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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phenotypic, Physiological And Growth Interactions Among Salmonella Serovars, Juliany Rivera Calo Dec 2013

Phenotypic, Physiological And Growth Interactions Among Salmonella Serovars, Juliany Rivera Calo

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of four research parts: a literature review that covers Salmonella spp., one of the more prominent foodborne pathogens that represents a major risk to humans (chapter 1). Understanding the growth of Salmonella serovars and strains is an important basis for more in depth research. In this case we studied a) the aerobic and anaerobic growth responses of multiple strains from six different serovars, b) how the spent media from different serovars, more importantly S. Heidelberg, affect the growth of S. Typhimurium, and c) determined whether or not two different serovars undergo competitive interactions when they were grown ...


Effect Of Electrostatic Spraying Of Food-Grade Organic And Inorganic Acids, And Grape Seed Extract On Salmonella Typhimurium And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 On Spinach And Iceberg Lettuce, Vijayalakshmi Ganesh Dec 2013

Effect Of Electrostatic Spraying Of Food-Grade Organic And Inorganic Acids, And Grape Seed Extract On Salmonella Typhimurium And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 On Spinach And Iceberg Lettuce, Vijayalakshmi Ganesh

Theses and Dissertations

The safety of fresh produce is often challenged by the sporadic incidences of outbreaks owing to Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.c.). Washing and current disinfection strategies do not completely decontaminate leafy greens such as spinach and iceberg lettuce. Therefore, more effective treatments are essential to ensure the microbial safety of the produce at the selling point. Here, a multiple hurdle approach was applied: (1) Natural antimicrobials - organic acids (malic, lactic and tartaric acids; MA, LA, TA, respectively) and plant extract (grape seed extract, GSE) and (2) Application method - Electrostatic spraying, was examined as a ...


Electrostatic Spray Application Of Food-Grade Organic Acids And Plant Extracts To Decrease Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Typhimurium On Select Produce, Leighanna Maeree Massey Dec 2013

Electrostatic Spray Application Of Food-Grade Organic Acids And Plant Extracts To Decrease Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Typhimurium On Select Produce, Leighanna Maeree Massey

Theses and Dissertations

Both consumers and suppliers have been negatively affected by an increase in foodborne pathogens contaminating fruits. Consequently, there is a need for the development of more efficient antimicrobials and application techniques to decrease contamination. Natural preservatives such as organic acids and plant extracts have demonstrated promising results in decontaminating produce. In addition, the effectiveness of such preservatives may be enhanced by the use of an electrostatic sprayer. The objective of this research was to determine the combinations and concentrations of organic acids and plant extract that were able to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) inoculated ...


Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland Dec 2013

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is key in genetic research due to breeding feasibility, relatively short generation interval, and distinct phenotypes. It is estimated that 8% of broiler deaths annually can be attributed to ascites, an economically important disease that has been challenging the industry for the past 2 decades. Genetically selected ascites resistant (RES) and susceptible (SUS) chicken lines have been established and maintained by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Intensive research efforts have been made to reveal physiological and biochemical characteristics for the incidence of ascites. Since the whole genome of the major ancestral chicken, the Red Jungle Fowl, has been sequenced ...


In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min Dec 2013

In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min

Theses and Dissertations

As interest increases for colonic health, various studies have been conducted to investigate functional ingredients for host health and prevention of chronic disease in humans such as colon cancer and Type 2 diabetes. In particular dietary fiber has been reported to have beneficial effects on colonic health. More recently, dietary fiber has been categorized based on its characteristics and numerous studies have been conducted to determine correlations with chronic diseases. Pectin is a naturally occurring biopolymer that has been used in various applications for purposes of pharmaceutical and biotechnology. Pectin is a soluble dietary fiber and can be entirely fermented ...


Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde Aug 2013

Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde

Theses and Dissertations

Coccidiosis is a common enteric disease of turkeys that is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. There are about seven species of Eimeria that affect turkeys and of these E. adenoeides is the most pathogenic and commonly recognized. Infection with Eimeria is known to induce a long lasting protective immunity in chickens, but nothing is known regarding the acquisition of immunity to Eimeria in turkeys. The experiments reported here were aimed at investigating the biological and cellular immune response to E. adenoeides in turkey poults under different conditions of exposure. In experiment 1 (Chapter II), 20 day ...


Comparison Of Potential Salmonella Portals Of Entry And Tissue Distribution Following Challenge Of Poultry, Gopala Krishna Kallapura Sheshagiri Aug 2013

Comparison Of Potential Salmonella Portals Of Entry And Tissue Distribution Following Challenge Of Poultry, Gopala Krishna Kallapura Sheshagiri

Theses and Dissertations

The following studies evaluated our hypothesis that transmission by the fecal-respiratory route may be a viable portal of entry for Salmonella and could explain some clinical impressions of relatively low-dose infectivity under field conditions in relation to the requisite high oral challenge dose that is typically required for infection of poultry through the oral route in laboratory studies. Initial field reports indicating tracheal sampling to be a sensitive tool for monitoring Salmonella infection in commercial flocks, suggested that tracheal contamination could be a good indicator of Salmonella infection under commercial conditions. Further, a usual assumption regarding airborne Salmonella reaching the ...


Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang May 2013

Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to be a threat to human health. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying the IAVs-host interactions during IAV infection remain elusive. We employed quantitative proteomic methods to systematically explore the host cell protein expression responses to IAV infection and examine the function of a critical IAV protein called NS1 by identifying its host binding partners. Specifically, we used a 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic method to screen host proteins whose expression was substantially altered by IAV. One critical protein named IκB kinase-gamma (IKKγ) was found to be significantly down-regulated during IAV infection. Functional studies ...


Molecular Diagnosis Of Metabolic Fast Growth Related Diseases In Broiler, Adnan Ali Khalaf Al-Rubaye May 2013

Molecular Diagnosis Of Metabolic Fast Growth Related Diseases In Broiler, Adnan Ali Khalaf Al-Rubaye

Theses and Dissertations

Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS) and lameness are important metabolic diseases that affect rapidly growing broilers. The research reported in the first section of this dissertation focused on developing qPCR assays to identify differences in the expression levels of four candidate genes possibly associated with PHS: angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1): urotensin receptor 2D (UTS2D); serotonin receptor/transporter type 2Bn (HTR2B); and angiotensinogen cleaving enzyme (ACE). Expression levels of these candidate genes were examined in four different tissues. We established ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) and RNA polymerase subunit 2B (RP2B) as suitable reference genes because they showed the most consistent ...


Genetic Analysis Of The Promoter Region Of The Serotonin Receptor 5ht2b And Its Contribution To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broiler-Type Chickens, Khaloud Awada Alzahrani May 2013

Genetic Analysis Of The Promoter Region Of The Serotonin Receptor 5ht2b And Its Contribution To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broiler-Type Chickens, Khaloud Awada Alzahrani

Theses and Dissertations

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a sever disorder characterized by high pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance along with specific histological changes. Idiopathic PAH is a human disease of unknown origin that showed common characteristics to PHS/ascites in chicken. PHS/ascites is a condition found in broilers causing right ventricular hypertrophy, valvular insufficiency, increased venous pressure, variable liver changes, accumulation of fluids in the abdominal cavity, and finally lung and heart failure. Currently, there is no acceptable animal model for human PAH. Our group has been validating the chicken as the medical animal model for human PAH, thus ...


Efficacy Of Probiotics For Reducing The Incidence Of Lameness In Broilers Grown On Wire Flooring, John Matthew Stark May 2013

Efficacy Of Probiotics For Reducing The Incidence Of Lameness In Broilers Grown On Wire Flooring, John Matthew Stark

Theses and Dissertations

Growing broilers on wire flooring provides an excellent experimental model for reproducibly triggering significant levels of lameness. In Pilot Study #1 using broilers from Line C grown on wire flooring, adding the Biomin probiotic PoultryStar® to the feed reduced the percentage of lameness by half when compared with broilers that received the control diet alone. In Pilot Study # 2 using broilers from Line B grown on wire flooring, adding the PoultryStar® probiotic reduced the percentage of lameness to 8% when compared with 28% lameness in broilers that received the control diet alone. The objective of this study was to conduct ...


Oxidation Of Thrombomodulin Methionine 388 In Cigarette Smokers, Samrat B. Thapa May 2013

Oxidation Of Thrombomodulin Methionine 388 In Cigarette Smokers, Samrat B. Thapa

Theses and Dissertations

This work tested the hypothesis that oxidation of methionine 388 in thrombomodulin is higher in cigarette smokers, and thus a likely contributor towards the hypercoagulable state in smokers. Thrombomodulin, a protein cofactor found on endothelial cell surfaces, regulates the activity of thrombin. Thrombin bound to thrombomodulin no longer converts fibrinogen to fibrin, but instead activates Protein C which, in turn, stops the coagulation cascade by inactivation of clotting factors. The oxidation of methionine 388 of thrombomodulin has been shown in vitro to dramatically decrease the anticoagulant cofactor activity of thrombomodulin. The blood of cigarette smokers is more prone to clot ...


Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell May 2013

Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonellosis is the most frequently occurring bacterial foodborne illness in the United States and the human case rate has not improved for the past two decades. The federal agency responsible for oversight of meat and poultry processors has announced the intent to extend existing pathogen reduction performance standards for Salmonella spp. to cover all classes of products including fermented sausages that are currently produced under HACCP plans that are validated for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The proposed regulatory modifications will require processors to revalidate HACCP plan controls to achieve either a 6.5 or a 7.0 log10 ...