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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phenotypic, Physiological And Growth Interactions Among Salmonella Serovars, Juliany Rivera Calo Dec 2013

Phenotypic, Physiological And Growth Interactions Among Salmonella Serovars, Juliany Rivera Calo

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of four research parts: a literature review that covers Salmonella spp., one of the more prominent foodborne pathogens that represents a major risk to humans (chapter 1). Understanding the growth of Salmonella serovars and strains is an important basis for more in depth research. In this case we studied a) the aerobic and anaerobic growth responses of multiple strains from six different serovars, b) how the spent media from different serovars, more importantly S. Heidelberg, affect the growth of S. Typhimurium, and c) determined whether or not two different serovars undergo competitive interactions when they were grown ...


Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette Dec 2013

Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette

Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes and obesity are chronic illnesses increasing at dramatic rates in the U.S. and around the world. Research has looked to prevent or control diabetes and obesity through functional ingredients such as healthy-dietary carbohydrates to control blood glucose levels. Starch is a principle carbohydrate, which influences blood glucose levels, and measuring starch digestibility fractions can help predict the glucose response in the body. The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional starch content of parboiled brown rice flour and grain sorghum flour, and measure the effects on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of 14 and 10 ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina

Theses and Dissertations

Increasing salinity is an important factor limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. In addition to direct effects on growth and yield, diseases also may be affected. This study characterized the effects of soil salinity on seedling disease of soybean and rice caused by Pythium spp. Controlled environment experiments on soybean used two cultivars which differed in chloride tolerance and soil treated with a CaCl2 solution to create a range of electrical conductivity (EC) levels. For soybean, soil was either not infested or infested with Pythium sylvaticum or P. aphanidermatum (pathogenic to soybean), or P. oligandrum (not pathogenic to soybean). Twenty-one days ...


Effect Of Electrostatic Spraying Of Food-Grade Organic And Inorganic Acids, And Grape Seed Extract On Salmonella Typhimurium And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 On Spinach And Iceberg Lettuce, Vijayalakshmi Ganesh Dec 2013

Effect Of Electrostatic Spraying Of Food-Grade Organic And Inorganic Acids, And Grape Seed Extract On Salmonella Typhimurium And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 On Spinach And Iceberg Lettuce, Vijayalakshmi Ganesh

Theses and Dissertations

The safety of fresh produce is often challenged by the sporadic incidences of outbreaks owing to Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.c.). Washing and current disinfection strategies do not completely decontaminate leafy greens such as spinach and iceberg lettuce. Therefore, more effective treatments are essential to ensure the microbial safety of the produce at the selling point. Here, a multiple hurdle approach was applied: (1) Natural antimicrobials - organic acids (malic, lactic and tartaric acids; MA, LA, TA, respectively) and plant extract (grape seed extract, GSE) and (2) Application method - Electrostatic spraying, was examined as a ...


Electrostatic Spray Application Of Food-Grade Organic Acids And Plant Extracts To Decrease Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Typhimurium On Select Produce, Leighanna Maeree Massey Dec 2013

Electrostatic Spray Application Of Food-Grade Organic Acids And Plant Extracts To Decrease Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Typhimurium On Select Produce, Leighanna Maeree Massey

Theses and Dissertations

Both consumers and suppliers have been negatively affected by an increase in foodborne pathogens contaminating fruits. Consequently, there is a need for the development of more efficient antimicrobials and application techniques to decrease contamination. Natural preservatives such as organic acids and plant extracts have demonstrated promising results in decontaminating produce. In addition, the effectiveness of such preservatives may be enhanced by the use of an electrostatic sprayer. The objective of this research was to determine the combinations and concentrations of organic acids and plant extract that were able to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) inoculated ...


Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting Breast Fillet Tenderness In Broilers Reared For Divergent Market Demands, Valerie Belle Brewer Dec 2013

Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting Breast Fillet Tenderness In Broilers Reared For Divergent Market Demands, Valerie Belle Brewer

Theses and Dissertations

Market trends have dictated that broilers be reared for divergent market demands for decades. Also, broiler genetic strains have been adapted to meet market demands which include: genetic selection for improved breast meat, the practice of growing birds to older ages and greater market weights to meet demands, and decreasing postmortem (PM) aging time to improve processing efficiency and fillet yield. These production practices can also affect product quality, specifically boneless breast fillet tenderness and water-holding capacity. To address these factors, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of strain and slaughter age on meat quality parameters ...


Excretion Of Phenolic Compounds After Consumption Of Fresh Versus Aged Chokeberry Juice In Rats, Sarah Elizabeth Graves Aug 2013

Excretion Of Phenolic Compounds After Consumption Of Fresh Versus Aged Chokeberry Juice In Rats, Sarah Elizabeth Graves

Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, may be responsible for the health benefits of chokeberries, as they are present in large quantities in chokeberries and are potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Despite these health properties, previous investigations on the bioavailability of flavonoids illustrate that little of the ingested amount reaches the bloodstream. This study investigated two factors that may help to explain these inconsistencies. First, storage of berry fruits and berry fruit products leads to extensive polymerization of their anthocyanins with procyanidins. Additionally, after consumption flavonoids may undergo metabolism into phenolic acids and subsequent conjugation to an extent that may explain their ...


Physio-Chemical And Sensory Properties Of A Nutrient-Fortified Extruded Product, Tajudini Lassissi Akande May 2013

Physio-Chemical And Sensory Properties Of A Nutrient-Fortified Extruded Product, Tajudini Lassissi Akande

Theses and Dissertations

Protein malnutrition is responsible for half the deaths of children under the age of five each year in developing countries. More than 4%, 26%, and 70% of children with protein malnutrition live in Latin America/the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia, respectively. The objective of this research was to develop a novel snack made with millet, black eye bean (from Niger Republic), and rice flour fortified with soybean meal protein using extrusion technology. Proximate analysis of the four flours was carried out to determine their chemical composition. Central composite design (CCD) was used to obtain best extrusion conditions to develop a ...


Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell May 2013

Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonellosis is the most frequently occurring bacterial foodborne illness in the United States and the human case rate has not improved for the past two decades. The federal agency responsible for oversight of meat and poultry processors has announced the intent to extend existing pathogen reduction performance standards for Salmonella spp. to cover all classes of products including fermented sausages that are currently produced under HACCP plans that are validated for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The proposed regulatory modifications will require processors to revalidate HACCP plan controls to achieve either a 6.5 or a 7.0 log10 ...