance. HMPV constitutes a quarter of all respiratory hospitalizations among infants, placing it second only to RSV, in addition ...


Investigating Therapeutic Options For Lafora Disease Using Structural Biology And Translational Methods, Amanda R. Sherwood Jan 2013

Investigating Therapeutic Options For Lafora Disease Using Structural Biology And Translational Methods, Amanda R. Sherwood

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Lafora disease (LD) is a rare yet invariably fatal form of epilepsy characterized by progressive degeneration of the central nervous and motor systems and accumulation of insoluble glucans within cells. LD results from mutation of either the phosphatase laforin, an enzyme that dephosphorylates cellular glycogen, or the E3 ubiquitin ligase malin, the binding partner of laforin. Currently, there are no therapeutic options for LD, or reported methods by which the specific activity of glucan phosphatases such as laforin can be easily measured. To facilitate our translational studies, we developed an assay with which the glucan phosphatase activity of laforin as ...


The Effect Of Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation On Muscle Fatigue In Knee Extensor Exercise, Seungyong Lee Jan 2013

The Effect Of Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation On Muscle Fatigue In Knee Extensor Exercise, Seungyong Lee

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

To examine the effect of acute beetroot juice supplementation on the rate of fatigue as measured by changes in peak torque.

Placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study, 35 recreationally active subjects consumed beetroot (BR) juice or black currant juice (PL) 12 and 2.5 hours before the exercise procedure. Peak torque was measured on the BIODEX dynamometer by performing 50, maximal effort, concentric knee extensions at 90°/s. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded before and after exercise.

No significant difference between BR and PL in the rate of fatigue measured by change in peak torque. By stage 3, subjects retained 87.6 ...