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The Effect Of Supplemental Vitamin C On Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Carcass Characteristics, And Meat Quality Of Steers Fed High Sulfur Finishing Diets, Danielle Jaye Pogge Jan 2013

The Effect Of Supplemental Vitamin C On Performance, Antioxidant Capacity, Carcass Characteristics, And Meat Quality Of Steers Fed High Sulfur Finishing Diets, Danielle Jaye Pogge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The incorporation of ethanol industry co-products, such as dried distillers grains plus solubles, to feedlot diets in the United States may be inadvertently exposing cattle to high amounts of dietary sulfur. High sulfur diets have repeatedly been reported to decrease growth and carcass performance, health, and copper status; however, little to no information is available concerning the implications that high sulfur diets have on the antioxidant capacity or meat quality of cattle. Thus, the subsequent research trials were designed to: 1) examine the impacts of high dietary S on diet digestibility and macro and micro mineral absorption and retention, 2 ...


Foraging By Mice In Spatially And Temporally Variable Agricultural Fields: Implications For Volunteer Corn, Invertebrate And Weed Pest Control, Tatyana Jennifer Flick Jan 2013

Foraging By Mice In Spatially And Temporally Variable Agricultural Fields: Implications For Volunteer Corn, Invertebrate And Weed Pest Control, Tatyana Jennifer Flick

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is a common year-round resident of Midwestern agricultural fields, and provides several ecosystem services. Previous studies and preliminary findings have shown that the mouse consumes large quantities of weed seeds and waste grain during the fall and winter. However, it is unknown how the spatial and temporal variation in resource types and their distribution affects foraging by deer mice in these crop fields. The following two studies were designed to 1) experimentally test how resource distribution (patchiness) within a field affects foraging by deer mice and 2) examine the temporal variation in diet ...


Effects Of Diets Containing Digestion-Resistant Starch On Wnt Pathway Control Of Proliferation And Differentiation Of The Colorectal Mucosa, Nicole Cray Jan 2013

Effects Of Diets Containing Digestion-Resistant Starch On Wnt Pathway Control Of Proliferation And Differentiation Of The Colorectal Mucosa, Nicole Cray

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistant starch (RS) is not digested in the small intestine and is available for fermentation by the colonic microbiota, producing metabolites including short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). We hypothesized that diets containing resistant starch, serving as a prebiotic, will have inhibitory effects, mediated through the products of microbial fermentation, on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, we examined the molecular and morphologic effects of diets containing resistant starches on the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-induced rat and mouse models. The first study examined the effects of diets containing naturally occurring resistant starch from Latin American ...


Addressing Fatty Acids Toxicity And Production In Biocatalysts, Ping Liu Jan 2013

Addressing Fatty Acids Toxicity And Production In Biocatalysts, Ping Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fatty acids recently gain more attentions due to its potentials as fuel and chemicals. However, they are toxic to biocatalysts like many other biofuel compounds. Understanding the inhibitory mechanism can help to improve the production of fatty acids.

In current study, the toxicity of short chain fatty acids: hexanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acid on Saccharomyces. cerevisiae and Escherichia.coli were inverstigated with a focus on octanoic acid. The toxicity of fatty acids (hexanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acid) in S. cerevisiae is dependent on doses and chain lengths, and also leads to damaged membrane intergirity, which was confirmed by increased membreane ...


Decoding Heterogeneous Big Data In An Integrative Way, Xia Zhang Jan 2013

Decoding Heterogeneous Big Data In An Integrative Way, Xia Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Biotechnologies in post-genomic era, especially those that generate data in high-throughput, bring opportunities and challenges that are never faced before. And one of them is how to decode big heterogeneous data for clues that are useful for biological questions. With the exponential growth of a variety of data, comes with more and more applications of systematic approaches that investigate biological questions in an integrative way. Systematic approaches inherently require integration of heterogeneous information, which is urgently calling for a lot more efforts.

In this thesis, the effort is mainly devoted to the development of methods and tools that help to ...


Phylogeography Of Eastern Leatherwood (Dirca Palustris L.) Resolved By Chloroplast Sequencing And Microsatellite Genotyping, Bryan James Peterson Jan 2013

Phylogeography Of Eastern Leatherwood (Dirca Palustris L.) Resolved By Chloroplast Sequencing And Microsatellite Genotyping, Bryan James Peterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The broad distribution of eastern leatherwood (Dirca palustris L.), from Florida to Canada, contrasted with its patchy restriction to rich, mesic forests and the paucity of vectors for dispersal of its seeds, represents a classic example of Reid's paradox of plant migration. It long has been presumed that temperate forest species of eastern North America persisted in southern glacial refugia near the Gulf Coast, after which many dispersed nearly 2000 km to contemporary northern range limits. The rates of migration necessary to account for present distributions exceed those suggested by contemporary observations of seed dispersal. I used ecological niche ...


Understanding Biodiversity: The Importance Of Sexual Dimorphism In The Micro- And Macroevolution Of Hummingbirds, Chelsea Marie Berns Jan 2013

Understanding Biodiversity: The Importance Of Sexual Dimorphism In The Micro- And Macroevolution Of Hummingbirds, Chelsea Marie Berns

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

For centuries, biologists have asked "why are there so many species, and why do we see such magnificent biological diversity?" This dissertation addresses this question by examining sexual size and shape dimorphism hummingbird bills at both a micro and macroevolutionary scale. Specifically, I quantify sexual size and shape dimorphism of bill morphology of 269 species of hummingbirds and begin with a species-level study to find that community structure might be a driving factor in the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in 2 sister species of hummingbirds, and the presence of sexual shape dimorphism in one of those species.

I ...


Measuring Femoral Neck Loads In Older Adults During Stair Ascent And Descent, Chen Deng Jan 2013

Measuring Femoral Neck Loads In Older Adults During Stair Ascent And Descent, Chen Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Fractures at the femoral neck play an important role in morbidity and mortality among older adults. Understanding the loading environment is a crucial factor for reducing the incidence of fracture at this site. In this study, the stresses on the femoral neck during stair ascent and descent were estimated. These femoral neck stresses were also compared to the peak loading from internal hip moments. Five male and five female adult subjects performed 5 successful trials of stair ascent and the same number trials of descent with a 3-step staircase. Motion and force data were collected. Inverse dynamics was used ...


Oral S-Adenosyl Methionine (Sam) Mediates Disruptions In Methyl Group Metabolism Due To Retinoic Acid Therapy And Alters Neurotransmitter Metabolism: Implications For Major Depressive Disorder, Anne Smazal Jan 2013

Oral S-Adenosyl Methionine (Sam) Mediates Disruptions In Methyl Group Metabolism Due To Retinoic Acid Therapy And Alters Neurotransmitter Metabolism: Implications For Major Depressive Disorder, Anne Smazal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Disruptions in methyl group metabolism have been associated with a number of disease states, including birth defects, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, characterization of the factors that regulate folate and methyl group supply is essential for the development of disease treatments and prevention. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), an enzyme essential to methyl group balance, is markedly increased by retinoic acid treatment. Furthermore, retinoid therapy has been shown to impact neurotransmitter metabolism, thereby contributing to the development of major depressive disorder. Recently, it has been shown that depressed patients have low levels of folate, other B-vitamins, and s-adenosylmethionine (SAM), all compounds ...


Development Of A Corn Stover Yield Monitor, Byron Manternach Jan 2013

Development Of A Corn Stover Yield Monitor, Byron Manternach

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research developed a sensor to measure the mass flow of corn stover through a combine and determine what harvest parameters affected the response of the sensor. A sensor was developed by installing a curved plate behind the rotor discharge beater of the combine to intersect the flow path of the stover leaving the rotor discharge beater. The plate was instrumented with load cells to measure the impact force of the corn stover on the impact plate. Instrumentation methods for the impact plate were evaluated to determine the most effective method to instrument the impact plate to measure the impact ...


Iron Bioavailability And Consumer Acceptability Of Extruded Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Flour, Martin Mutambuka Jan 2013

Iron Bioavailability And Consumer Acceptability Of Extruded Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Flour, Martin Mutambuka

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Iron deficiency anemia continues to be a major nutritional challenge worldwide and is mainly caused by dependence on staple foods which are low in iron bioavailability. In many parts of the world, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important source of iron. Bean iron has very low bioavailability and household/industrial processing technologies have been shown to improve iron bioavailability. In this study, iron bioavailability of 16 Ugandan bean varieties was determined using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model and modeled with respect to key influencing factors; phytate, polyphenol, ferritin and iron content. The effect of extrusion ...


Genetic And Phenotypic Relationships Between Feed Intake During Lactation And Reproductive Performance, Chad Lewis Yoder Jan 2013

Genetic And Phenotypic Relationships Between Feed Intake During Lactation And Reproductive Performance, Chad Lewis Yoder

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Daily feed intake during lactation was recorded on purebred Yorkshire (n = 1587), Landrace (n = 2197), and F1 Yorkshire x Landrace (n = 6932) litters from day 1 to 22 of lactation. Lactation feed intake (LFI) curves were predicted using a mixed model which included fixed effects of breed, season, parity group (PG), day of lactation, interactions of day with breed and PG, and a covariate for litter size after cross–fostering. Random effects included litter, contemporary group (herd–year–month), dam, and sire nested within breed. Least squares means for each day were used to define LFI curves by breed through ...


Molecular Regulation Of Il-2 Inducible T-Cell Kinase (Itk) And The Tec Kinases: A Combined Experimental And Computational Study, With Emphasis On The N-Terminal Pleckstrin Homology Domain, Scott Edward Boyken Jan 2013

Molecular Regulation Of Il-2 Inducible T-Cell Kinase (Itk) And The Tec Kinases: A Combined Experimental And Computational Study, With Emphasis On The N-Terminal Pleckstrin Homology Domain, Scott Edward Boyken

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the complex regulation of IL-2 inducible T-cell kinase (Itk) and its related Tec family kinase members, using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. Tec kinases are expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells and regulate key signaling events in lymphocyte activation, differentiation, and development. Itk functions in immune response, fine-tuning signaling downstream of the T-cell Receptor (TCR), and is a putative drug target for allergies and autoimmune disease. Btk, a Tec kinase found in B-cells, carries out a similar role to that of Itk, only downstream of B-cell Receptor (BCR) signaling. The chapters of this dissertation focus on ...


Calibration Optimization And Efficiency In Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Nanning Cao Jan 2013

Calibration Optimization And Efficiency In Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Nanning Cao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Calibration optimization in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a complex process, requiring long-term database maintenance and model update by including new variations. A sample selection procedure was introduced to identify the number and choice of samples required in a NIRS calibration model. The example case is the determinations of moisture, protein and oil contents in whole soybeans. The original large database is composed of soybean NIR transmittance spectra (n>8,000) across crop years (2001-2011), varieties and locations. Uniform random, Kennard-Stone and D-optimal algorithms were compared for calibration sample selection. The optimal models based on calibration set selected by uniform ...


Development Of A Protein Antigen Based Pneumococcal Vaccine Utilizing A Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform, Amy D. Schoofs Jan 2013

Development Of A Protein Antigen Based Pneumococcal Vaccine Utilizing A Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform, Amy D. Schoofs

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the primary cause of bacterial pneumonia and contributes to millions of deaths worldwide annually. The current capsule polysaccharide based vaccines do provide some protection, but the 7 to 23 valent formulations cannot protect against the over 90 serotypes currently known. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a promising candidate for a protein-based vaccine against S. pneumoniae, showing protection in immunized mice and providing the advantage of universal protection from all serotypes of the bacterium. This project shows the results of immunizing CBA/N mice intranasally and subcutaneously with PspA encapsulated into a novel polyanhydride nanoparticle delivery platform ...


Correction For Rapid-Growth Vegetation And Testing Of An Upscaling Method With A Cosmos Probe, Samantha Lou Irvin Jan 2013

Correction For Rapid-Growth Vegetation And Testing Of An Upscaling Method With A Cosmos Probe, Samantha Lou Irvin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

COSMOS (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System) probes are a developing instrument in the field of remote sensing and are currently the only source of field scale soil moisture data. A COSMOS probe is essentially a hydrogen particle counter with a measurement depth ranging from 10-70 cm and a spatial resolution approaching 700 m in diameter. A majority of the hydrogen detected is in the form of water molecules. As vegetation contains both hydrogen in the vegetative dry matter and water, in addition to sitting above the ground, it may influence what is measured by the COSMOS probe as soil moisture ...


Experimentally Simulating Environmental Change In A Montane Meadow System Via Reduced Snowpack And Passive Warming: Soil And Plant Responses, Jill Sherwood Jan 2013

Experimentally Simulating Environmental Change In A Montane Meadow System Via Reduced Snowpack And Passive Warming: Soil And Plant Responses, Jill Sherwood

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global and regional climate patterns suggest that the environment in the western United States is trending towards warmer and drier conditions. The ecological effects of climate change could include shifts in distribution and phenological changes for many plants and animals. This study provides an initial examination of climatic and phenological (timing of key biological events) trends in an effort to understand how montane plants may be affected by climatic changes. To explore the consequences of increased temperatures and decreased snow cover, we conducted an experiment in a montane meadow where snow removal and passive heating were used to mimic the ...


Phenotypic Consequences Of Maternal Effects During Early Life Stages Of The Painted Turtle, Chrysemys Picta, Timothy Staub Mitchell Jan 2013

Phenotypic Consequences Of Maternal Effects During Early Life Stages Of The Painted Turtle, Chrysemys Picta, Timothy Staub Mitchell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maternal effects are a ubiquitous source of phenotypic variation and relevant to understanding many ecological and evolutionary questions. For oviparous organisms, egg size and oviposition/ nest-site choice are two maternal effects that can be particularly important. A classic assumption in life-history theory is that offspring with more resources allocated to them have a fitness advantage, but this assumption is challenging to assess in the wild. Oviposition or nest-site choice can influence many aspects of the offspring environment including abiotic conditions, competition, predation risk, and food availability.

This dissertation focuses on the influence of egg size and nest-site choice on early ...


Design Of Novel Nano-Carriers For Multi-Enzyme Co-Localization, Feng Jia Jan 2013

Design Of Novel Nano-Carriers For Multi-Enzyme Co-Localization, Feng Jia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The widely existing MECs in Nature have inspired researchers to design synthetic analogs to promote the overall catalytic efficiency in vitro by co-localizing multiple enzymes to mimic the MECs' unique functionalities. A number of efforts have been devoted to designing synthetic MECs in the past couples of decades. This thesis work has focused on developing novel strategies based on enzyme immobilization to design nano-carriers for multi-enzyme co-localization to realize kinetics enhancement and strong control of spatial arrangement of the enzymes. Three distinct approaches have been designed using different attachment methods and platforms.

First, the multifunctional polystyrene nanoparticles were designed for ...


An Analysis Of Technical Assistance Providers In Copanch'orti' Guatemala, Victoria Lebeaux Jan 2013

An Analysis Of Technical Assistance Providers In Copanch'orti' Guatemala, Victoria Lebeaux

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Guatemala has the fourth highest rate of chronic under-nutrition for children under five in the world. One region particularly impacted is the Copanch'orti' area of eastern Guatemala where chronic under-nutrition affected 61% of the population in 2008. Although efforts to solve the malnutrition problem have been underway for several decades, there is a persistent need for greater and better coordination and integration of food security programming, within and across sectors (agriculture, education, environment, health, etc.), as well as across local, regional, and national platforms. In this dissertation I addressed the question of how the actions of development practitioners can ...


Analysis Of Sugars And Phenolic Compounds In Bio-Oil, Marjorie Ruth Rover Jan 2013

Analysis Of Sugars And Phenolic Compounds In Bio-Oil, Marjorie Ruth Rover

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this research is to develop methods for analyzing and recovering sugars and phenolic compounds from bio-oil. Specific objectives include (1) adapting analytical methods developed for sugar analysis in the food industry to measure total water-soluble sugars in the aqueous phase of bio-oil; (2) adapting analytical methods developed for total phenolic analysis of wine to measure total phenolic content of bio-oil; (3) separate the heavy fraction of bio-oil into a concentrated sugar solution and a phenolic oligomer-rich raffinate; and (4) determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the yield of sugars and phenolic compounds in bio-oil.

Recent ...


Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler Jan 2013

Advances In Understanding Influenza A Virus Infection In Swine: From Diagnostics To Basic Science, Jason Christopher Buehler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and is considered a major pathogen for a number of species including humans, swine, and avian species. Historically, the potential of avian and swine influenza A viruses, either through direct infection by intact virus or through incorporation of genetic information into human isolates, have presented major zoonotic risks to human health risks with epidemic and pandemic potential (98). Prior to the 2009 pandemic, experts were concerned that high pathogenic avian IAV, particularly H5N1, was going to become established in the human population and that such establishment would lead to ...


The Turnip Mosaic Virus And Its Effects On Arabidopsis Thaliana Gene Expression, Brian Anthony Campbell Jan 2013

The Turnip Mosaic Virus And Its Effects On Arabidopsis Thaliana Gene Expression, Brian Anthony Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Utilizing natural and engineered viruses is an accepted approach to studying plant-virus interactions as it relates to symptomology. The majority of the research topics were generated by deciphering where short-comings in the literature existed. Specifically, how Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) helper component protease (HC-Pro) small RNA (sRNA) binding affinity affects expression of genes correlated with disease phenotypes and studying debilitated viruses in a variety of RNA silencing deficient Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Taken as a whole, the research presented addressed the susceptibility of A. thaliana to TuMV.

The first study was conducted to monitor genes implicated in symptomology in various RNA ...


Stocking System Effects On Cattle Performance, Forage, And Soil Properties Of Cool-Season Pastures, Margaret Warter Dunn Jan 2013

Stocking System Effects On Cattle Performance, Forage, And Soil Properties Of Cool-Season Pastures, Margaret Warter Dunn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasing stocking density and rotation frequency of grazing cattle may improve forage yield and quality and soil carbon content, but may reduce livestock performance and forage persistence and compact soil. Sixty mature August-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.; mean body weight (BW), 585 ± 9.9 kg) were allotted to six 4.05-ha cool-season pastures to graze by rotational (RS), strip (SS), or mob (MS) stocking from May through September for two years (2010-2011). Stocking density averaged 16 000, 80 000, and 350 000 kg BW * ha-1 * d-1 in RS, SS, and MS pastures, respectively. Daily live forage allowance was equal ...


Anthropogenic Eutrophication And Ecosystem Functioning In Freshwater Lakes, Adam John Heathcote Jan 2013

Anthropogenic Eutrophication And Ecosystem Functioning In Freshwater Lakes, Adam John Heathcote

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Theory predicts that ecosystems under stress change in their structure and functioning and these alterations may be symptomatic of potential breakdown in overall ecosystem functioning due to homeostatic regulation. In this dissertation, I present four studies looking at how ecosystem functioning in thirty-two freshwater lakes changes as a result of stress from anthropogenic eutrophication using paleolimnological and contemporary sampling techniques. In particular these studies looks at the changes to algae (diatom) community structure and production, organic carbon (OC) cycling, importance of external inputs of eroded sediment and nutrients, and resource use efficiency (RUE) of zooplankton. I found significant changes in ...


An Investigation Of Soybean Aphid Ecology And Management In The Context Of Agricultural Sustainability, Rebekah Marie Ritson Jan 2013

An Investigation Of Soybean Aphid Ecology And Management In The Context Of Agricultural Sustainability, Rebekah Marie Ritson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a phytophagous insect capable of causing yield reduction of 40-50%. The introduction and spread of this invasive pest has caused dramatic changes in commercial soybean production management. Due to various economic factors, prophylactic application of insecticides and fungicides to soybean has become increasingly common for yield protection. Impacts of prophylactic pesticide use on soybean aphid ecology are not well characterized, but frequent or poorly timed pesticide use in other systems is associated with aphid population increases due to decreased aphid mortality attributable to decreased fungal disease outbreaks. The first paper of this study examines ...


Techno-Economic Analysis And Life Cycle Assessment Of The Corn Stover Biomass Feedstock Supply Chain System For A Midwest-Based First-Generation Cellulosic Biorefinery, Ajay Shah Jan 2013

Techno-Economic Analysis And Life Cycle Assessment Of The Corn Stover Biomass Feedstock Supply Chain System For A Midwest-Based First-Generation Cellulosic Biorefinery, Ajay Shah

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Corn stover is the primary feedstock choice for most of the first-generation cellulosic biorefineries in the Midwest, and their rated capacities are in between 76 and 114 million liters per year (MLPY) (i.e., 20 and 30 million gallons per year (MGPY)). For the uninterrupted operation of these plants, a year-round supply of corn stover needs to be secured, which will require a robust, efficient, cost-effective and environmentally-balanced feedstock supply chain. However, there is limited techno-economic and environmental know-how in this area. Thus, the main objective of this dissertation is to stochastically analyze the technoeconomics, life-cycle energy use, and greenhouse ...


Investigation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells And The Development Of Experimental Strategies For Rescuing Glaucomatous Eyes Using A Stem Cell-Based Therapy, Eun-Ah Ye Jan 2013

Investigation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells And The Development Of Experimental Strategies For Rescuing Glaucomatous Eyes Using A Stem Cell-Based Therapy, Eun-Ah Ye

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness in the world, is a hereditary ocular disease and about 60 million people suffer from it. However, currently there are no remedies to cure glaucoma. As a potential solution to rescue degenerating retinas, stem cells have been investigated extensively and the effects of morphological neuroprotection or functional recovery have been reported. In the present studies, I aimed to investigate two main topics of research. From the first topic, we demonstrated MSCs from Brown Norway rats are a self-renewing, multi-potent population. More importantly, we provide the first evidence that bone marrow MSCs are capable ...


Learning And Power In International Farmer Exchanges, Stephen August Lauer Jan 2013

Learning And Power In International Farmer Exchanges, Stephen August Lauer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The "Bridging the Gap" program provides an opportunity to explore the relationships between learning and power in international agricultural development partnerships. A USAID-funded partnership between Iowa State University and Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns, this farmer-to-farmer program sent groups of Iowan women farmers to Uganda to teach Ugandan women farmers with the objectives that Ugandans would move from subsistence to commercial farming and that both groups would benefit from the cultural exchange. Data were collected primarily through semi-structured qualitative interviews of 28 Ugandan farmers, 7 Iowan farmers, and several program staff, and were analyzed using a grounded-theory approach. This thesis ...


Transformative Learning And The 4-H Camp Counselor Experience, Donna Leff Jan 2013

Transformative Learning And The 4-H Camp Counselor Experience, Donna Leff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many studies about the youth development outcomes of the camping experience focus upon the youth who are campers, but relatively few studies examine the outcomes of the experience for counselors. Camping has a strong tradition as a part of the 4-H program, but studies about 4-H camp also focus mostly on campers. This study examines the extent to which 4-H camp results in transformative learning for the older 4-H members who serve as camp counselors. It also examines the perceived changes that occur within counselors and the factors and characteristics of camp that result in personal transformation.

The population for ...