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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland Dec 2013

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is key in genetic research due to breeding feasibility, relatively short generation interval, and distinct phenotypes. It is estimated that 8% of broiler deaths annually can be attributed to ascites, an economically important disease that has been challenging the industry for the past 2 decades. Genetically selected ascites resistant (RES) and susceptible (SUS) chicken lines have been established and maintained by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Intensive research efforts have been made to reveal physiological and biochemical characteristics for the incidence of ascites. Since the whole genome of the major ancestral chicken, the Red Jungle Fowl, has been sequenced ...


Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde Aug 2013

Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde

Theses and Dissertations

Coccidiosis is a common enteric disease of turkeys that is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. There are about seven species of Eimeria that affect turkeys and of these E. adenoeides is the most pathogenic and commonly recognized. Infection with Eimeria is known to induce a long lasting protective immunity in chickens, but nothing is known regarding the acquisition of immunity to Eimeria in turkeys. The experiments reported here were aimed at investigating the biological and cellular immune response to E. adenoeides in turkey poults under different conditions of exposure. In experiment 1 (Chapter II), 20 day ...


Comparison Of Potential Salmonella Portals Of Entry And Tissue Distribution Following Challenge Of Poultry, Gopala Krishna Kallapura Sheshagiri Aug 2013

Comparison Of Potential Salmonella Portals Of Entry And Tissue Distribution Following Challenge Of Poultry, Gopala Krishna Kallapura Sheshagiri

Theses and Dissertations

The following studies evaluated our hypothesis that transmission by the fecal-respiratory route may be a viable portal of entry for Salmonella and could explain some clinical impressions of relatively low-dose infectivity under field conditions in relation to the requisite high oral challenge dose that is typically required for infection of poultry through the oral route in laboratory studies. Initial field reports indicating tracheal sampling to be a sensitive tool for monitoring Salmonella infection in commercial flocks, suggested that tracheal contamination could be a good indicator of Salmonella infection under commercial conditions. Further, a usual assumption regarding airborne Salmonella reaching the ...


Molecular Diagnosis Of Metabolic Fast Growth Related Diseases In Broiler, Adnan Ali Khalaf Al-Rubaye May 2013

Molecular Diagnosis Of Metabolic Fast Growth Related Diseases In Broiler, Adnan Ali Khalaf Al-Rubaye

Theses and Dissertations

Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS) and lameness are important metabolic diseases that affect rapidly growing broilers. The research reported in the first section of this dissertation focused on developing qPCR assays to identify differences in the expression levels of four candidate genes possibly associated with PHS: angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1): urotensin receptor 2D (UTS2D); serotonin receptor/transporter type 2Bn (HTR2B); and angiotensinogen cleaving enzyme (ACE). Expression levels of these candidate genes were examined in four different tissues. We established ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) and RNA polymerase subunit 2B (RP2B) as suitable reference genes because they showed the most consistent ...


Genetic Analysis Of The Promoter Region Of The Serotonin Receptor 5ht2b And Its Contribution To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broiler-Type Chickens, Khaloud Awada Alzahrani May 2013

Genetic Analysis Of The Promoter Region Of The Serotonin Receptor 5ht2b And Its Contribution To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broiler-Type Chickens, Khaloud Awada Alzahrani

Theses and Dissertations

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a sever disorder characterized by high pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance along with specific histological changes. Idiopathic PAH is a human disease of unknown origin that showed common characteristics to PHS/ascites in chicken. PHS/ascites is a condition found in broilers causing right ventricular hypertrophy, valvular insufficiency, increased venous pressure, variable liver changes, accumulation of fluids in the abdominal cavity, and finally lung and heart failure. Currently, there is no acceptable animal model for human PAH. Our group has been validating the chicken as the medical animal model for human PAH, thus ...


Efficacy Of Probiotics For Reducing The Incidence Of Lameness In Broilers Grown On Wire Flooring, John Matthew Stark May 2013

Efficacy Of Probiotics For Reducing The Incidence Of Lameness In Broilers Grown On Wire Flooring, John Matthew Stark

Theses and Dissertations

Growing broilers on wire flooring provides an excellent experimental model for reproducibly triggering significant levels of lameness. In Pilot Study #1 using broilers from Line C grown on wire flooring, adding the Biomin probiotic PoultryStar® to the feed reduced the percentage of lameness by half when compared with broilers that received the control diet alone. In Pilot Study # 2 using broilers from Line B grown on wire flooring, adding the PoultryStar® probiotic reduced the percentage of lameness to 8% when compared with 28% lameness in broilers that received the control diet alone. The objective of this study was to conduct ...


Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell May 2013

Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonellosis is the most frequently occurring bacterial foodborne illness in the United States and the human case rate has not improved for the past two decades. The federal agency responsible for oversight of meat and poultry processors has announced the intent to extend existing pathogen reduction performance standards for Salmonella spp. to cover all classes of products including fermented sausages that are currently produced under HACCP plans that are validated for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The proposed regulatory modifications will require processors to revalidate HACCP plan controls to achieve either a 6.5 or a 7.0 log10 ...