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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku Dec 2013

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku

Theses and Dissertations

GLS is a serious foliar disease of maize, a major staple crop grown commercially in the USA for both human and animal feed production, and increasingly, for ethanol production. The disease is caused by two Cercospora species, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina, both of which infect maize in the USA and in other parts of the world, with yield losses potentially greater than 50%, depending on local conditions. In culture, C. zeae-maydis produces a phytotoxic, host non-specific perylenequinone, cercosporin, and abscisic acid (ABA), for which there is no known pathological or physiological function in the fungus. Experimental evidence indicates that ...


Effects Of Rain And Simulated Rain On Deoxynivalenol Levels In Grain And Chaff Of Winter Wheat With Fusarium Head Blight, Manoj Kumar Pun Dec 2013

Effects Of Rain And Simulated Rain On Deoxynivalenol Levels In Grain And Chaff Of Winter Wheat With Fusarium Head Blight, Manoj Kumar Pun

Theses and Dissertations

Wheat grain affected by Fusarium head blight (FHB) contains the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) that is harmful to humans and animals. Reducing the amount of DON in grain is the goal of management practices for FHB so it is important to understand the factors affecting DON in grain. Some studies on the effects of late-season moisture found increases in DON while others found decreases due to leaching. The objectives of this study were to determine effects of late-season rain and misting on DON concentration in wheat spike tissues and to quantify the amount of DON leached from spikes. Field experiments were ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina

Theses and Dissertations

Increasing salinity is an important factor limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. In addition to direct effects on growth and yield, diseases also may be affected. This study characterized the effects of soil salinity on seedling disease of soybean and rice caused by Pythium spp. Controlled environment experiments on soybean used two cultivars which differed in chloride tolerance and soil treated with a CaCl2 solution to create a range of electrical conductivity (EC) levels. For soybean, soil was either not infested or infested with Pythium sylvaticum or P. aphanidermatum (pathogenic to soybean), or P. oligandrum (not pathogenic to soybean). Twenty-one days ...


Spatial Distributions Of Rhizoctonia Species In Soybean Fields Undergoing Annual Rotations With Rice, Terry Neil Spurlock Aug 2013

Spatial Distributions Of Rhizoctonia Species In Soybean Fields Undergoing Annual Rotations With Rice, Terry Neil Spurlock

Theses and Dissertations

Aerial blight is caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA. This pathogen also causes sheath blight of rice. In Arkansas, many soybean and rice fields undergo an annual rotation of these two crops which facilitates a continuous source of inoculum from one year to the next. Aerial blight is a two stage disease in that R. solani AG1-IA colonizes the plant during the early vegetative growth stages and then aerial blight develops after the soybean canopy closes in the later reproductive stages of development. As a result of the upper portion of the canopy often being asymptomatic, significant yield loss can occur ...


Abiotic And Biotic Factors Affecting The Japanese Beetle In Arkansas, Bryan Mathew Petty Aug 2013

Abiotic And Biotic Factors Affecting The Japanese Beetle In Arkansas, Bryan Mathew Petty

Theses and Dissertations

Japanese beetles are a relatively new pest to Arkansas. During my Ph.D. research I investigated the pathogens and environmental factors influencing Japanese beetle populations in the state. The prevalence of various pathogens and parasitoids attacking Popillia japonica were recorded annually from wild populations. Of specific interest was the microsporidian pathogen Ovavesicula popilliae, which I introduced as a biological control agent in the state. Details of the relationship between this pathogen and the Japanese beetle were investigated, including dose response, host range, and spore production. Additionally, annual abundance of the beetle in the region was recorded and tracked over the ...


Soybean (Glycine Max) Response To Imazosulfuron Drift And Carryover From Rice (Oryza Sativa), Sandeep Singh Rana Aug 2013

Soybean (Glycine Max) Response To Imazosulfuron Drift And Carryover From Rice (Oryza Sativa), Sandeep Singh Rana

Theses and Dissertations

In the Midsouth, soybean is often grown in close proximity to rice or in rotation with rice. Herbicides used in rice can injure soybean via drift or carryover. Consequently, field trials were conducted to determine the response of soybean (cv. AG 4703) to imazosulfuron drift and carryover (at Fayetteville, Marianna, Keiser and Pine Tree, AR) from rice. To assess the potential for carryover, soybean was planted into rice fields treated the previous year with imazosulfuron (rotation study). To evaluate in-season sensitivity of soybean to imazosulfuron (tolerance study) relative to halosulfuron, a common sulfonylurea herbicide applied to rice, both imazosulfuron and ...


Distribution And Control Of Glyphosate-Resistant Johnsongrass (Sorghum Halepense) In Arkansas Soybean, Dennis Brent Johnson Aug 2013

Distribution And Control Of Glyphosate-Resistant Johnsongrass (Sorghum Halepense) In Arkansas Soybean, Dennis Brent Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Johnsongrass, once the most persistent and troublesome grass weed of row crops throughout the southern U.S., has previously been confirmed resistant to the acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides in the Midsouth and has recently evolved resistance to glyphosate in Arkansas. The goal of this research was to establish the geographical distribution of herbicide-resistant johnsongrass in Arkansas and to develop herbicide programs for controlling glyphosate-resistant johnsongrass in Arkansas soybean. Johnsongrass accessions were collected from 14 counties in the Mississippi River Delta region of Arkansas and screened for resistance to four of the most commonly used postemergence herbicides ...


Morphological And Molecular Taxonomic Identification And Phylogenetics Of Criconematoidea, Marco Cordero May 2013

Morphological And Molecular Taxonomic Identification And Phylogenetics Of Criconematoidea, Marco Cordero

Theses and Dissertations

The superfamily Criconematoidea has been studied since 1886. It is composed of two families: Criconematidae (subfam. Criconematinae, Hemicycliophorinae) and Tylenchulidae (subfam. Tylenchulinae, Paratylenchinae and Tylenchocriconematinae). Multiple species in genera have been identified and differences and similarities have been found. Species belonging to genera Mesocriconema and Criconemoides show very few differences making their identification difficult. Seventy two populations were studied. They were collected in Arkansas and/or received from the following states: California, Florida, Kansas, Missouri, North Carolina and Tennessee. Populations of the following species were identified: Mesocriconema curvatum, M. kirjanovae, M. onoense, M. ornatum, M. sphaerocephala, M. surinamense, M. vadense ...


Initial Fine Mapping Of The Spinach Downy Mildew Resistance Locus Rpf1, Wei Yang May 2013

Initial Fine Mapping Of The Spinach Downy Mildew Resistance Locus Rpf1, Wei Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Spinach is an important vegetable crop grown in many parts of the world (Correll et al. 2011). It has become increasingly popular due to its nutritional value as it is very high in antioxidants (Prior, 2003). Spinach production, however, is affected by many biotic stresses. Downy mildew, caused by Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae (Pfs) , is perhaps the most important biotic constraint for spinach production worldwide (Correll et al, 1994). As of 2012, 14 races of Pfs have been reported (Correll et al., 2011). The rapid increase of new races is likely a direct result of substantial changes in spinach ...


Genetic Diversity Of Seed Dormancy And Molecular Evolution Of Weedy Red Rice, Te Ming Tseng May 2013

Genetic Diversity Of Seed Dormancy And Molecular Evolution Of Weedy Red Rice, Te Ming Tseng

Theses and Dissertations

Rice is the grain with the third-highest global production. In the US, Arkansas is the largest rice producing state; however, an estimated 62% of the rice fields in the state are infested with red rice, and can cause up to 80% yield reduction in rice. Among its weedy traits, seed dormancy plays an important role in its persistence, and helps red rice escape weed management techniques thereby increasing the red rice soil seedbank. Red rice also has the potential to hybridize among themselves and with cultivated rice, thus resulting in diverse phenotypes and genotypes. In this study we measured variation ...