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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku Dec 2013

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku

Theses and Dissertations

GLS is a serious foliar disease of maize, a major staple crop grown commercially in the USA for both human and animal feed production, and increasingly, for ethanol production. The disease is caused by two Cercospora species, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina, both of which infect maize in the USA and in other parts of the world, with yield losses potentially greater than 50%, depending on local conditions. In culture, C. zeae-maydis produces a phytotoxic, host non-specific perylenequinone, cercosporin, and abscisic acid (ABA), for which there is no known pathological or physiological function in the fungus. Experimental evidence indicates that ...


Selecting Drought Tolerant Soybean Genotypes Using Qtls Associated With Shoot Ureide And Nitrogen Concentrations, Alejandro Bolton Aug 2013

Selecting Drought Tolerant Soybean Genotypes Using Qtls Associated With Shoot Ureide And Nitrogen Concentrations, Alejandro Bolton

Theses and Dissertations

In soybean, nitrogen fixation is more sensitive to drought than other physiological processes like photosynthesis. The sensitivity of nitrogen fixation to drought has been associated with high shoot concentrations of ureide and nitrogen under well-watered conditions. Previous research by Hwang et al. (2013) detected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a KS4895 by Jackson population associated with shoot ureide and nitrogen concentrations. The present research evaluated the use of these QTLs in selecting genotypes with drought tolerant nitrogen fixation. Our objectives were to compare actual versus expected phenotype of recombinant inbreed lines (RILs) selected using molecular markers, and to evaluate the ...


Abiotic And Biotic Factors Affecting The Japanese Beetle In Arkansas, Bryan Mathew Petty Aug 2013

Abiotic And Biotic Factors Affecting The Japanese Beetle In Arkansas, Bryan Mathew Petty

Theses and Dissertations

Japanese beetles are a relatively new pest to Arkansas. During my Ph.D. research I investigated the pathogens and environmental factors influencing Japanese beetle populations in the state. The prevalence of various pathogens and parasitoids attacking Popillia japonica were recorded annually from wild populations. Of specific interest was the microsporidian pathogen Ovavesicula popilliae, which I introduced as a biological control agent in the state. Details of the relationship between this pathogen and the Japanese beetle were investigated, including dose response, host range, and spore production. Additionally, annual abundance of the beetle in the region was recorded and tracked over the ...


Study Of Thermotolerance Mechanism In Gossypium Hirsutum Through Identification Of Heat Stress Genes, Jin Zhang Aug 2013

Study Of Thermotolerance Mechanism In Gossypium Hirsutum Through Identification Of Heat Stress Genes, Jin Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Heat stress causes major losses to cotton seed and lint yield. Introduction of heat stress tolerance to Arkansas cotton varieties is highly desirable. However, very little is known about the molecular basis of heat stress tolerance in cotton. The present study attempted to identify heat stress tolerance genes in two heat-tolerant cotton cultivars, VH260 and MNH456, originating from Pakistan. Towards this, the expression profile of the cotton orthologs of sevenArabidopsisheat stress tolerance genes was studied in these two cultivars, and compared with the two heat-susceptible cotton cultivars, ST213 and ST4288, originating from Mississippi Delta region. In addition, physiological parameters ...


Genetic Diversity Of Seed Dormancy And Molecular Evolution Of Weedy Red Rice, Te Ming Tseng May 2013

Genetic Diversity Of Seed Dormancy And Molecular Evolution Of Weedy Red Rice, Te Ming Tseng

Theses and Dissertations

Rice is the grain with the third-highest global production. In the US, Arkansas is the largest rice producing state; however, an estimated 62% of the rice fields in the state are infested with red rice, and can cause up to 80% yield reduction in rice. Among its weedy traits, seed dormancy plays an important role in its persistence, and helps red rice escape weed management techniques thereby increasing the red rice soil seedbank. Red rice also has the potential to hybridize among themselves and with cultivated rice, thus resulting in diverse phenotypes and genotypes. In this study we measured variation ...


Physiological Effects Of Low Mowing Heights, Rolling, And Foot Traffic On Creeping Bentgrass Putting Greens, Joseph Ronald Young May 2013

Physiological Effects Of Low Mowing Heights, Rolling, And Foot Traffic On Creeping Bentgrass Putting Greens, Joseph Ronald Young

Theses and Dissertations

Golf course superintendents are managing creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting greens throughout the transition zone where temperatures can exceed optimum levels for consecutive days in the summer. The stress of creeping bentgrass associated with these supraoptimal temperatures has been well documented, but the management practices implemented on putting greens to increase green speeds may exacerbate these environmental stresses. To date, the physiological effects of these management practices in combination have not been evaluated for putting green turf. The objective of this dissertation project was to determine the effect of mowing heights, light-weight rolling, and foot traffic on performance and ...


Dark Green Color Index As A Method Of Real-Time In-Season Corn Nitrogen Measurement And Fertilization, Upton Siddons May 2013

Dark Green Color Index As A Method Of Real-Time In-Season Corn Nitrogen Measurement And Fertilization, Upton Siddons

Theses and Dissertations

Corn (Zea mays L.) requires higher rates of nitrogen fertilizer than any other major U.S. crop partly because N fertilizers are subject to loss through various mechanisms. Because of this, corn may suffer from inadequate nitrogen fertilization or producers may over-apply nitrogen to compensate for early-season nitrogen losses. A timely, accurate, and precise method for measuring in-season corn N status is needed to allow producers to keep nitrogen use efficiency high within a growing season.

Using appropriate software, hue, saturation, and brightness values of digital images can be combined in a dark green color index (DGCI) which is closely ...