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Northwest Arkansas Consumer Perceptions Of Poultry Production, Stuart Estes Dec 2013

Northwest Arkansas Consumer Perceptions Of Poultry Production, Stuart Estes

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Poultry production holds an important place in Arkansas economically and as a food source. The importance of poultry production ultimately hinges on the demands of the consumers and the perceptions that drive their purchases. With this in mind, this study surveyed consumers to assess their perceptions of poultry production in Arkansas. The instrument used to survey consumers was created by the researcher and an expert committee at the University of Arkansas. Consumers were interviewed through direct communication at grocery stores in northwest Arkansas. Data gathered from the study were analyzed for descriptive and correlational statistics. Data showed that consumers were ...


Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green Dec 2013

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green

Theses and Dissertations

Dramatic range-wide declines in Greater Sage-Grouse populations have prompted efforts to determine habitat characteristics that are selected by sage-grouse for foraging, nesting and brood-rearing areas in an effort to conserve this species. Managers at Heart Mountain and Y U Bench in northwestern Wyoming expressed the need to quantify various habitat characteristics and to determine key use areas at both study sites. Data were collected on a variety of habitat variables in spots selected by grouse for foraging, nesting, and brood-rearing activities. These variables were compared to the same variables measured at random points at both study sites. Significant differences existed ...


Management Of Katahdin Hair Sheep, Elizabeth Ann Backes Dec 2013

Management Of Katahdin Hair Sheep, Elizabeth Ann Backes

Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of different management practices on Katahdin hair sheep performance. For experiment 1, over 2 yr, 5, 0.4-ha pastures were allocated randomly to 1 of 2 grazing treatments: 1) Continuous; or 2) 4-cell rotation. Fifty yearling Katahdin ewes (53 ± 0.7 kg initial BW; 3.3 ± 0.09 initial BCS) were stratified by BW and BCS and allocated randomly to pastures in early May. Grazing d, basal cover, forage quantity or quality did not differ across treatments; however, sampling date effects were detected for forage quantity and quality. Beginning and ...


Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland Dec 2013

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is key in genetic research due to breeding feasibility, relatively short generation interval, and distinct phenotypes. It is estimated that 8% of broiler deaths annually can be attributed to ascites, an economically important disease that has been challenging the industry for the past 2 decades. Genetically selected ascites resistant (RES) and susceptible (SUS) chicken lines have been established and maintained by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Intensive research efforts have been made to reveal physiological and biochemical characteristics for the incidence of ascites. Since the whole genome of the major ancestral chicken, the Red Jungle Fowl, has been sequenced ...


Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting Breast Fillet Tenderness In Broilers Reared For Divergent Market Demands, Valerie Belle Brewer Dec 2013

Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting Breast Fillet Tenderness In Broilers Reared For Divergent Market Demands, Valerie Belle Brewer

Theses and Dissertations

Market trends have dictated that broilers be reared for divergent market demands for decades. Also, broiler genetic strains have been adapted to meet market demands which include: genetic selection for improved breast meat, the practice of growing birds to older ages and greater market weights to meet demands, and decreasing postmortem (PM) aging time to improve processing efficiency and fillet yield. These production practices can also affect product quality, specifically boneless breast fillet tenderness and water-holding capacity. To address these factors, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of strain and slaughter age on meat quality parameters ...


The Color And Consistency Of Steaks And Ground Beef Produced From Mature Bulls, Jace Joseph Hollenbeck Dec 2013

The Color And Consistency Of Steaks And Ground Beef Produced From Mature Bulls, Jace Joseph Hollenbeck

Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted to compare the color and cooked attributes of steaks and ground beef produced from mature bulls. Beef from mature bulls was used to test the effects of lactic acid (LA) enhancement solution pH (2.5, 3.0, or 3.5; B25, B30, B35, respectively) on fresh (5 d of display) and cooked color and tenderness of strip loin steaks (Exp. 1) and the effect of high pH trim on precooked ground beef patties (Exp. 2). In experiment 1, mature bull strip steaks were enhanced to 111% with a LA, sodium bicarbonate, and tap water solution, in ...


The Effect Of Calcium And Nonphytate Phosphorus On Chicken Genetic Line, Egg Production, Shell Quality, Bone Homeostasis, And Progeny Bone Quality, Phiphob Sodsee Dec 2013

The Effect Of Calcium And Nonphytate Phosphorus On Chicken Genetic Line, Egg Production, Shell Quality, Bone Homeostasis, And Progeny Bone Quality, Phiphob Sodsee

Theses and Dissertations

The study consisted of two parts to determine effects of dietary calcium (Ca) and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) level on four pure genetic lines of broiler breeders. The first part was concentrated on body composition, egg production and shell quality changes according to diet and genetic line. The second part was the study of bone homeostasis variables combining hematology, bone histology and body composition changes according to diet and genetic line. In the study, pullets (246 from each of pure genetic line A, B, C and D) were individually caged and light stimulated at 21 weeks of age. The study duration ...


Evaluating Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Changing Herd Sire Genetics On Arkansas Cow-Calf Operations, Daniel Keeton Aug 2013

Evaluating Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Changing Herd Sire Genetics On Arkansas Cow-Calf Operations, Daniel Keeton

Theses and Dissertations

This research looks at impacts of changing sires, and thus bull genetics, on cow-calf operations of varying land and herd sizes in the state of Arkansas. A 2012 Across-Breed EPD table, adjusted to the Angus breed, was used to estimate breed sire effects on birth weight and weaning weight of the herd's offspring (Kuehn and Thallman 2012a). Together with modified animal performance, the use of 2012 and most recent five- and ten- year Arkansas state average prices, allowed the evaluation of changing herd sires by accounting for breed type and hide color differences in prices. Using a spreadsheet tool ...


Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde Aug 2013

Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde

Theses and Dissertations

Coccidiosis is a common enteric disease of turkeys that is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. There are about seven species of Eimeria that affect turkeys and of these E. adenoeides is the most pathogenic and commonly recognized. Infection with Eimeria is known to induce a long lasting protective immunity in chickens, but nothing is known regarding the acquisition of immunity to Eimeria in turkeys. The experiments reported here were aimed at investigating the biological and cellular immune response to E. adenoeides in turkey poults under different conditions of exposure. In experiment 1 (Chapter II), 20 day ...


Turpentine Creek: Arkansas' Refuge, Jacob Paul Bain Aug 2013

Turpentine Creek: Arkansas' Refuge, Jacob Paul Bain

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this Master's thesis film project was twofold. First, I wanted to explore the problem, huge but relatively unknown, of the ownership of exotic pets in the United States of America. Second, in conjunction with that problem, I wanted to see how Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge (TCWR) approached it and what, as an organization, they do to help resolve this problem locally and nationally. In turn, the film also provides an in-depth look at a very unique refuge in the state of Arkansas. Using my own equipment, I shot and edited a short-form documentary about TCWR. The ...


The Use Of Non-Traditional Technologies To Improve The Efficiency And Sustainability Of Modern Poultry Production, Christopher Pixley Aug 2013

The Use Of Non-Traditional Technologies To Improve The Efficiency And Sustainability Of Modern Poultry Production, Christopher Pixley

Theses and Dissertations

Historically, major driving factors for the animal agriculture industry have been efficiency and profitability. As demand for efficient food production has increased, the industry has focused research efforts on ways to improve the rearing process. Current market demands are requiring the industry to abandon some of the traditional tools it has used to maximize productivity. However, developing alternative technologies are available which may fill the void. Unfortunately, these alternatives are less well-described and the beneficial impacts they can have are not fully understood. As the animal agriculture industry matures it is becoming evident that consumers will continue to demand methods ...


Comparison Of Potential Salmonella Portals Of Entry And Tissue Distribution Following Challenge Of Poultry, Gopala Krishna Kallapura Sheshagiri Aug 2013

Comparison Of Potential Salmonella Portals Of Entry And Tissue Distribution Following Challenge Of Poultry, Gopala Krishna Kallapura Sheshagiri

Theses and Dissertations

The following studies evaluated our hypothesis that transmission by the fecal-respiratory route may be a viable portal of entry for Salmonella and could explain some clinical impressions of relatively low-dose infectivity under field conditions in relation to the requisite high oral challenge dose that is typically required for infection of poultry through the oral route in laboratory studies. Initial field reports indicating tracheal sampling to be a sensitive tool for monitoring Salmonella infection in commercial flocks, suggested that tracheal contamination could be a good indicator of Salmonella infection under commercial conditions. Further, a usual assumption regarding airborne Salmonella reaching the ...


Evaluation Of Water Sanitation Options For Poultry Production, Pramir Maharjan Aug 2013

Evaluation Of Water Sanitation Options For Poultry Production, Pramir Maharjan

Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of poultry farm water supplies was conducted to determine the value and impact of water system sanitation practices in commercial broiler houses on microbial levels. Water line cleaning between flocks using concentrated disinfectant solution before placing chicks reduced biofilms retained in the lines to a safe level. Occasional microbial surges were noticed during different points of flock grow-out period even when daily water sanitation was present indicating water is highly susceptible to microbial contamination. However, the daily water sanitation practice controlled the occasional microbial surges in water from sustaining and kept drinking water to a microbiologically acceptable level ...


Ecology And Flock-Following Behavior Of The Wedge-Billed Woodcreeper In Eastern Ecuador, Abigail Darrah May 2013

Ecology And Flock-Following Behavior Of The Wedge-Billed Woodcreeper In Eastern Ecuador, Abigail Darrah

Theses and Dissertations

The wedge-billed woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spirurus) is a common understory suboscine passerine of lowland Neotropical rainforests. It frequently joins mixed-species understory flocks but also regularly forages alone, and thus is an excellent model species on which to conduct comparative behavioral observations to examine the hypothesized costs and benefits of flock-following. Individuals exhibit variable flocking propensities (proportion of time spent with flocks), and thus observing the correlations between flocking propensity and physical and environmental factors can provide further insight into the importance of flock-following to the ecology of this species. Despite its abundance at many sites and its wide geographic range, surprisingly ...


Hair Shedding Scores Relating To Maternal Traits And Productivity In Beef Cattle, Ashton Williams May 2013

Hair Shedding Scores Relating To Maternal Traits And Productivity In Beef Cattle, Ashton Williams

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objectives of this study were to measure how quickly cattle shed their winter coat in the sub-tropical climate of Arkansas. As well as, to understand the role age may play on cattle shedding efficiency in spring and summer months, in conjunction with the relationship between mother hair coat and calf sex. Angus based commercial beef cattle (n = 224) were observed over a five-month period in 2012. Once monthly, at approximately 28-day intervals, cattle were evaluated for shedding on a scale from 1 to 5. A score of 5 indicated the cow/heifer had a full winter coat and a ...


Genetic Analysis Of The Promoter Region Of The Serotonin Receptor 5ht2b And Its Contribution To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broiler-Type Chickens, Khaloud Awada Alzahrani May 2013

Genetic Analysis Of The Promoter Region Of The Serotonin Receptor 5ht2b And Its Contribution To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broiler-Type Chickens, Khaloud Awada Alzahrani

Theses and Dissertations

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a sever disorder characterized by high pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance along with specific histological changes. Idiopathic PAH is a human disease of unknown origin that showed common characteristics to PHS/ascites in chicken. PHS/ascites is a condition found in broilers causing right ventricular hypertrophy, valvular insufficiency, increased venous pressure, variable liver changes, accumulation of fluids in the abdominal cavity, and finally lung and heart failure. Currently, there is no acceptable animal model for human PAH. Our group has been validating the chicken as the medical animal model for human PAH, thus ...


Efficacy Of Probiotics For Reducing The Incidence Of Lameness In Broilers Grown On Wire Flooring, John Matthew Stark May 2013

Efficacy Of Probiotics For Reducing The Incidence Of Lameness In Broilers Grown On Wire Flooring, John Matthew Stark

Theses and Dissertations

Growing broilers on wire flooring provides an excellent experimental model for reproducibly triggering significant levels of lameness. In Pilot Study #1 using broilers from Line C grown on wire flooring, adding the Biomin probiotic PoultryStar® to the feed reduced the percentage of lameness by half when compared with broilers that received the control diet alone. In Pilot Study # 2 using broilers from Line B grown on wire flooring, adding the PoultryStar® probiotic reduced the percentage of lameness to 8% when compared with 28% lameness in broilers that received the control diet alone. The objective of this study was to conduct ...


Effects Of Ergot Alkaloids And Bovine Bodily Fluids On Cytochrome P450 Activity, Nicholas Scott Ezell May 2013

Effects Of Ergot Alkaloids And Bovine Bodily Fluids On Cytochrome P450 Activity, Nicholas Scott Ezell

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis evaluates the PromegaTM P450-Glo assay (PromegaTM V9800) as a tool for quantifying ergot alkaloid concentration. Current techniques used for detection of ergot alkaloids are slow and expensive, do not detect all ergot alkaloids, or are not effective on bovine bodily fluids. The first study was conducted to determine effects of commercial ergot alkaloids (n = 6; 0 - 400 μM) on the PromegaTM P450-Glo assay. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity in assay had a differential response to each ergot alkaloid and concentration. As concentrations of ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine increased CYP450 activity was inhibited (P < 0.05). Increases in ergonovine and pergolide concentration did not affect (P > 0.1 ...


Effects Of Using Canola Meal As A Protein Source In Broiler Diets, Charles Danny Bradley Jr May 2013

Effects Of Using Canola Meal As A Protein Source In Broiler Diets, Charles Danny Bradley Jr

Theses and Dissertations

Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of broilers fed canola meal. Experiment 1 assessed performance and carcass yields when broilers were fed various combinations of canola and soybean meal in nutritionally balanced diets based on digestible amino acid values. The results suggested that canola meal can be used in isocaloric diets as a partial replacement for Soybean meal.

Experiment 2 assessed broiler performance and carcass yields when using various levels of canola meal in broiler diets with a constant level of supplemental poultry oil. The resulting data suggested when diets are formulated with a constant level of supplemental ...


Relationship Of Lactate Dehydrogenase & Prolactin Genotypes To Immune Function, Growth, And Composition Of Replacement Heifers Grazing Tall Fescue, Christina Marie Turner May 2013

Relationship Of Lactate Dehydrogenase & Prolactin Genotypes To Immune Function, Growth, And Composition Of Replacement Heifers Grazing Tall Fescue, Christina Marie Turner

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives of this research were to determine effects of LDH enzymatic activity and circulating PRL on immune response, growth, composition, and reproduction, and to determine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms of LDH and PRL on immune function, growth and carcass traits, cyclicty, and fecundity of replacement heifers grazing endophyte infected tall fescue. Eighty-nine Angus based heifers had physical and ultrasound measurements along with blood samples collected at weaning, yearling, and prebreeding. Estrus detection was conducted for 10 d post each collection period, except prebreeding. Pregnancy status was verified after AI and again after bull removal. Heifers were maintained on ...


Efficacies Of Fenbendazole And Albendazole In The Treatment Of Commercial Turkeys Artificially Infected With Ascaridiadissimilis, Jessica Perkins May 2013

Efficacies Of Fenbendazole And Albendazole In The Treatment Of Commercial Turkeys Artificially Infected With Ascaridiadissimilis, Jessica Perkins

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The goal of this research was to determine the extent of anthelmintic resistance that turkey roundworms, Ascaridiadissimilis, have developed to anti-parasitic chemicals used in commercial turkey operations. Roundworm infections in turkeys have resulted in monetary losses for the poultry industry for years, generally due to poor feed conversion. The infection itself is generally subclinical and many turkeys have a light to moderate worm burden. Since parasitisms are light, this leads to the infections being noticed only during processing.A. dissimilis infections consist of adult worms and developing larvae with the latter comprising most of the worm burden and causing the ...