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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Plant Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization Of The Alternative Oxidase From The Psychrophilic Green Alga Chlamydomonas Sp. Uwo241, Michael Sj Inman Dec 2013

Characterization Of The Alternative Oxidase From The Psychrophilic Green Alga Chlamydomonas Sp. Uwo241, Michael Sj Inman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The alternative oxidase (AOX) was studied in the psychrophilic green alga Chlamydomonas sp. UWO241. AOX is the sole component of the alternative pathway of mitochondrial electron transport and is present in all plant and algal species. In silico analysis of the deduced protein sequence of the cloned AOX cDNA showed that the UWO241 protein has lower amounts of proline and higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan compared to the AOX sequence of the mesophilic alga C. reinhardtii. These changes have been seen in other studies of cold-adapted enzymes. Interestingly, unlike C. reinhardtii, AOX transcript abundance in UWO241 did not increase ...


Effects Of Excitation Pressure On Variegation And Global Gene Expression In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rainer Bode Dec 2013

Effects Of Excitation Pressure On Variegation And Global Gene Expression In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rainer Bode

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I assessed the effects of photosystem II excitation pressure on chloroplast biogenesis and leaf sectoring in the Arabidopsis thaliana variegated mutants im, spotty, var1, var2, chs5 and atd2. The plants were grown under varying degrees of excitation pressure induced by growth at increasing irradiance at different temperatures and the extent of variegation was quantified throughout the plant’s development. I found that the degree of variegation was positively correlated with excitation pressure, regardless of whether high light or low temperature was used to induce increased excitation pressure in all the mutants tested. This was irrespective of whether the mutation causing ...


Increasing Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition: Implications For Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Jennifer M. Mcphee Dec 2013

Increasing Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition: Implications For Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Jennifer M. Mcphee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Continued intensification of agriculture and combustion of fossil fuels will increase rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition over the next century. N is typically a limiting resource for terrestrial plants, and many species are adapted to low-N conditions. Increased N availability can affect both plant biomass and species composition, often favouring N-demanding, adventive species. These effects can be adverse in the context of ecological restoration, where the end product often relies on establishing a particular community composition. I used a field experiment in Norfolk County, Ontario, to examine how N addition affects species composition and plant productivity of a tallgrass ...


Arabidopsis Serk1 And 2 Regulate Anther Development As Co-Receptors Of Ems1, Yao Wang Dec 2013

Arabidopsis Serk1 And 2 Regulate Anther Development As Co-Receptors Of Ems1, Yao Wang

Theses and Dissertations

In flowering plants, male reproductive cell differentiation, one of the most critical events in the early stage of sexual reproduction, occurs during anther development. In the model plant species Arabidopsis, anther development in each lobe results in the differentiation of five highly organized cell layers with unique identities, including the central male reproductive cells and four somatic cell layers. These features make the Arabidopsis anther an ideal system in which to investigate the mechanisms of cell fate determination and differentiation. Previous studies have demonstrated that a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK), EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1 (EMS1/EXS1), plays an important role during ...


Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku Dec 2013

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku

Theses and Dissertations

GLS is a serious foliar disease of maize, a major staple crop grown commercially in the USA for both human and animal feed production, and increasingly, for ethanol production. The disease is caused by two Cercospora species, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina, both of which infect maize in the USA and in other parts of the world, with yield losses potentially greater than 50%, depending on local conditions. In culture, C. zeae-maydis produces a phytotoxic, host non-specific perylenequinone, cercosporin, and abscisic acid (ABA), for which there is no known pathological or physiological function in the fungus. Experimental evidence indicates that ...


Effects Of Rain And Simulated Rain On Deoxynivalenol Levels In Grain And Chaff Of Winter Wheat With Fusarium Head Blight, Manoj Kumar Pun Dec 2013

Effects Of Rain And Simulated Rain On Deoxynivalenol Levels In Grain And Chaff Of Winter Wheat With Fusarium Head Blight, Manoj Kumar Pun

Theses and Dissertations

Wheat grain affected by Fusarium head blight (FHB) contains the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) that is harmful to humans and animals. Reducing the amount of DON in grain is the goal of management practices for FHB so it is important to understand the factors affecting DON in grain. Some studies on the effects of late-season moisture found increases in DON while others found decreases due to leaching. The objectives of this study were to determine effects of late-season rain and misting on DON concentration in wheat spike tissues and to quantify the amount of DON leached from spikes. Field experiments were ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina

Theses and Dissertations

Increasing salinity is an important factor limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. In addition to direct effects on growth and yield, diseases also may be affected. This study characterized the effects of soil salinity on seedling disease of soybean and rice caused by Pythium spp. Controlled environment experiments on soybean used two cultivars which differed in chloride tolerance and soil treated with a CaCl2 solution to create a range of electrical conductivity (EC) levels. For soybean, soil was either not infested or infested with Pythium sylvaticum or P. aphanidermatum (pathogenic to soybean), or P. oligandrum (not pathogenic to soybean). Twenty-one days ...


The Imperative Of Conserving California's Foothill Oak Woodlands, Lauren Phillips Dec 2013

The Imperative Of Conserving California's Foothill Oak Woodlands, Lauren Phillips

Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Phytophthora Foliage Blight Of Garden Phlox: Phytophthora Nicotianae On Phlox Paniculata, Daniel Drechsler Dec 2013

Phytophthora Foliage Blight Of Garden Phlox: Phytophthora Nicotianae On Phlox Paniculata, Daniel Drechsler

All Theses

Phytophthora foliage blight of garden phlox (Phlox paniculata ) - caused by Phytophthora nicotianae - is a devastating disease that has been seen consistently in nursery production facilities in South Carolina. However, this disease has not been characterized previously. This project was composed of three separate studies, each of which followed one of the three major components of the disease triangle (i.e., the synchronous occurrence of a susceptible host and a virulent pathogen within a conducive environment) to investigate the pathogenicity of P. nicotianae on P. paniculata . In one study, the efficacies of three inoculation methodologies to cause Phytophthora foliage blight and ...


Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca Dec 2013

Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An assessment of the growth response of key vegetative species to climatic variability is vital to identifying possible local impacts on ecosystems faced with imminent climate change. With current climate projections in Nevada predicting a shift to an even more arid climate with greater year-to-year variability, the imperative exists to identify the effects of specific climatic controls on plant growth and to research methods to assess large-scale vegetative changes, especially in more remote areas where readily available data sets may be lacking. This study utilized annual growth ring indices constructed from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentatassp.tridentata) stems collected in Spring ...


Forage And Biomass Dual-Purpose Harvest System Using Native Warm-Season Grasses, David Weston Mcintosh Dec 2013

Forage And Biomass Dual-Purpose Harvest System Using Native Warm-Season Grasses, David Weston Mcintosh

Masters Theses

There has been increasing interest in utilizing native warm-season grasses (NWSGs), especially switchgrass, as a biomass feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. Millions of hectares of crop and pasture in the mid-South are forecast to potentially be planted with switchgrass for biomass feedstock production. This could have a substantial impact on the region’s cattle industry, reducing forage production hectares. This study was conducted to determine the effect of early season harvest timing on forage and biomass of NWSGs designed for use in cellulosic ethanol production. The over-all hypothesis was to determine if an early forage harvest can be included in ...


The Performance Of Bacterial Phytosensing Transgenic Tobacco Under Field Conditions, Michael Harrison Fethe Dec 2013

The Performance Of Bacterial Phytosensing Transgenic Tobacco Under Field Conditions, Michael Harrison Fethe

Masters Theses

Currently the platforms for wide-area detection of environmental contamination are limited. Therefore, there is interest in developing new platforms, especially for use in crop plants to detect and report the presence of biotic and abiotic stress agents. A biosensor uses a biological organism or substrate to detect the presence of an elicitor (i.e., heavy metal, TNT, or bacteria). The foundational groundwork to create biosensors in transgenic plants exists. The creation of bacterial phytosensing transgenic tobacco containing an orange fluorescent protein (OFP) reporter driven by synthetic pathogen-inducible promoters provides a fluorescent signal when infected with phytopathogens for earlier detection in ...


Evaluating Economic Impacts Of Switchgrass Harvest Time, Nathanial Elsworth Cahill Dec 2013

Evaluating Economic Impacts Of Switchgrass Harvest Time, Nathanial Elsworth Cahill

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis deals with cost of production for cellulosic energy crops of switchgrass, miscanthus, and energy sorghum. The first chapter explains the rationale for development of decision support software called Energy Crop Analysis & Planning (ENCAP) and Switchgrass Harvest Date, Yield, Nutrient Removal Estimator (SHYNE). The second chapter examines harvest date implications on yield, nutrient removal, opportunity cost of modified sale dates, and post-harvest storage losses. This harvest date analysis leads to a profit maximizing harvest date from the perspective of the producer. While this harvest date may be optimal for the producer, biorefineries may be interested in sourcing switchgrass earlier ...


Optimizing Systems For Cold-Climate Strawberry Production, Tiffany L. Maughan Dec 2013

Optimizing Systems For Cold-Climate Strawberry Production, Tiffany L. Maughan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Producing fruits and vegetables in the Intermountain West can be challenging due a short growing season, extreme temperatures, and limited availability of irrigation water. This is particularly true of strawberries, where commercial production is limited due to late fall and early spring frosts that shorten the growing season. With the increasing demand for local produce as urban populations grow and as consumer buying habits change, growers are looking for ways to overcome these climatic challenges. High tunnels are one option growers can use. High tunnels are similar to greenhouses, but less expensive to construct and to maintain. Another way to ...


Managing Fusarium Wilt In Watermelon Production, Zachary Snipes Dec 2013

Managing Fusarium Wilt In Watermelon Production, Zachary Snipes

All Theses

Fusarium wilt of watermelon, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum , was first described in 1894 in South Carolina and Georgia and has become a limiting factor in watermelon production worldwide. In recent years, restriction on use of the soil fumigant methyl bromide and the recent development of more virulent races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum has created a critical need for alternative management techniques. In 2011-2013 field experiments were designed to evaluate the efficacy of incorporating a cover crop of hairy vetch into the soil to manage Fusarium wilt. Colony-forming units (CFU) of Fusarium oxysporum were sampled to ...


Long-Term Residue And Water Management Effects On Soil Respiration And Soil Aggregate Stability In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System In Eastern Arkansas, Sharon Faye Smith Dec 2013

Long-Term Residue And Water Management Effects On Soil Respiration And Soil Aggregate Stability In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System In Eastern Arkansas, Sharon Faye Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Sustainability in agriculture is paramount to assuring continued production from our most naturally fertile soils. Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter through sustainable agricultural management practices can both remove atmospheric C and improve soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of water management (irrigation and dryland), residue management [burn and no-burn, conventional (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and residue/fertility level (high and low) on soil respiration and aggregate stability in a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], double-crop system in a silt-loam soil (Aquic Fraglossudalf) in the Mississippi River ...


Sources Of Variability In Agronomic Weed Seed Predation: Time, Space, Habitat, And Hyperpredation, Sonja K. Birthisel Dec 2013

Sources Of Variability In Agronomic Weed Seed Predation: Time, Space, Habitat, And Hyperpredation, Sonja K. Birthisel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Weed seed predation is an ecosystem service that benefits farmers by decreasing seedbank inputs, thereby reducing weed pressure in subsequent growing seasons. Seed predation can be considerable, but is highly variable. Sources of variability may include time, space, habitat, and trophic interactions such as hyperpredation. Two experiments were conducted to measure the impacts of these sources of variability on weed seed predation rates in Maine mixed vegetable agroecosystems.

Chapter One of this thesis describes a series of landscape-level field experiments conducted to quantify the effects of time, space, and habitat on seed predation rates. Seed assays, with and without vertebrate ...


A Comparison Of Milled Rice Fissuring Kinetics Of Hybrid And Pureline Cultivars, Semehar Haile Tesfaye Dec 2013

A Comparison Of Milled Rice Fissuring Kinetics Of Hybrid And Pureline Cultivars, Semehar Haile Tesfaye

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past decade, the use of hybrid rice cultivars has greatly increased, and this has led to questions about the processing behavior of hybrid cultivars. This study compares the milled rice fissuring kinetics of hybrid and pureline cultivars. Also, this study elucidates the effects of kernel type (long-grain vs. medium-grain rice cultivars), surface lipid content (SLC), and kernel thickness on fissuring rates.

Three hybrid (CL XL745, CL XL729 and XL753) and five pureline (Wells, CL151, Cheniere, Jupiter and CL261) cultivar lots were procured. Jupiter and CL261 are medium-grain cultivars, whereas the rest are long-grain cultivars. Two experiments were conducted ...


The Influence Of Hydrogeomorphology, Soil Redox Conditions, And Salinity On The Spatial Zoning Of Saltgrass, Salt Rush, And Cattails In Scotts Creek Marsh, Swanton Pacific Ranch, Ca, Mark D. Gormley Dec 2013

The Influence Of Hydrogeomorphology, Soil Redox Conditions, And Salinity On The Spatial Zoning Of Saltgrass, Salt Rush, And Cattails In Scotts Creek Marsh, Swanton Pacific Ranch, Ca, Mark D. Gormley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Scotts Creek Marsh (SCM) is a small coastal wetland ecosystem in Davenport, CA. The vegetation of SCM is dominated by three halophytic zones comprised of saltgrass, salt rush, cattails. The objectives of the study were (i) to investigate the variables that influence the zoning of the three dominant halophyte communities in SCM and (ii) to the test the effectiveness of Indicator of Reduction in Soil (IRIS) tubes to indicate the reduction of S. The study examined the following parameters from April 6 to July 21, 2013: (i) the HGM of Scotts Creek Marsh, (ii) soil oxidation and reduction (redox) conditions ...


Census And Mapping Of Chorro Creek Bog Thistle In Reservoir Canyon, San Luis Obispo, Ca, Tyler Michael Lutz Dec 2013

Census And Mapping Of Chorro Creek Bog Thistle In Reservoir Canyon, San Luis Obispo, Ca, Tyler Michael Lutz

Biological Sciences

Chorro Creek bog thistle (Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense) is a federally endangered variety of Fountain thistle endemic to western San Luis Obispo County. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service knows of nineteen populations, many with multiple colonies. A population was discovered in the Reservoir Canyon Natural Reserve in 2001, but has not been monitored or described since the time of its discovery. In fall of 2013, a census of the population was performed, the four colonies were mapped, and a floristic survey was conducted. A field experiment was initiated to determine if reducing the riparian canopy coverage can increase ...


Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Waterlogging Tolerance In A Soft Red Winter Wheat Mapping Population, Diana Carolina Ballesteros Benavides Dec 2013

Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Waterlogging Tolerance In A Soft Red Winter Wheat Mapping Population, Diana Carolina Ballesteros Benavides

Theses and Dissertations

Waterlogging is caused when water stays superficially in the soil for an extended period of time, creating an anaerobic environment which decreases plant growth and grain yield at maturity. Despite the impact of waterlogging on wheat production both globally and in the southeastern U.S., very little is known about the genetic control of waterlogging tolerance in wheat. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of genetic variation for vegetative stage waterlogging tolerance present within a wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with tolerance and productivity. Experiments were carried ...


Risk Return Of Farmer-Elevator Contracts For Soybeans And Corn In Arkansas, Marei Undine Houpert Dec 2013

Risk Return Of Farmer-Elevator Contracts For Soybeans And Corn In Arkansas, Marei Undine Houpert

Theses and Dissertations

In Arkansas the contribution of Agriculture to the states GDP is comparatively high. To help farmer's return risk the grain industry developed several marketing tools to support farmers. Literature in this research field finds different results for different locations, commodities, marketing tools and marketing years. As Agriculture in Arkansas is important for its economy this study focuses on soybeans and corn produced in the fertile north-eastern area of Arkansas that uses Memphis Tennessee as a spot market palace. The examined marketing tools are pre-harvest futures hedges and forward contracts as well as post-harvest storage strategies and minimum price contracts ...


Improving The Efficiency Of Fall Applied N With Cover Crops, Corey Lacey Nov 2013

Improving The Efficiency Of Fall Applied N With Cover Crops, Corey Lacey

Theses and Dissertations

Nitrate loss studies in Midwestern tile-drained fields have found that fall applied nitrogen (N) resulted in elevated nitrate concentrations in tile water during both the corn and soybean year of a 2 year rotation. The effectiveness of cover crops to reduce nitrate leaching when N is spring applied has been well demonstrated, however there is a dearth of knowledge on the ability of cover crops to reduce nitrate leaching in a system where N is fall applied. Thus, the objectives of this research were to (i) investigate the efficacy of winter cover crops to reduce nitrate leaching from fall applied ...


Decomposition Patterns And Nitrogen Dynamics Of Black Mangrove (Avicennia Germinans)Leaf Litter In Disturbed Estuaries Linked To The Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, Mario Alberto Marquez Nov 2013

Decomposition Patterns And Nitrogen Dynamics Of Black Mangrove (Avicennia Germinans)Leaf Litter In Disturbed Estuaries Linked To The Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, Mario Alberto Marquez

UTB/UTPA Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Estuaries are among the most productive aquatic systems in the world but are subject to both anthropogenic and natural disturbances. With increasing environmental concerns, efforts have become commonplace in assessing the status and trends of environmental conditions. In this study, an assessment of ecosystem status of various estuaries affected by different disturbances, was attempted through the examination of key functional processes such as leaf litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics during decay. Three estuaries located along the Brownsville Ship Channel near the southern terminus of the Lower Laguna Madre in Texas were studied. The overlying goal of this study was to ...


Heterologous Production And Characterization Of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Using Plants As A Bioreactor, Eridan Orlando Rodrigues Pereira Oct 2013

Heterologous Production And Characterization Of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Using Plants As A Bioreactor, Eridan Orlando Rodrigues Pereira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plants are wonderful living organisms. They are able to store solar energy into carbohydrates by fixing CO2 through photosynthesis which can be subsequently harvested and used for fuel production. However, one of the major limitations for transforming these carbohydrates into liquid fuels is the recalcitrance of the plant cell wall. Although microorganisms have evolved a series of cell wall degrading enzymes to harvest efficiently this energy and are considered the main source of these biocatalysts, harnessing these microorganisms for the production of enzymes is a costly process and a major factor limiting the commercialization of lignocellulosic biomass-to-ethanol processes. The ...


The System I And System Iii Holocytochrome C Synthases In Cytochrome C Biogenesis, Brian San Francisco Oct 2013

The System I And System Iii Holocytochrome C Synthases In Cytochrome C Biogenesis, Brian San Francisco

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

Cytochromes c are proteins that are involved in important redox reactions in organisms from every kingdom of life. C-type cytochromes, uniquely, possess a covalently bound heme. Since cytochromes c are assembled at their site(s) of function: outside of the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria, in the chloroplast lumen, or in the mitochrondrial intermembrane space), their assembly poses unique challenges to heme trafficking and post translational modification. Three major systems exist in nature for cytochrome c assembly, termed systems I, II, and III. Using recombinant Escherichia coli, aspects of systems I and III were analyzed, with an emphasis on the synthase ...


Functional Characterization Of Metallothioneins In Arabidopsis And Barley, Nimnara Yookongkaew Oct 2013

Functional Characterization Of Metallothioneins In Arabidopsis And Barley, Nimnara Yookongkaew

Open Access Dissertations

Metalothioneins (MTs) are metal binding proteins that can bind metals such as Cu, Zn, and Cd but the functions of MTs in plants are largely unknown. To understand the function of MTs in Arabidopsis, T-DNA insertion mutants lacking 4 MT genes including MT1a, MT2a, MT2b and MT3 were developed. The quadruple mutant (mt1a/mt2a/mt2b/mt3) showed no visible phenotype under standard growth conditions. However, it accumulated higher Cu in leaves compared to wild type but lower Cu in seeds. Further analysis showed that triple mutants lacking both MT1a and MT2b, which are highly expressed in vascular tissues, had similar ...


Systems Evaluation Of Shallow Anhydrous Ammonia Placements, Rates, And Timing On Maize Plant Uniformity, Yield And N Use Efficiency, Péter Kovács Oct 2013

Systems Evaluation Of Shallow Anhydrous Ammonia Placements, Rates, And Timing On Maize Plant Uniformity, Yield And N Use Efficiency, Péter Kovács

Open Access Dissertations

Farmers face increasing expectations from society to be more environmentally conscious and energy efficient with their fertilizer management practices during maize (Zea mays L.) production. With the advent of precision guidance systems, maize farmers in various tillage systems have more options in pre-plant nutrient banding relative to the intended crop rows or throughout the entire growing season. Field studies were conducted between 2010 and 2012 near West Lafayette, IN to identify best management practices to enhance maize plant uniformity, yield and nitrogen (N) efficiencies.

Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) placement during pre-plant application is of interest because of concerns for possible ...


Management Of Potato Leafhopper And Maple Spider Mite On Nursery Grown Maples, Julia Prado Beltran Oct 2013

Management Of Potato Leafhopper And Maple Spider Mite On Nursery Grown Maples, Julia Prado Beltran

Open Access Dissertations

Potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and maple spider mite Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) are important pests of maple trees. Investigations determined how insecticide use and fertilization impacted the abundance of E. fabae and O. aceris on `Red Sunset' red maple and `Autumn Blaze' Freeman maples. Bifenthrin applications directed against leafhoppers reduced damage to both cultivars, but increased O. aceris on Autumn Blaze. Using a threshold of one leafhopper per branch to trigger pesticide applications protected Red Sunset maples from leafhopper injury. It also prevented outbreaks of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because few trees reached this density ...


The Role Of Soil Microorganisms In The Resistance Of Giant Ragweed, Horseweed, And Common Lambsquarters To Glyphosate, Jessica Renee Schafer-Bugg Oct 2013

The Role Of Soil Microorganisms In The Resistance Of Giant Ragweed, Horseweed, And Common Lambsquarters To Glyphosate, Jessica Renee Schafer-Bugg

Open Access Dissertations

Continuous glyphosate use has contributed to an increasing number of problematic glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The mechanism of resistance in many GR weeds is poorly understood, in part, due to a poor understanding of how exactly glyphosate kills a plant. In previous research, the efficacy of glyphosate was demonstrated to be strongly influenced by root invading soil-borne microorganisms. However, this interaction among plants, glyphosate, and soil microorganisms has only been studied in a number of crop plants, but not in weed species. This is surprising since the soil biotic environment has a strong impact on the activity of this important herbicide ...