Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Theses/Dissertations

2013

Kinesiology

Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 175

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Feelings Of Connectedness To Nature: A Comparison Of Park & Recreation Management Students And Sport Management Students., N. E. Scarborough Dec 2013

Feelings Of Connectedness To Nature: A Comparison Of Park & Recreation Management Students And Sport Management Students., N. E. Scarborough

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the face of the present consumer-based environmental movement, leaders in many industries and disciplines are striving to understand why people are “going green” in order to market to them. Researchers have been studying ways in which people connect to the environmental movement, and researchers in the field of sport and recreation are also conducting such studies. Several surveys have been developed to measure these connections; one such survey instrument is the Connectedness to Nature Scale (CNS). In the present study, the CNS was re-created online, and a link to the survey was sent via email to students studying Park ...


Obm Thesis Project: Composing An Undergraduate Thesis Manual, William Strong Dec 2013

Obm Thesis Project: Composing An Undergraduate Thesis Manual, William Strong

Honors Theses

The Behavioral Research Supervisory System (BRSS) is a class designed to assist undergraduate and master students in completing a thesis project in a timely manner. Prior to beginning this project, undergraduate students were not utilizing the thesis manual for the class effectively and master students did not have an effective tool to grade the quality of their undergraduate thesis students’ work. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this thesis project is to create a better manual for undergraduate students to reference while working on their thesis projects and to provide a systematic grading system for their graduate student supervisors. A pre-manual ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Dexamethasone Delivered Via Iontophoresis, Justin Holbrook Rigby Dec 2013

Pharmacokinetics Of Dexamethasone Delivered Via Iontophoresis, Justin Holbrook Rigby

Theses and Dissertations

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Objectives: To determine the time course of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Dex-P) iontophoresis delivery to underlying tissues using microdialysis. Background: The efficacy of iontophoresis at delivering Dex-P through the skin is unknown in humans because of the lack of minimally invasive measurement techniques. Methods: Sixty-four healthy male participants (age = 24.4 ± 3.3 yrs, height = 71.8 ± 2.5 in, weight = 181.8 ± 26.1 lbs) were randomly assigned into one of six groups: 1) 1 mA current, 1 mm probes depth ; 2) 1 mA current, 4 mm probes depth; 3) 2 mA current, 1 mm ...


The Acute Effects Of Whole-Body Vibration Training On Passive And Dynamic Flexibility In Gymnasts, Caisa Nicole Brooks Dec 2013

The Acute Effects Of Whole-Body Vibration Training On Passive And Dynamic Flexibility In Gymnasts, Caisa Nicole Brooks

Theses and Dissertations

Gymnasts must attain extreme ranges of flexibility to execute performance requirements, thus effective stretching proves vital to advancement in the sport. This study examined the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on passive and dynamic flexibility in young, female gymnasts. Participants (n = 27, Junior Olympic levels 5-10) served as their own control. Measurements of passive and dynamic flexibility were obtained using the TOPS forward split testing method to examine passive flexibility and dynamic flexibility was measured via split jumps that were analyzed with video and Dartfish software. According to randomized order, all participants completed a stretching protocol either with the ...


Instructional Preferences In Aquatics For Children With Visual Impairments And Their Instructors, Fabiana Cieslak Dec 2013

Instructional Preferences In Aquatics For Children With Visual Impairments And Their Instructors, Fabiana Cieslak

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Master’s Theses

The aim of this study was to determine which instructional strategies athletes with visual impairments and their coaches would prefer during swimming classes. Thirteen athletes with visual impairments and fourteen coaches participated in interviews to reveal their preferences. A thematic analysis was utilized to ensure the analysis was undertaken in a theoretically and methodologically sound manner. Three key themes emerged, each a compilation of a set of subthemes. The first theme, physical guidance, included a quicker learning process and passive and active learning. The second theme, tactile modeling, was comprised of barriers and better instruction. The final theme that emerged ...


Seasonal Changes In Body Composition, Block Jump, Attack Jump And Lower Body Power Index In Male Collegiate Volleyball Players, Geoffrey W. Loomis Dec 2013

Seasonal Changes In Body Composition, Block Jump, Attack Jump And Lower Body Power Index In Male Collegiate Volleyball Players, Geoffrey W. Loomis

Theses and Dissertations

Jumping ability in volleyball players is crucial to a team's success. There are both muscular and neural components in jumping. Coaches often test jumping ability and body composition prior to the start of the competitive season, but many fail to monitor these important variables during the course of the season. Jumping ability can decrease over the course of the season as the focus moves from strength training in the weight room to skill development on the court. It is imperative that players maintain their jumping ability and body composition over the course of the season. Seasonal changes in elite-male ...


Racial Differences In Self-Efficacy Expectations For Exercise, Selena P. Smith Dec 2013

Racial Differences In Self-Efficacy Expectations For Exercise, Selena P. Smith

Honors Theses

This project examined the link between race and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy pertains to an individual’s confidence in ability to complete or engage in a particular task or activity (Bandura, 1986). Prior research shows that self-efficacy has a great influence on exercise initiation and adherence (Bandura, 1986; Dishman, 1982; Rodgers and Sullivan, 2001). Research also supports that Caucasians are more likely to participate in exercise than African Americans (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000).

Participants included 51 females, 31 Caucasians and 20 African Americans, between the ages of 18 and 50 years old. The women were recruited from local fitness ...


The Effects Of 8 Weeks Of Low Dose Supplementation Of Creatine And Sodium Bicarbonate On Exercise Performance, Amanda Jessica Morris Dec 2013

The Effects Of 8 Weeks Of Low Dose Supplementation Of Creatine And Sodium Bicarbonate On Exercise Performance, Amanda Jessica Morris

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Short-term (3-7 days), high doses of creatine (20g/d) and/or sodium bicarbonate (0.5g/kg body weight) supplementation increase exercise performance during short term high intensity activities; however, it remains unclear whether long-term, low doses of these supplements have a positive impact on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of long-term (8 weeks), low dose creatine supplementation on exercise performance, and whether combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation has an additive effect. Sixty-three healthy, habitually active, adults (28 M, 35 W; 22+2 years; 23+ 3 BMI) were randomly assigned by sex to ...


Variability Of Practice And Strength Training Periodization: When Theories Collide, Katherine Lauren Streder Dec 2013

Variability Of Practice And Strength Training Periodization: When Theories Collide, Katherine Lauren Streder

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether variability of practice enhances neuromuscular adaptations when compared to traditional strength training. The secondary purpose was to investigate whether there was a difference in perception of exertion between the two strength programs. Forty one subjects (23 women and 18 men) were assigned to either the control group or one of two treatment groups by a blocked-random method. Subject's one repetition maximum (1RM) for the kettlebell press and leg press were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks of training, and after 8 weeks of training. The treatment groups completed 8 ...


Field Testing The Upright Versus The Aero Cycling Position, Curtis Scrugham Dec 2013

Field Testing The Upright Versus The Aero Cycling Position, Curtis Scrugham

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Body position can be of great importance to athletes who want to maximize their performance on the bike. Aerodynamic resistance can account for 70-90% of resistance encountered by cyclists, and a strategy used to reduce this resistance is riding in the aero position Research has been done in the lab to determine if there are trade-offs to using this position (Jobson et al. 2008, Welbergen and Clijsen 1990, Hubenig, Game and Kennedy 2011, Peveler 2004, Origenes et al. 1993, Ryschon and Stray-Gunderson 1991, Gnehm et al. 1997, Ashe et al. 2003). . Researchers have reported that riders untrained in the aero ...


Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick Dec 2013

Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe how the presence of peripheral arterial disease affects the level of post-exercise blood lactate and post-recovery blood lactate during and following the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The 6MWT was administered to 49 participants (33 classified as Non-PAD and 16 classified as PAD) over the age of 50 with no uncontrolled cardiovascular or metabolic diseases or a cardiovascular event in the previous 6 months. Results demonstrated that no significant statistical difference exists between the presence of PAD and resting blood lactate (F = 0.86, p = .36), post-exercise blood lactate (F= 0.48, p ...


Regulation Of The Myostatin Protein In Overload-Induced Hypertrophied Rat Skeletal Muscle, Paige Abriel Affleck Dec 2013

Regulation Of The Myostatin Protein In Overload-Induced Hypertrophied Rat Skeletal Muscle, Paige Abriel Affleck

Theses and Dissertations

Myostatin (GDF-8) is the chief chalone in skeletal muscle and negatively controls adult skeletal muscle growth. The role of myostatin during overload-induced hypertrophy of adult muscle is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that overloaded adult rodent skeletal muscle would result in reduced myostatin protein levels. Overload-induced hypertrophy was accomplished by unilateral tenotomy of the gastrocnemius tendon in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats followed by a two-week period of compensatory overload of the plantaris and soleus muscles. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate changes in active, latent and precursor myostatin protein levels. Significant hypertrophy was noted in the plantaris (494 ± 29 ...


The Effect Of Wild Blueberry Consumption On The Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress And Dna Damage Associated With Exercise, Taylor K. Bloedon Dec 2013

The Effect Of Wild Blueberry Consumption On The Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress And Dna Damage Associated With Exercise, Taylor K. Bloedon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

At all levels of intensity and duration, exercise is known to cause an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). When derivatives of oxygen occur and exist independently with one or more unpaired electrons they are known as “free radicals” (Halliwell and Gutteridge 2007). Since atoms possess electrons that are usually associated in pairs, free radicals have the potential to act negatively in the body. Reactive oxygen species refer to oxygen-centered radicals as well as nonradical but reactive derivatives of oxygen (Halliwell and Gutteridge 2007). When ROS are created in excess, resulting in the disruption of the pro-oxidant ...


Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook

Theses and Dissertations

The Shake Weight® (SW®) is designed to improve muscular fitness in a quick and inexpensive way. This study aimed to determine if the SW® was an effective tool at improving muscular fitness, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. Participants were 17 healthy, post-menopausal women from aMidwestern University and divided into two training (SW® and HIT) interventions that lasted 10 weeks. HIT participants performed three sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of their estimated 1RM for the chest press, leg press, lat pulldown, and seated row. SW® participants performed the exercises prescribed by the SW® manufacturer. Changes ...


Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford Nov 2013

Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Computer generated three-dimensional (3-D) models are being used at increasing rates in the fields of entertainment, education, research, and engineering. One of the aspects of interest includes the behavior and function of the musculoskeletal system. One such tool used by engineers is the finite element method (FEM) to simulate the physics behind muscle mechanics. There are several ways to represent 3-D muscle geometry, namely a bulk, a central line of action and a spline model. The purpose of this study is to exmine how these three representations affect the overall outcome of muscle movement. This is examined in a series ...


A Hybrid Visual Control Scheme To Assist The Visually Impaired With Guided Reaching Tasks, Duane Jacques Nov 2013

A Hybrid Visual Control Scheme To Assist The Visually Impaired With Guided Reaching Tasks, Duane Jacques

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years, numerous researchers have been working towards adapting technology developed for robotic control to use in the creation of high-technology assistive devices for the visually impaired. These types of devices have been proven to help visually impaired people live with a greater degree of confidence and independence. However, most prior work has focused primarily on a single problem from mobile robotics, namely navigation in an unknown environment. In this work we address the issue of the design and performance of an assistive device application to aid the visually-impaired with a guided reaching task. The device follows an eye-in-hand ...


Strategies To Decrease Movement Variability In The Ankle Joint In Cyclists, Claudia Guadalupe Chavez Nov 2013

Strategies To Decrease Movement Variability In The Ankle Joint In Cyclists, Claudia Guadalupe Chavez

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Coordination variability is thought to be indicative of a cyclist’s skill level as novices have higher levels of variability than experts (Sides & Wilson, 2012). It was hypothesized that the externally focused instructions with visual feedback group would decrease coordination variability in the ankle joint to a greater extent than those in the internally focused instructions with visual feedback group. Six cyclists (30-40 years) completed a four day acquisition period and a retention test. During this time participants cycled for 10-15 minutes at a power output equal to 2.0-2.5W/kg of body mass. Participants were provided with internally ...


Hemodynamic And Neuromuscular Responses To Exercises Performed On Stable And Unstable Surface With And Without Blood Flow Restriction, Agnelia Tiffany Hernandez Nov 2013

Hemodynamic And Neuromuscular Responses To Exercises Performed On Stable And Unstable Surface With And Without Blood Flow Restriction, Agnelia Tiffany Hernandez

UTB/UTPA Electronic Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of circuit training exercises on stable and unstable surface with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on several physiological measures (heart rate, blood pressure, muscle unit activation and rate of perceived exertion).

METHODS: Sixteen recreationally active, males (age= 24.3 ± 1.2); n=8) and females (age= 23.1 ± 0.9); n=8) completed four testing sessions, no blood flow restriction (NBFR) on a stable surface, NBFR on an unstable surface, BFR on a stable surface, and BFR on an unstable surface. Participants performed lower body exercises in ...


The Relationship Between Television Viewing Time And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adult Women, Peter Jacob Arens Nov 2013

The Relationship Between Television Viewing Time And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adult Women, Peter Jacob Arens

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The present investigation was conducted to assess the relationship between television viewing time and cardiorespiratory fitness. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Intermountain West. Participants: 302 middle-aged women. Method: TV viewing was assessed using a questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a maximal graded treadmill test. Physical activity (PA) was evaluated using Actigraph accelerometers worn over seven consecutive days, while body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod). Results: (Mean ± SD) age: 40.2 ± 3.0 years. VO2max of the frequent (≥ 3hrs/day) TV group (32.6 ± 6.4) was significantly lower than both the moderate (1-2 hrs ...


The Association Between Dairy Consumption And Insulin Resistance, Andrea Rose Erickson Nov 2013

The Association Between Dairy Consumption And Insulin Resistance, Andrea Rose Erickson

Theses and Dissertations

Background: A cross-sectional design was employed to ascertain the relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance (IR) in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women. Methods: Participants kept a seven-day weighed food record to report their diets, including consumption of dairy foods. IR was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), using the following formula: fasting plasma insulin (µU/ml) x fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)/405. The Bod Pod was used to examine body fat percentage, and accelerometry over a seven-day period was used to assess physical activity. HOMA values were log-transformed and regression analysis and the General Linear Model procedure were ...


Correlation Of Shoulder And Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity In College Baseball Pitchers, Eric Post Oct 2013

Correlation Of Shoulder And Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity In College Baseball Pitchers, Eric Post

Theses and Dissertations

Specific injuries at the elbow and glenohumeral joints have been linked to several kinetic variables that occur throughout the throwing motion. Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) sprains have been linked to excessive elbow valgus and shoulder external rotation torques occurring during the late-cocking phase of throwing. Shoulder external rotation torque during the late arm-cocking phase and shoulder distraction forces during the deceleration phase contribute to tears of the labrum. Additionally, it is believed that the peak distraction force generated during the arm deceleration phase also contributes to SLAP tears and rotator cuff pathologies. Very little research has been done to directly ...


The Relationship Between Subjectively Motivational Music And Various Exercise Variables While Running At Maximal Speed, Michael Maloney Oct 2013

The Relationship Between Subjectively Motivational Music And Various Exercise Variables While Running At Maximal Speed, Michael Maloney

Honors College Theses

Purpose: To determine whether there are differences in steps/min/m, highest achieved exercise heart rate, average exercise heart rate, average running speed, estimated relative VO2, and RPE, while listening to subjectively motivating music, as compared to non-motivating music, while running at max speed. Methods: Eleven students enrolled at the University of Massachusetts Boston, considered “non-runners” from 19 to 34 years of age, ran at max speeds for 12-15 minutes, once while listening to a play-list of songs they ranked most motivating, and a second time on a separate day, while listening to a play-list of songs they ranked least ...


A Comparison Of Two Sock Types On Navicular Drop And Center Of Pressure Measurements In Standing, Walking, And Running, Ashlee Taylor Sep 2013

A Comparison Of Two Sock Types On Navicular Drop And Center Of Pressure Measurements In Standing, Walking, And Running, Ashlee Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: The New Balance Core Low Cut Sock (New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. · Boston, MA United States) is one of many arch support socks out in the market. These socks have an elastic portion, called a Stability Fit Arch Support & Hold technology, which has been incorporated into the arch area of the sock. The company makes the following claim that the socks provide, "Gentle compression to support the arch, relieving arch-related pain and discomfort."1 If these socks do provide adequate arch support, then they would allow individuals the ability to have an inexpensive method of arch support that is ...


A Six Week Modified Sprint Interval Training Program Incorporating Extended Exercise Bouts Does Not Increase Maximal Cardiac Output, Alan R. Smith Sep 2013

A Six Week Modified Sprint Interval Training Program Incorporating Extended Exercise Bouts Does Not Increase Maximal Cardiac Output, Alan R. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sprint interval training (SIT) improves maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and exercise performance but not maximal cardiac output (Q̇max). The brevity of typical SIT bouts (30-seconds) might hinder improvements in Q̇max. The purpose of this study was to determine whether extended duration SIT (up to 45 second bouts) improves Q̇max. Pre-/Post-SIT (or control) V̇O2max, Q̇max, maximum stroke volume (SVmax), maximum heart rate, arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference, and 5-minute run distance were measured. SIT progressed from 4x30s to 7x45s “all-out” efforts (4 min recovery) over 6 wk (3x/wk) on a manually ...


A Quantitative Emg Assessment Of Motor Unit Recruitment In Patients With Ulnar Neuropathy, Kayla N. Ryan Sep 2013

A Quantitative Emg Assessment Of Motor Unit Recruitment In Patients With Ulnar Neuropathy, Kayla N. Ryan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the current study was to assess the test – retest reliability of motor unit firing rates with the use of decomposition based quantitative electromyography, and to quantify motor unit firing rates in the first dorsal interosseous of patients with ulnar neuropathy. 8 healthy subjects (mean age 35 ± 10 years) and 8 patients (mean age 48 ± 10 years) with ulnar neuropathy participated in the study. Following the acquisition of a maximum M wave, needle and surface detected EMGs were collected simultaneously during 30-second contractions performed at threshold (1-2% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) and 10% MVC- RMS ( maximum voluntary contraction ...


The Effects Of Long-Term Physical Activity On Food Attention Allocation In College Freshmen Women, Sharla Elizabeth Compton Sep 2013

The Effects Of Long-Term Physical Activity On Food Attention Allocation In College Freshmen Women, Sharla Elizabeth Compton

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term (24 weeks) physical activity on attention allocated toward food in college freshmen women. Methods: Seventy-nine freshmen college women wore a multi-function pedometer for 24 weeks after being randomly assigned to a daily step level: 10,000; 12,500; or 15,000. After at least 16 weeks of intervention, participants were given a cognitive viewing task (pictures of food and flowers) with the neural response measured using electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs). P300s and LPPs are components of the ERP indicating increased attention to stimuli. Results: There ...


Electromechanical Delay Of The Dorsiflexors In Young And Old Women, In H. Choi Sep 2013

Electromechanical Delay Of The Dorsiflexors In Young And Old Women, In H. Choi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to examine the effect on electromechanical delay (EMD) in the dorsiflexors of young and old women during maximal isometric voluntary and electrically evoked contractions, and after a bout of lengthening contractions. METHODS: Nine young (25.1±1.3 years) and nine old (68.3±6.1 years) women performed baseline isometric contractions with evoked twitches followed by a series of dynamic lengthening contractions using a Biodex multi-joint dynamometer. Maximal isometric voluntary and evoked contractions were measured to assess EMD. Time points were recorded at baseline, mid-point of the intervention, post-task termination, and ...


Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis Sep 2013

Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis

Open Access Dissertations

As adults age, skeletal muscles become smaller and weaker, which can ultimately lead to declines in physical function and disability. In general, older adults produce less isometric force and dynamic power than younger adults. The effects of this weakness are amplified following a series of muscle contractions that result in muscle fatigue. Since daily routines consist of repeated series of activity followed by rest, it is important to understand how muscle recovers from fatigue. In particular, muscle power has been shown to be related to physical function and balance. Thus, understanding the process of recovery from muscle fatigue will help ...


Effect Of Warm-Up Activity On Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Basketball Players During Drop Jump Landings, Jacob Wesley Hinkel-Lipsker Sep 2013

Effect Of Warm-Up Activity On Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Basketball Players During Drop Jump Landings, Jacob Wesley Hinkel-Lipsker

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

Effect of Warm-Up Activity on Vertical Ground Reaction Forces in Basketball Players During Drop Jump Landings

Jacob Hinkel-Lipsker

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of certain warm-up activities on vertical ground reaction forces (GRFv) during a drop jump landing. Methods: Eight women and twelve men (mean age 22.6 ± 1.82 years) completed three warm-up activities on three separate days in a counterbalanced order: a passive stretching warm-up, a dynamic warm-up, and a no warm-up control. After completing each activity, participants were asked to perform eight drop jump landings on a force platform ...


The Effect Of Low And High Carbohydrate Diets On Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake And Muscle Deoxygenation Kinetics During Exercise Transitions Into The Heavy-Intensity Domain, John Leckie Aug 2013

The Effect Of Low And High Carbohydrate Diets On Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake And Muscle Deoxygenation Kinetics During Exercise Transitions Into The Heavy-Intensity Domain, John Leckie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a high carbohydrate (HCHO) and low carbohydrate (LCHO) diet on the adjustment of pulmonary oxygen (O2) uptake ( ) and muscle deoxygenation ([HHb]) during transitions to heavy intensity exercise. Young, healthy, male subjects aged (24+/-3) underwent a 4 day LCHO followed immediately by a 4 day HCHO diet, with each diet preceded by a glycogen depletion protocol. This protocol was designed to alter PDH activity. Subjects completed 3 step transitions to a work rate corresponding to 35% of the difference between their lactate threshold and peak for each condition ...