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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Functional Response Of Venus Flytraps (Dionaea Muscipula), Amber D. Martin Dec 2013

Functional Response Of Venus Flytraps (Dionaea Muscipula), Amber D. Martin

Honors Theses

The feeding response of Venus flytraps (Dionaea muscipula) is widely studied, and many studies have considered the selectivity of prey capture in D. muscipula (Lichtner and Williams, 1977; Hutchens and Luken, 2009). The consumption rate of an organism relative to the abundance or availability of its food is known as that organism's functional response (Jeschke et al., 2004). In this study, a functional response curve will be constructed for D. muscipula based on its response to increasing availability of small prey in the laboratory. Knowledge of functional responses is important for various fields of biology including population biology, evolutionary ...


Cleft Lip And Palate Repair: Bridging The Gap Between Genetics And Oral Health: An Individual Case Study, Duncan Perry Dec 2013

Cleft Lip And Palate Repair: Bridging The Gap Between Genetics And Oral Health: An Individual Case Study, Duncan Perry

Honors Theses

Cleft Lip and Palate Syndrome (CL/P) is a condition that occurs in vitro, during fetal development. Because the majority of CL/P cases occur in underdeveloped nations, the families of CL/P patients are typically characterized by impoverished homes. These are the very people who cannot afford to pay for folic acid supplements, or reconstructive and reparative surgeries. Many families struggle under the extreme pressure of raising a child with CL/P. In these nations, the child often cannot receive the proper care they need, and usually are the product of unsuccessful surgeries. The stress of a CL/P ...


Seed Bank Study Of The Effect Of Land Use On Vegetation Diversity In Carolina Bays, Maeve Snyder Dec 2013

Seed Bank Study Of The Effect Of Land Use On Vegetation Diversity In Carolina Bays, Maeve Snyder

Honors Theses

The intent of my honors thesis is to conduct a comparative analysis of seed banks between Carolina bays of high and low human impact. My study will use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to characterize types of land use within Carolina bays and in 250-m buffer zones. Representative bays from high-impact and low-impact classifications will be chosen as study sites, and seed bank samples will be collected and germinated. While it is beyond the scope of my study to identify a mechanism by which it occurs, I will investigate the presence of a relationship between land use and bay vegetation biodiversity.


Effectiveness Of Gaming Systems On Balance In Older Individuals, Mary E. Anderson Dec 2013

Effectiveness Of Gaming Systems On Balance In Older Individuals, Mary E. Anderson

Honors Theses

Balance training using gaming systems, called exergaming, is a rising trend for reducing fall risk in older individuals. Previous studies have conducted research pertaining to gaming systems and traditional balance training, however there is a lack of comparison between gaming systems. This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of two gaming systems, the Wii Fit and Xbox Kinect, as compared to traditional balance training. This study was performed with subjects (N=5) over the age of 65, in good health, randomly placed in one of the three balance training groups: Wii Fit (n=2), Xbox Kinect (n=2), and ...


Alzheimer's Disease And Circadian Rhythms In A Drosophila Model, Lauren Alejo Dec 2013

Alzheimer's Disease And Circadian Rhythms In A Drosophila Model, Lauren Alejo

Honors Theses

Sleep disorders are commonly reported in Alzheimer's disease, a debilitating, age-related neurodegenerative disorder that affects neurons in the brain. Recently, several studies have suggested a role for sleep abnormalities and the internal "body clock" known as the circadian system, in the disease onset and progression. Since most of the data has been collected from mammals with complex neural circuitry, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that integrate the two neural networks are still limited. This study examined the relationship between circadian rhythmicity and Alzheimer's Disease presentation using a Drosophila model. Flies were crossed using the GAL4-UAS system to display ...


Prevention Of Increasing Burnout Levels Among Physicians Of Different Specialties And Doctoral Degrees, Taylor Lewis Dec 2013

Prevention Of Increasing Burnout Levels Among Physicians Of Different Specialties And Doctoral Degrees, Taylor Lewis

Honors Theses

Burnout rates are steadily increasing among physicians all over the world (Sime, Quick, Saleh, & Martin, 2007). Burnout is defined as high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE), high levels of depersonalization (DP), and low levels of personal achievement (PA) (Ionita, Copotocan, & Copotoiu, S., 2011). These burnout rates are directly correlated with many factors, such as high levels of emotional exhaustion and stress (McManus, Winder, & Gordon, 2002), little experience in the medical field (Keswani, Taft, Coté, & Keefer, 2011), and long work hours which leads to sleep deprivation and fatigue (Jackson, 1999). These moderate to high levels of burnout are detrimental to the ...


Prey Capture In Response To Removing Cilia From Venus Flytraps, Emily Marchini Dec 2013

Prey Capture In Response To Removing Cilia From Venus Flytraps, Emily Marchini

Honors Theses

Carnivorous plants are able to attract, trap, and digest insects. Different types of traps target different prey. There are sticky traps, pitfall traps, and active steel traps (Gibson, 1991). Although this may seem to be a rare modification it appears that there are six origins of carnivorous plants in different groups of angiosperms (Albert et al., 1992). These results indicate that not only were there multiple origins of carnivorous plants, there were also multiple origins of the same trapping mechanism; for example, the flypaper trap has five origins and the pitcher trap has three (Albert et al., 1992). Multiple origins ...


Characteristics And Effects Of Muscular Dystrophy In Broiler Chickens, Kayla N. Smith Dec 2013

Characteristics And Effects Of Muscular Dystrophy In Broiler Chickens, Kayla N. Smith

Honors Theses

Muscular dystrophy is very common among broilers, which are chickens raised specifically for meat production. When dystrophic chickens are mated, or when normal and dystrophic chickens are mated, it is very likely that at least fifty percent of the clutch will end up with muscular dystrophy since it is inherited as a co-dominant disorder (Fujiwara et al., 2009). For my study, eggs were obtained from a local farm, and allowed to hatch. Among these hatchings were chicks who exhibited some traits of muscular dystrophy. It is possible that the parents of the seemingly dystrophic chicks may carry the mutated WWP1 ...


The Investigation Of Risk Factors For Upper Respiratory Infections Among College Students, Romie Barnes May 2013

The Investigation Of Risk Factors For Upper Respiratory Infections Among College Students, Romie Barnes

Honors Theses

Upper respiratory tract infections and cold-like illnesses are common sources of morbidity among college students. The emphasis of hand-washing and reducing the dispersal of aerosol droplets by covering coughs and sneezes reduces the spread of the common cold. However, less emphasis is placed on other risk factors for reducing cold-like illness such as: stress level and physical activity (Doyle and Cohens 2009). An increase in stress and a decrease in physical activity are common among college students (Nichol et al 2005). For this reason, the present study analyzed the effects of stress and physical activity on the incidence of upper ...


Effects Of Dissolved Nutrient Ratios And Concentrations On Litter-Associated Microbial Activity In Streamside Channels, Timothy Burns Jan 2013

Effects Of Dissolved Nutrient Ratios And Concentrations On Litter-Associated Microbial Activity In Streamside Channels, Timothy Burns

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Heterotrophic consumers, such as microorganisms and invertebrates, play a fundamental role in the flow of carbon and energy in streams. The effects of dissolved nutrient concentrations, and especially ratios, on litter—associated microorganisms and decomposition rates of detritus are poorly understood. This study addressed the responses of heterotrophic microbes to a wide range of concentrations and ratios of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in streamside channels simulating headwater streams. Two main questions were: (1) do microbial parameters and litter decomposition rates peak at a dissolved N:P ratio that approaches the nutrient ratio of microbial biomass, and (2 ...


Historical Catch Trends And Efficacy Of Video Surveillance Monitoring Of Catch Per Unit Effort At Recreational Fishing Piers In South Carolina, Charles Christian Johnson Jan 2013

Historical Catch Trends And Efficacy Of Video Surveillance Monitoring Of Catch Per Unit Effort At Recreational Fishing Piers In South Carolina, Charles Christian Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, recreational anglers claim declining catch rates in the shore-based pier fishery in South Carolina. The study seeks to evaluate whether catch data supports angler testimony in this region, to examine the relationship of landings at piers in context of the regional level, and to test a method which would enhance the ability of managers to monitor landings of this under-studied fishery. Novel, non-standardized catch series extending back to 1973 were acquired from fishing piers and examined in an attempt to produce significant trends in measures of catch. King mackerel catch (Scomberomorus cavalla) was tested for correlation to ...


Impact Of Macroconsumers On Leaf Breakdown And Detritivores In Wet And Dry Wetlands On A Southeastern Us Coastal Plain Floodplain, Bryanna Libby Jan 2013

Impact Of Macroconsumers On Leaf Breakdown And Detritivores In Wet And Dry Wetlands On A Southeastern Us Coastal Plain Floodplain, Bryanna Libby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Interactions among macroconsumers (predators and large omnivores) and detritus breakdown are poorly understood on river floodplains. I evaluated the impact of macroconsumers on leaf breakdown, macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass, and fungal biomass on the Great Pee Dee River floodplain using exclosures in 6 wetlands. Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves were held in mesh bags and in leaf packs. After 301 days, breakdown rates (k) were low in all treatments (k < 0.003 day-1) and did not significantly differ. Fungal biomass also did not significantly differ between treatments nor did overall macroinvertebrate abundance or biomass. Collector-gatherer invertebrates were significantly more abundant in treatments open to macroconsumers in mesh bags (P<0.001). Shredders had significantly higher biomass in packs held in exclosures closed to macroconsumers (P=0.048). Lack of rain limited stream-floodplain connectivity so a second, shorter study was done in one flooded wetland. After 98 days, pre-conditioned leaves in mesh bags open to macroconsumers had significantly higher breakdown rates (k = 0.0078 day-1) than those closed to macroconsumers (k = 0.0058 day-1; P= 0.050). Fungal biomass did not significantly differ between treatments. Total macroinvertebrate abundance (but not biomass) was higher in mesh bags open to macroconsumers (P=0.014). Scrapers and predators were significantly more abundant in mesh bags opens to macroconsumers (P=0.001 and P=0.004, respectively) than those closed to macroconsumers. These results indicated macroconsumers had a larger impact on litter breakdown in wet floodplain wetlands than in dry ones.


Ecological Effects And Genetic Diversity Of The Invading Rhizocephalan Parasite Loxothylacus Panopaei In The Flatback Mud Crab Eurypanopeus Depressus, Kathryn A. O'Shaughnessy Jan 2013

Ecological Effects And Genetic Diversity Of The Invading Rhizocephalan Parasite Loxothylacus Panopaei In The Flatback Mud Crab Eurypanopeus Depressus, Kathryn A. O'Shaughnessy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei (Gissler, 1884) is a parasite of xanthid crabs. Infection results in parasitic castration and anecdysis of the host. Loxothylacus panopaei is invasive to the US Atlantic coast. The parasite's range was expanded by introduction of infected crabs to Chesapeake Bay in the mid-1960s, and now extends from Long Island Sound, New York to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Monthly flatback mud crab (Eurypanopeus depressus Smith, 1869) collections over 13 months (January 2012-January 2013) at three South Carolina locations found an overall parasite prevalence of 24.2% (391 of 1,615), and provided the first reports of ...


Differences In Habitat At Two Spatial Scales Fail To Predict Differing Occurrences Of Three Species Of Wintering Ammodramus Sparrows In South Carolina Salt Marshes, Kimberly A. Trinkle Jan 2013

Differences In Habitat At Two Spatial Scales Fail To Predict Differing Occurrences Of Three Species Of Wintering Ammodramus Sparrows In South Carolina Salt Marshes, Kimberly A. Trinkle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Salt marshes have low levels of vertebrate diversity yet extremely high rates of endemism. Two of these endemic species are the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Seaside Sparrow (A. maritima); the closely related Nelson's sparrow (A. nelsoni) winters exclusively on salt marshes. A previous winter study found that individual sparrows of all three species were highly faithful to specific banding sites, and that the relative abundances of the three species differed by site. I hypothesized that the reason sparrow assemblages varied among sites was that the three species' winter habitat requirements were different. All three species winter in salt marshes ...