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2013

Environmental Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Soil Development And Vegetation Response To Removal Of A Small Dam, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, Stephanie Kay Rohdy Dec 2013

Soil Development And Vegetation Response To Removal Of A Small Dam, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, Stephanie Kay Rohdy

Dissertations and Theses

Dam removal is increasing as dams age, yet little is understood about the pedogenic response to dam removal. This study reports on the edaphic changes of reservoir sediments and vegetation cover one year following removal of a small earthen dam in Northern California. In August 2012, I sampled surface sediments from the former Dream Lake reservoir in Lassen Volcanic National Park, and compared their physical and chemical properties with soil samples from two reference sites. I also estimated percent cover of vegetation in the former reservoir and reference sites. My results show that the reservoir was under reduced conditions, as ...


Phylogeographic Inference Of Insular Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) Divergence In North America's Desert Southwest, Ona Alminas Dec 2013

Phylogeographic Inference Of Insular Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) Divergence In North America's Desert Southwest, Ona Alminas

Theses and Dissertations

Though mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) persist in robust populations throughout most of their North American distribution, nearly 60% of their historic range in México has declined due to habitat loss and unregulated hunting. Two of the six subspecies inhabiting México's deserts and Baja California peninsula are of conservation concern, occurring on land bridge islands in the Pacific Ocean (O. h. cerrosensis on Cedros Island: threatened) and in the Sea of Cortés (O. h. sheldoni on Tiburón Island: endangered). Focusing on the desert southwest (n=449 deer), we obtained 1,611 bp of mtDNA sequence (control region: 583 bp; cytochrome ...


Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey Dec 2013

Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey

Theses and Dissertations

Waterborne illnesses, attributed to the ingestion or contact with contaminated water, present a significant global health concern. Surface water sources can be impacted by wide array of pollution inputs, but fecal pollution generates the most significant and acute threat to human health. Therefore, the detection of fecal bacteria in surface water sources remains an important public health objective. Current surface water monitoring employs the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including E. coli and enterococci as proxies for pathogenic organisms carried in fecal pollution. These traditional indicators, detected by culture-based microbiological methods, do not discriminate fecal sources from another. New ...


The Imperative Of Conserving California's Foothill Oak Woodlands, Lauren Phillips Dec 2013

The Imperative Of Conserving California's Foothill Oak Woodlands, Lauren Phillips

Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Common Core 4th Grade Environmental Science Lesson Plans For California Teachers, Gillian Schoenfeld Dec 2013

Common Core 4th Grade Environmental Science Lesson Plans For California Teachers, Gillian Schoenfeld

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

This project and its analyses were conducted to assist California fourth grade elementary school teachers in adjusting to teaching Common Core standards and science curriculum in their classrooms. The project included the creation of lesson plans, which could be utilized throughout the state of California.

As the Common Core standards, California’s Next Generation Science Standards for K- 12, were just proposed in June of 2013, these lesson plans would help teachers update their lessons and provide them materials and concepts of how to do so. These lessons provide higher-order thinking for students, which is the whole concept of the ...


Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca Dec 2013

Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An assessment of the growth response of key vegetative species to climatic variability is vital to identifying possible local impacts on ecosystems faced with imminent climate change. With current climate projections in Nevada predicting a shift to an even more arid climate with greater year-to-year variability, the imperative exists to identify the effects of specific climatic controls on plant growth and to research methods to assess large-scale vegetative changes, especially in more remote areas where readily available data sets may be lacking. This study utilized annual growth ring indices constructed from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentatassp.tridentata) stems collected in Spring ...


Long-Term Residue And Water Management Effects On Soil Respiration And Soil Aggregate Stability In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System In Eastern Arkansas, Sharon Faye Smith Dec 2013

Long-Term Residue And Water Management Effects On Soil Respiration And Soil Aggregate Stability In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System In Eastern Arkansas, Sharon Faye Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Sustainability in agriculture is paramount to assuring continued production from our most naturally fertile soils. Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter through sustainable agricultural management practices can both remove atmospheric C and improve soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of water management (irrigation and dryland), residue management [burn and no-burn, conventional (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and residue/fertility level (high and low) on soil respiration and aggregate stability in a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], double-crop system in a silt-loam soil (Aquic Fraglossudalf) in the Mississippi River ...


The Effects Of A Red Tide, Karenia Brevis Episode On The Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Of South Padre Island, Texas, Liana Lerma Nov 2013

The Effects Of A Red Tide, Karenia Brevis Episode On The Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Of South Padre Island, Texas, Liana Lerma

UTB/UTPA Electronic Theses and Dissertations

South Padre Island, Texas has experienced increasing frequency of harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) since the 1900’s, many of which resulted in massive fishes kills. In addition, shorebirds and other terrestrial wildlife deaths have been linked to K. brevis blooms prompting investigations of potential pathways by which brevetoxins may be transmitted to higher trophic levels. The benthic macrofanual community inhabiting the swash zone of sandy beaches consists primarily of filter feeding invertebrates which may serve as toxin bioaccumulators to secondary consumers of both marine and terrestrial food webs. The first reported mass mortality of swash zone benthic macrofauna on ...


Lipid And Fatty Acid Differences In Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush) Eggs From The Great Lakes, Cayuga Lake, And Lake Champlain, Robert Carl Louis Geroux Oct 2013

Lipid And Fatty Acid Differences In Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush) Eggs From The Great Lakes, Cayuga Lake, And Lake Champlain, Robert Carl Louis Geroux

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

The main objectives of this study were to determine and compare fatty acid signatures (FAS) of lake trout eggs within and among the Great Lakes region. Fifteen sites were sampled over 2 years, including six sites in Lake Michigan, four sites in Lake Huron and one site each in Lake Ontario, Lake Superior, Lake Champlain, and Cayuga Lake. A total of 518 egg samples were quantified. A combination of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses was used to assess spatial and temporal differences in FAS in both the neutral lipid (NL) and phospholipid (PL) fractions of lake trout eggs. At each ...


The City In Mind: Environmental Literacy And Adaptation In Nineteenth-Century British Literature, Adam Edward Watkins Oct 2013

The City In Mind: Environmental Literacy And Adaptation In Nineteenth-Century British Literature, Adam Edward Watkins

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation argues that a new paradigm of selfhood emerged in nineteenth-century British literature, one that recognized the individual will and environmental influence not as antithetical but as dialectical forces in the formation of the self. The concept of an externally negotiated subject challenges both the inward and socially determined conceptions of self that have dominated the relevant criticism. Informed by empiricist, associationist, and evolutionary theories of the mind, the portrayals of subject-formation in this study highlight the radical changes occurring in the human environment in nineteenth-century, which catalyzed the conception of a malleable yet self-forming subject. Along with the ...


An Analysis Of The Impact Of Storage Temperature, Moisture Content & Duration Upon The Chemical Components & Bioprocessing Of Lignocellulosic Biomass, Arun Athmanathan Oct 2013

An Analysis Of The Impact Of Storage Temperature, Moisture Content & Duration Upon The Chemical Components & Bioprocessing Of Lignocellulosic Biomass, Arun Athmanathan

Open Access Dissertations

The successful utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for fuels and chemicals necessitates storage for 2-6 months. It is correspondingly important to understand the impact of storage parameters - moisture concentration, temperature and duration - on biomass quality.

As aerobic storage is the most viable large-scale solution, aerobic storage experiments were carried out with three projected bioenergy feedstocks - sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bagasse, corn (Zea mays) stover and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Stored samples of each were examined for dry matter loss and composition change to develop a material balance around carbohydrates and lignin.

A mean dry matter loss of 24% was ...


Quantifying Crop Yield, Bioenergy Production And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cropland And Marginal Land Using A Model-Data Fusion Approach, Zhangcai Qin Oct 2013

Quantifying Crop Yield, Bioenergy Production And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cropland And Marginal Land Using A Model-Data Fusion Approach, Zhangcai Qin

Open Access Dissertations

Bioenergy is becoming increasingly attractive to many countries, but has sparked an intensive debate regarding energy, economy, society and environment. Biofuels provide alternative energy to conventional fossil fuels. However, the environmental impact of producing and using biofuel is a major concern to our society. This study is dedicated to quantifying and evaluating biofuel production and potential climate change mitigation due to potential large-scale bioenergy expansion in the conterminous United States, using model-data fusion approaches.

Biofuel made from conventional (e.g., maize (Zea mays L.)) and cellulosic crops (e.g., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus)) provides alternative energy ...


Long-Term Disturbance Histories Of Managed And Natural Mixed-Hardwood Forests Of Central Indiana, Robert Charles Morrissey Oct 2013

Long-Term Disturbance Histories Of Managed And Natural Mixed-Hardwood Forests Of Central Indiana, Robert Charles Morrissey

Open Access Dissertations

Over the course of the last century, we have observed changes in forest composition and structure related to changes in disturbance regimes. Reduced frequency and severity of disturbance events has allowed for the ingrowth of shade-tolerant, mesophytic species into forest understories; the result is shifting species compositions and changes in forest structure. In some cases, the loss of masting species, such as oak (Quercus spp.) and hickory (Carya spp.), may also accompany a shift in forest function and further accommodate other species shifts among mammal, insect, and bird populations. Management efforts have been suggested as a possible means to imitate ...


The Role Of Resource Predictability In The Metapopulation Dynamics Of Insects, Byju Nambidiyattil Govindan Oct 2013

The Role Of Resource Predictability In The Metapopulation Dynamics Of Insects, Byju Nambidiyattil Govindan

Open Access Dissertations

The metapopulation paradigm has emerged as an important tool to understand the dynamics of species living in fragmented landscapes. In this dissertation, I investigate the unpredictable nature of resource availability for species living in human-dominated heterogeneous and dynamic landscapes in the context of its consequences for long-term regional persistence of species. In particular, I test theoretical advancements in metapopulation ecology following a two-pronged approach - via experiments in the lab and observations in the field - using insects. In chapter 1, I introduce the concept of metapopulation ecology in the context of its relevance for dynamics of species living in fragmented landscapes ...


Environmental Tradeoffs In Bioenergy Production And Agricultural Practices, Alicia Lynn English Oct 2013

Environmental Tradeoffs In Bioenergy Production And Agricultural Practices, Alicia Lynn English

Open Access Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation is the environmental tradeoffs of stover removal within the Corn Belt. The environmental tradeoffs considered are mainly concerned with managing soil erosion and soil quality. The analysis layers soil characteristics, management strategies and per acre costs using an integrated RUSLE2/WEPS model and an economic optimization model to illuminate a lower bound supply response. Different assumptions were tested in regards to sustainability, prices, and market integration for five states and 18,760 soil types throughout the Corn Belt. Sustainability was defined to limit soil erosion from wind and water to 5 tons/acre/year and ...


Understanding The Links Between Human Health And Climate Change: Agricultural Productivity And Allergenic Pollen Production Of Timothy Grass(Phleum Pratense L.) Under Future Predicted Levels Of Carbon Dioxide And Ozone, Jennifer M. Albertine Sep 2013

Understanding The Links Between Human Health And Climate Change: Agricultural Productivity And Allergenic Pollen Production Of Timothy Grass(Phleum Pratense L.) Under Future Predicted Levels Of Carbon Dioxide And Ozone, Jennifer M. Albertine

Open Access Dissertations

The prevalence of allergic disease is expected to increase with climate change. Grasses, which have highly allergenic pollen, are widely distributed across the globe. Changes in production and allergen content of grass pollen have not been specifically investigated. We tested the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on growth, pollen and allergen production of Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). Timothy is also used as an agricultural forage crop so changes in plant productivity can also affect humans indirectly. Plants were fumigated in eight chambers at two concentrations of ozone (O3; 30 and 80 ppb) and carbon dioxide (CO ...


The Role Of Wood Microsites At Timberline-Alpine Meadow Borders For Conifer Regeneration, Adelaide Chapman Johnson Aug 2013

The Role Of Wood Microsites At Timberline-Alpine Meadow Borders For Conifer Regeneration, Adelaide Chapman Johnson

Dissertations and Theses

This research aimed to determine whether wood microsites ("nurse logs"), which are regeneration sites in Pacific Northwest (PNW) subalpine forests, supported regeneration at timberline-alpine meadow borders. Upward advance of forests and conifer invasion into alpine meadows, which may be occurring in conjunction with climate warming, have gained worldwide attention. Successful alpine meadow seedling regeneration depends on suitable substrate availability, or microsites, for seedling establishment. To better understand factors associated with wood microsite occurrence, mechanisms of wood input were determined and four specific hypotheses were posed to assess: (1) seedling density and seedling survival; (2) growing season length, summer mean growing ...


Phytoplankton Life History Events: Resting Stages And Physiological Cell Death, Christine R. Kozik Aug 2013

Phytoplankton Life History Events: Resting Stages And Physiological Cell Death, Christine R. Kozik

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding and predicting changes in phytoplankton populations requires knowledge of key life history processes such as recruitment from benthic resting stages and losses due to sedimentation and cell death. Currently, these processes are poorly understood in freshwater systems. Phytoplankton resting stage and cell death life history events were separately examined in two freshwater systems in Wisconsin, four northern lakes and an urban pond. In the norther lakes, sedimentation and benthic recruitment were examined using sediment and recruitment traps that were sampled weekly over two summers. Sedimentation and benthic recruitment contributed little to changes in standing crop chl a, but rather ...


Understanding Basin Specific Life History Characteristics Of Lake Mead Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Bugensis) And A Potential Treatment Using Uv Radiation In Laboratory Studies, Melissa Thaw Aug 2013

Understanding Basin Specific Life History Characteristics Of Lake Mead Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Bugensis) And A Potential Treatment Using Uv Radiation In Laboratory Studies, Melissa Thaw

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is an aquatic invasive species that is spreading throughout Lake Mead and other western waterways. Unlike their native waters in Eurasia, Lake Mead exhibits year round warm temperatures, high calcium levels and a lack of natural predators, all of which are very favorable conditions for their growth and spread. Dreissena bugensis reproduce and colonize hard surfaces rapidly, where they filter large amounts of water. They disrupt the aquatic food chain and interfere with infrastructure that is exposed to lake water. There is an urgent need to understand Dreissena bugensis life history characteristics within this new ...


Modeling Habitat Use Of A Fringe Greater Sage-Grouse Population At Multiple Spatial Scales, Anya Cheyenne Burnett Aug 2013

Modeling Habitat Use Of A Fringe Greater Sage-Grouse Population At Multiple Spatial Scales, Anya Cheyenne Burnett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While range-wide population declines have prompted extensive research on greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), basic information about southern periphery populations, such as the Bald Hills population in southern Utah, has not been documented. The objective of this research was to determine habitat preferences and space use patterns of the Bald Hills sage-grouse population which occurs in an area of high potential for renewable energy development. I tracked 66 birds via VHF telemetry in 2011 and 2012 and surveyed vegetation plots throughout the study area. I found that the population was primarily one-stage migratory with seasonal distributions that did not correspond well ...


Paleoecology Of Late Pleistocene Megaherbivores: Stable Isotope Reconstruction Of Environment, Climate, And Response, Aubrey Mae Bonde Aug 2013

Paleoecology Of Late Pleistocene Megaherbivores: Stable Isotope Reconstruction Of Environment, Climate, And Response, Aubrey Mae Bonde

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Late Pleistocene megaherbivore communities of the Pacific and Mountain West states of California and Nevada are under-analyzed in regard to ecological function (diet, mobility, niche partitioning, and range of ecological tolerance). Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool that is known to recover primary paleodiet and paleoenvironmental information from biogenic materials, such as enamel and dentin. This dissertation explores the use of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes in Late Pleistocene (40-10 Ka) megaherbivore teeth to gain a better understanding of inter- and intra-specific behavior and reconstruct Late Pleistocene ecosystems of California and Nevada. Radiocarbon dates exist for most of the ...


A Roadmap To Mindful Consumption Through Informative Labeling Practices: The Effects Of Sustainability Disclosure Formats On Consumer Product Evaluations, Yoon-Na Cho Aug 2013

A Roadmap To Mindful Consumption Through Informative Labeling Practices: The Effects Of Sustainability Disclosure Formats On Consumer Product Evaluations, Yoon-Na Cho

Theses and Dissertations

Despite the interest of consumers in sustainable and environmentally friendly products, only a limited number of studies have focused on sustainability level disclosures for consumer packaged goods. The general overarching purpose of this dissertation is to extend the internal reference point and information processing literatures to better understand how consumers will process sustainability disclosures. Applying the theoretical lens of assimilation bias in conjunction with self-enhancement offers an important extension to prior work. Across two retail lab studies and four online experiments, I demonstrate that the perceived sustainability utility (i.e., the difference between a specific brand's level of sustainability ...


The Use Of Non-Traditional Technologies To Improve The Efficiency And Sustainability Of Modern Poultry Production, Christopher Pixley Aug 2013

The Use Of Non-Traditional Technologies To Improve The Efficiency And Sustainability Of Modern Poultry Production, Christopher Pixley

Theses and Dissertations

Historically, major driving factors for the animal agriculture industry have been efficiency and profitability. As demand for efficient food production has increased, the industry has focused research efforts on ways to improve the rearing process. Current market demands are requiring the industry to abandon some of the traditional tools it has used to maximize productivity. However, developing alternative technologies are available which may fill the void. Unfortunately, these alternatives are less well-described and the beneficial impacts they can have are not fully understood. As the animal agriculture industry matures it is becoming evident that consumers will continue to demand methods ...


Evaluation Of Water Sanitation Options For Poultry Production, Pramir Maharjan Aug 2013

Evaluation Of Water Sanitation Options For Poultry Production, Pramir Maharjan

Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of poultry farm water supplies was conducted to determine the value and impact of water system sanitation practices in commercial broiler houses on microbial levels. Water line cleaning between flocks using concentrated disinfectant solution before placing chicks reduced biofilms retained in the lines to a safe level. Occasional microbial surges were noticed during different points of flock grow-out period even when daily water sanitation was present indicating water is highly susceptible to microbial contamination. However, the daily water sanitation practice controlled the occasional microbial surges in water from sustaining and kept drinking water to a microbiologically acceptable level ...


Preserving Nature Through Film: Wilderness Alps Of Stehekin And The North Cascades, 1956-1968, Nicolas Timothy Bergmann Jun 2013

Preserving Nature Through Film: Wilderness Alps Of Stehekin And The North Cascades, 1956-1968, Nicolas Timothy Bergmann

Dissertations and Theses

On March 22, 1958 David Brower's film Wilderness Alps of Stehekin premiered to an audience of conservationists in Seattle, Washington. Almost two years in the making, the thirty-one minute film advocated the preservation of nature in Washington's North Cascades through the creation of a national park. Over the next decade, Wilderness Alps of Stehekin became the most influential publicity tool in the struggle to preserve the North Cascades. Because of the region's geographic isolation, the film was the first time many people throughout the nation were exposed to the scenic grandeur of the area. Images of craggy ...


Multiple Approaches For Assessing Mangrove Biophysical And Biochemical Variables Using In Situ And Remote Sensing Techniques, Francisco Javier Flores De Santiago Jun 2013

Multiple Approaches For Assessing Mangrove Biophysical And Biochemical Variables Using In Situ And Remote Sensing Techniques, Francisco Javier Flores De Santiago

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mangrove forests are important ecosystems and play a key role in maintaining the equilibrium in coastal lagoons and estuaries. However, in recent years, there has been a considerable loss of mangrove extension due to anthropogenic activities. Recent studies suggest that multiple in situ and remote sensing approaches must be carried out to understand the dynamics in these complex ecosystems. Therefore, the objective for this PhD dissertation is to develop multiple techniques for monitoring the seasonal biophysical and biochemical conditions of the mangrove forests. Particular objectives will include: i. Test the feasibility of using a Chlorophyll Content Index from a CCM-200 ...


Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Spectrometry Of Atmospheric Aerosols At Piseco Lake, Adam Margulies Jun 2013

Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Spectrometry Of Atmospheric Aerosols At Piseco Lake, Adam Margulies

Honors Theses

Chemical studies of lakes and aerosols in the Adirondack region of New York State have found evidence of environmental pollution resulting in acid rain. We obtained air samples for July and September 2012 from Piseco Lake and analyzed particulate depositions with Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. We detected an array of light elements, including sulfur particulates in the 0.25 - 8 μm range, possibly stemming from coal combustion in the Appalachians and Mid-West of the United States. We also found systematic errors with the accelerator charge integration system due to beam spreading after the beam passes through the target ...


Bird Mortality In The Human Built Environment, Stacie Schwartz Jun 2013

Bird Mortality In The Human Built Environment, Stacie Schwartz

Honors Theses

Human development is having a detrimental effect on bird populations around the world. One hundred million to one billion birds are killed every year from colliding with human-built structures. I explored factors influencing the inability of birds to avoid man-made structures. If we can better understand these reasons, we can find solutions to this problem. After a known bird avoidance method, fritted glass, was installed in the Wold building, I investigated whether this glass actually deters birds from striking windows. Strikes on windows were noted daily through observation of specific windows on campus. Results show that vegetation outside of windows ...


Impact Of Hydraulic Fracturing On Ground And Surface Water Resources, Reyna Schenck Jun 2013

Impact Of Hydraulic Fracturing On Ground And Surface Water Resources, Reyna Schenck

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The following study examines hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States in relation to groundwater contamination, withdrawals of freshwater resources, and jurisdictional authority over the activity with the purpose of producing objective analysis of research findings. With a growing population and increasing energy needs, hydraulic fracturing is expanding across the nation, as is public concern over the risks to freshwater resources. Because of the difficulty in identifying non-point sources of water pollution, a lack of legitimate water samples representing baseline conditions, and incomplete lists of chemical additives used, study results are often inconclusive as to the correlation between hydraulic fracturing ...


Urban Agriculture Stormwater Management In California Cities, Rachel L. Cohen Jun 2013

Urban Agriculture Stormwater Management In California Cities, Rachel L. Cohen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Cities within California are beginning to incorporate urban agriculture into their land use designations. Prompted by residents and local organizations, cities are hoping to capture the benefits that urban agriculture provides. Research has shown that urban agriculture renews and beautifies neighborhoods, provides healthy food choices, increases public health, has the potential to help with stormwater runoff, creates jobs, and fosters community. In the last few years, several California cities have made headlines as they have adopted new zoning codes that include urban agriculture.

In reviewing these new zoning codes and exploring the topic of urban agriculture, it became evident that ...