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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Cell Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Macrophage Microrna And Mrna Responses To Stimulation Of Tlrs Or Upon Infection With Leishmania Infantum Chagasi, Erik Bruce Wendlandt Jul 2013

Macrophage Microrna And Mrna Responses To Stimulation Of Tlrs Or Upon Infection With Leishmania Infantum Chagasi, Erik Bruce Wendlandt

Theses and Dissertations

Leishmania are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that are inoculated into human skin while a sand fly vector takes a blood meal with the resulting disease coined leishmaniasis. The twenty plus species of Leishmania known to cause human disease are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Leishmaniasis affects at least eighty-eight countries with three hundred and fifty million people at risk for infection, resulting in an estimated seventy thousand deaths annually. Different species of Leishmania have developed distinct methods for host defense evasion, leading to a wide spectrum of pathologies within humans.

Prior studies of macrophage infections with ...


New Types Of Morpho-Physiological Changes In Cells Exposed To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Mikhail A. Rassokhin Jul 2013

New Types Of Morpho-Physiological Changes In Cells Exposed To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Mikhail A. Rassokhin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Exposure of cells to a pulsed electric field (PEF) is the basis of multiple techniques and treatments. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) poses unique characteristics to induce subtle cellular effects while preserving cell integrity. Improving understanding of the mechanisms triggered by nsPEF in cells inspires new applications for the nanosecond pulse technology. Although many effects of nsPEF remain unknown, they can be inferred from morpho-physiologic changes, or cell reshaping, that accompany nsPEF exposure. During the exposure cells undergo reshaping that is manifested in swelling and diffuse blebbing. Recently we identified two new distinct forms of reshaping, pseudopod-like blebbing and microvesiculation ...


A Role For Intraflagellar Transport Proteins In Mitosis: A Dissertation, Alison R. Bright Jun 2013

A Role For Intraflagellar Transport Proteins In Mitosis: A Dissertation, Alison R. Bright

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Disruption of cilia proteins results in a range of disorders called ciliopathies. However, the mechanism by which cilia dysfunction contributes to disease is not well understood. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins are required for ciliogenesis. They carry ciliary cargo along the microtubule axoneme while riding microtubule motors. Interestingly, IFT proteins localize to spindle poles in non-ciliated, mitotic cells, suggesting a mitotic function for IFT proteins. Based on their role in cilia, we hypothesized that IFT proteins regulate microtubule-based transport during mitotic spindle assembly. Biochemical investigation revealed that in mitotic cells IFT88, IFT57, IFT52, and IFT20 interact with dynein1, a microtubule motor ...


Amyloid Beta Resistance And The Warburg Effect: Re-Examining Alzheimer's Disease, Jordan Taylor Newington Jun 2013

Amyloid Beta Resistance And The Warburg Effect: Re-Examining Alzheimer's Disease, Jordan Taylor Newington

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of the amyloid beta (Ab) peptide in the brain, an event which frequently but not universally correlates with nerve cell death. Although most nerve cells die in response to Ab, small populations of cells are able to survive by becoming resistant to Ab toxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which cells become resistant to Ab may reveal novel treatments for AD. Interestingly, nerve cell lines selected for resistance against Ab exhibit increased glucose uptake and glycolytic flux. Here I show that these metabolic changes are mediated through an upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase ...


Investigation Of Multiple Concerted Mechanisms Underlying Stimulus-Induced G1 Arrest In Yeast: A Dissertation, Patricia A. Pope Jun 2013

Investigation Of Multiple Concerted Mechanisms Underlying Stimulus-Induced G1 Arrest In Yeast: A Dissertation, Patricia A. Pope

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Progression through the cell cycle is tightly controlled, and the decision whether or not to enter a new cell cycle can be influenced by both internal and external cues. For budding yeast one such external cue is pheromone treatment, which can induce G1 arrest. Two distinct mechanisms are known to be involved in this arrest, one dependent on the arrest protein Far1 and one independent of Far1, but the exact mechanisms have remained enigmatic. The studies presented here further elucidate both of these mechanisms.

We looked at two distinct aspects of the Far1-independent arrest mechanism. First, we studied the role ...


Associations Between Alcohol Consumption And Fasting Blood Glucose In Young Adults, Julie Ann Lucca Jun 2013

Associations Between Alcohol Consumption And Fasting Blood Glucose In Young Adults, Julie Ann Lucca

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Current research shows moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of diabetes and excessive consumption or binge drinking can cause insulin resistance and diabetes. In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United Statesand was responsible for significant health complications: blindness, kidney failure, and limb amputations, and is a large national economic burden. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) is a tool used to help diagnose diabetes. Abnormally high FBG, ≥100 mg/dl, is indicative of diabetes and pre-diabetes. Few studies have observed diabetic prevalence among young adults or college students. Studying young adults can help provide ...


Systematic Analysis Of Residues In Conserved Region 3 Of The Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncoprotein, Biljana Todorovic May 2013

Systematic Analysis Of Residues In Conserved Region 3 Of The Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncoprotein, Biljana Todorovic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although remarkable biological diversity is exhibited by viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, they rely on host cell functions. As such, viruses typically must overcome a set of host barriers that prevent infection. For human papillomaviruses (HPV) one of these barriers is the state of terminal differentiation of the host cell. For that purpose HPVs encode two major oncoproteins, E6 and E7, which combine their efforts to effectively uncouple cellular differentiation from the cell cycle arrest. The E7 proteins have no intrinsic enzymatic activity or DNA binding ability, but they bind and manipulate numerous host proteins. E7 is a modular oncoprotein ...


Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill May 2013

Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors and the master regulators of oxygen-dependent gene expression in animals. The focus of this thesis is the distribution of HIF protein in tissues of the fish Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis, two widespread species that occur in naturally hypoxic waters. Polyclonal antibodies against HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α were tested on proteins made in vitro and on extracts made from several tissues of normoxic and hypoxic fish. Antibodies against HIF-1α and 3α bound specifically to full length protein made in vitro, and produced bands on western blots of nuclear extracts of near the expected ...


Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester May 2013

Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease characterized by neurodegeneration and inflammation of the central nervous system. It affects approximately 250,000 people in the United States alone, with women being affected two times more than men. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the primary animal model of MS, sharing clinical signs and histopathology with MS. The current paradigm supports MS/EAE induction by myelin reactive CD4+ T cells that cross the blood brain barrier to induce an inflammatory response that leads to the destruction of the myelin sheath and eventual loss of axons. Recent data suggest that axonal loss and ...


Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham May 2013

Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham

Doctoral Dissertations

Historically, there has been tremendous synergy between biology and analytical technology, such that one drives the development of the other. Over the past two decades, their interrelatedness has catalyzed entirely new experimental approaches and unlocked new types of biological questions, as exemplified by the advancements of the field of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. MS-based proteomics, which provides a more complete measurement of all the proteins in a cell, has revolutionized a variety of scientific fields, ranging from characterizing proteins expressed by a microorganism to tracking cancer-related biomarkers. Though MS technology has advanced significantly, the analysis of complicated proteomes, such ...


Experimental And Computational Analysis Of Chloroplast Transit Peptide Domain Architecture And Function, Prakitchai Chotewutmontri May 2013

Experimental And Computational Analysis Of Chloroplast Transit Peptide Domain Architecture And Function, Prakitchai Chotewutmontri

Doctoral Dissertations

The Majority of chloroplast proteins are nuclear-encoded and utilize an N-terminal transit peptide (TP) to target into chloroplasts via the general import pathway. Bioinformatic and proteomic analyses provide thousands of predicted TPs, which show low sequence similarity. How the common chloroplast translocon components recognize these diverse TPs is not well understood. Previous results support either sequence- or physicochemical-specific recognitions. To further address this question, a reverse sequence approach was utilized such that the reverse TP contains the same amino acid composition as wild-type TP but lack similar sequence motifs. Using both native and reverse TPs of the two well-studied precursors ...


Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li May 2013

Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The liver plays an important role in controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis. Metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are often associated with profound changes in the expression of genes involved in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Dietary nutrients provide us with macronutrients for energy and micronutrients for maintenance of general health. However, the effects of individual micronutrients on the development of metabolic diseases are unknown. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is the master regulator of fatty acid synthesis, and glucokinase (GK) is the key enzyme in glucose metabolism. Based on the preliminary results from our laboratory ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Vascular Disease In Patients With Rare Variants In Myh11, Callie Kwartler May 2013

Molecular Mechanisms Of Vascular Disease In Patients With Rare Variants In Myh11, Callie Kwartler

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) are the primary disease affecting the thoracic ascending aorta, with an incidence rate of 10.4/100,000. Although about 20% of patients carry a mutation in a single gene that causes their disease, the remaining 80% of patients may also have genetic factors that increase their risk for developing TAAD. Many of the genes that predispose to TAAD encode proteins involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction and the disease-causing mutations are predicted to disrupt contractile function. SMCs are the predominant cell type in the ascending aortic wall. Mutations in MYH11, encoding the ...


Mechanisms Underlying The Heterogeneous Sensitivities Of Cancer Cells To Proteasome Inhibitors, Matthew C. White May 2013

Mechanisms Underlying The Heterogeneous Sensitivities Of Cancer Cells To Proteasome Inhibitors, Matthew C. White

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The mechanisms underlying cellular response to proteasome inhibitors have not been clearly elucidated in solid tumor models. Evidence suggests that the ability of a cell to manage the amount of proteotoxic stress following proteasome inhibition dictates survival. In this study using the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade®) in solid tumor cells, we demonstrated that perhaps the most critical response to proteasome inhibition is repression of global protein synthesis by phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α subunit (eIF2α). In a panel of 10 distinct human pancreatic cancer cells, we showed marked heterogeneity in the ability of cancer cells to induce ...


The P63 Isoform ∆Np63Α Inhibits Epithelial – Mesenchymal Transition By Promoting The Expression Of Mir-205 In Human Bladder Cancer Cells, Mai Tran May 2013

The P63 Isoform ∆Np63Α Inhibits Epithelial – Mesenchymal Transition By Promoting The Expression Of Mir-205 In Human Bladder Cancer Cells, Mai Tran

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

p63, a p53 family member, is a transcription factor that has complex roles in cancer. This study focuses on the role of the ∆Np63α isoform in bladder cancer (BC). Epithelial – mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that plays an important part in metastasis and drug resistance. At the molecular level, EMT is characterized by the loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and the acquisition of the transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin (ZEB1, ZEB2, TWIST, SNAI1 and SNAI2). Recent publications highlight the role of microRNAs belonging to the miR-200 family and miR-205 in preventing EMT through suppression of ZEB1 and ZEB2 ...


Investigating The Roles Of The P63 Isoforms In The Microrna Biogenesis Pathway, Deepavali Chakravarti May 2013

Investigating The Roles Of The P63 Isoforms In The Microrna Biogenesis Pathway, Deepavali Chakravarti

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

MicroRNAs play roles in various biological processes like development, tumorigenesis, metastasis and pluripotency. My thesis work has demonstrated roles for p63, a p53 family member, in the upstream regulation of microRNA biogenesis. The p63 gene has a complex gene structure and has multiple isoforms. The TAp63 isoforms contain an acidic transcription activation domain. The ΔNp63 isoforms, lack the TA domain, but have a proline rich region critical for gene transactivation. To understand the functions of these isoforms, the Flores lab generated TAp63 and ΔNp63 conditional knock out mice. Using these mice and tissues and cells from these mice we have ...


Oxidative Stress For An Acute Bout Of Bikram Yoga In Healthy, Trained Adults, Kimberly Anne Trocio May 2013

Oxidative Stress For An Acute Bout Of Bikram Yoga In Healthy, Trained Adults, Kimberly Anne Trocio

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

BACKGROUND:Generation of free radicals resulting in oxidative damage has been linked to cellular damage, aging, and human disease. Many studies have reported that physical exercise can contribute to oxidative stress. Further, exercise in a hyperthermic environment can promote additional oxidative stress. It is important to consider that practices in yoga may be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress according to some studies. The compound effects of exercise and hyperthermic exposure are experienced in the practice of Bikram yoga, the original "hot" yoga. Because Bikram yoga and other hot exercise classes are an increasingly growing fitness trend, it is necessary to ...


Gb Virus C Interactions With Hiv: Effects On Immunoactivation And Mechanisms Of Immunomodulation, Nirjal Bhattarai May 2013

Gb Virus C Interactions With Hiv: Effects On Immunoactivation And Mechanisms Of Immunomodulation, Nirjal Bhattarai

Theses and Dissertations

GB virus C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic human virus which was recently assigned to a new genus Pegivirus within the Flaviviridae family. GBV-C infection is found worldwide, and viremia prevalence is about 1% to 4% in healthy blood donors and up to 42% in HIV-infected individuals. In clinical studies, GBV-C coinfection is associated with prolonged survival of HIV-infected individuals. GBV-C infection modestly alters T cell homeostasis in vivo through various mechanisms, including modulation of chemokine and cytokine release and receptor expression, and by diminution of T cell activation, proliferation and apoptosis, all of which may contribute to improved HIV clinical ...


Taking Shape : Regulating Mitochondria Morphology Through Alternative Splicing And Phosphorylation Of Fission Factor Proteins, Theodore James Wilson May 2013

Taking Shape : Regulating Mitochondria Morphology Through Alternative Splicing And Phosphorylation Of Fission Factor Proteins, Theodore James Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are important cellular organelles whose functions include generation of ATP, sequestration and release of pro-apoptotic molecules and calcium buffering. Mitochondria function is tightly linked to organelle morphology, which exits in a dynamic spectrum between a highly interconnected/fused mitochondria network to a punctate/fragmented scattering of individual mitochondrion. A family of large GTPase enzymes modulates this spectrum, with fusion catalyzed through the actions of mitofusin 1 and 2 (Mfn1/2) on the outer mitochondria membrane (OMM) and optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) causing fusion of the inner mitochondria membrane (IMM). On the other end of the spectrum, fragmentation is catalyzed ...


Loss Of Acid Sensing Ion Channel-1a And Bicarbonate Administration Attenuate The Severity Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Terry Yin May 2013

Loss Of Acid Sensing Ion Channel-1a And Bicarbonate Administration Attenuate The Severity Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Terry Yin

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in people of all ages. Following the acute mechanical insult, TBI evolves over the ensuing minutes and days. Understanding the secondary factors that contribute to TBI might suggest therapeutic strategies to reduce the long-term consequences of brain trauma. To assess secondary factors that contribute to TBI, we studied a lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) model in mice. Following FPI, the brain cortex became acidic, consistent with data from humans following brain trauma. Administering HCO3- after FPI prevented the acidosis and reduced the extent of neurodegeneration. Because acidosis can ...


Mechanisms Of Microrna Evolution, Regulation And Function: Computational Insight, Biological Evaluation And Practical Application, Ryan Michael Spengler May 2013

Mechanisms Of Microrna Evolution, Regulation And Function: Computational Insight, Biological Evaluation And Practical Application, Ryan Michael Spengler

Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant and diverse class of small, non-protein coding RNAs that guide the post-transcriptional repression of messenger RNA (mRNA) targets in a sequence-specific manner. Hundreds, if not thousands of distinct miRNA sequences have been described, each of which has the potential to regulate a large number of mRNAs. Over the last decade, miRNAs have been ascribed roles in nearly all biological processes in which they have been tested. More recently, interest has grown in understanding how individual miRNAs evolved, and how they are regulated. In this work, we demonstrate that Transposable Elements are a source for novel ...


Role Of Map4k4 In Skeletal Muscle Differentiation: A Dissertation, Mengxi Wang May 2013

Role Of Map4k4 In Skeletal Muscle Differentiation: A Dissertation, Mengxi Wang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Skeletal muscle is a complicated and heterogeneous striated muscle tissue that serves critical mechanical and metabolic functions in the organism. The process of generating skeletal muscle, myogenesis, is elaborately coordinated by members of the protein kinase family, which transmit diverse signals initiated by extracellular stimuli to myogenic transcriptional hierarchy in muscle cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including p38 MAPK, c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) are components of serine/threonine protein kinase cascades that play important roles in skeletal muscle differentiation. The exploration of MAPK upstream kinases identified mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase ...


Role Of Autophagy In Post-Mitotic Midbody Fate And Function: A Dissertation, Tse-Chun Kuo Mar 2013

Role Of Autophagy In Post-Mitotic Midbody Fate And Function: A Dissertation, Tse-Chun Kuo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The midbody (MB) is a proteinaceous complex formed between the two daughter cells during cell division and is required for the final cell separation event in late cytokinesis. After cell division, the post-mitotic midbody, or midbody derivative (MBd), can be retained and accumulated in a subpopulation of cancer cells and stem cells, but not in normal diploid differentiated cells. However, the mechanisms by which MBds accumulate and function are unclear. Based on this, I hypothesize that the MBd is degraded by autophagy after cell division in normal diploid differentiated cells, whereas non-differentiated cells have low autophagic ...


Expression Of Growth Arrest And Dna Damage Protein 45-Alpha (Gadd45-Alpha) And The Ccaat/Enhancer Binding Protein-Delta (C/Ebp-Delta) In Fishes Exposed To Heat And Hypoxia, Daniel Omar Hassumani Mar 2013

Expression Of Growth Arrest And Dna Damage Protein 45-Alpha (Gadd45-Alpha) And The Ccaat/Enhancer Binding Protein-Delta (C/Ebp-Delta) In Fishes Exposed To Heat And Hypoxia, Daniel Omar Hassumani

Dissertations and Theses

The cellular stress response (CSR) is one of the most highly conserved mechanisms among all organisms. Cellular stress can be defined as damage or the threat of damage to proteins, macromolecules and/or DNA. The response to damage can involve cell cycle regulation, protein chaperoning, DNA repair or, if macromolecular damage is too severe, apoptotic mechanisms can be initiated. This thesis details experiments that were designed to examine the cellular response to non-lethal environmental stressors at the protein level, using two fish species as study models. Two proteins that can cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis mechanisms were examined. Expression ...


Runx Expression In Normal And Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Possible Functions Of Runx Proteins In Chondrocytes: A Dissertation, Kimberly T. Leblanc Feb 2013

Runx Expression In Normal And Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Possible Functions Of Runx Proteins In Chondrocytes: A Dissertation, Kimberly T. Leblanc

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Runx family of transcription factors supports cell fate determination, cell cycle regulation, global protein synthesis control, and genetic as well as epigenetic regulation of target genes. Runx1, which is essential for hematopoiesis; Runx2, which is required for osteoblast differentiation; and Runx3, which is involved in neurologic and gut development; are expressed in the growth plate during chondrocyte maturation, and in the chondrocytes of permanent cartilage structures. While Runx2 is known to control genes that contribute to chondrocyte hypertrophy, the functions of Runx1 and Runx3 during chondrogenesis and in cartilage tissue have been less well studied.

The goals of this ...


Subcellular Analysis Of The Disulfide Proteome In P66shc Expressing Nerve Cells, Tyler Cann Jan 2013

Subcellular Analysis Of The Disulfide Proteome In P66shc Expressing Nerve Cells, Tyler Cann

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The longevity associated protein p66Shc has been suggested to regulate organismal lifespan through initiation of apoptotic pathways. Following stress-induced translocation into the mitochondria, p66Shc promotes increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and triggers poorly defined downstream signaling events that lead to decreased cell viability. Protein disulfide bonding has recently emerged as aROSdependent post-translational modification that regulates protein function and signaling processes. Using the mouse hippocampal HT-22 cell line, I sought to determine the changes in the disulfide proteome associated with p66Shc mediatedROSproduction. Through Redox 2D-SDSPAGEanalysis of mitochondrial and cytosolic extracts, redox sensitive proteins altered by p66Shc mediatedROSformation were identified. Of ...


Characterization Of High-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels In Retinal Bipolar Cells, Qi Lu Jan 2013

Characterization Of High-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels In Retinal Bipolar Cells, Qi Lu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Retinal bipolar cells, conveying visual information from photoreceptors to ganglion cells, segregate visual information into multiple parallel pathways through their diversified cell types and physiological properties. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be particularly important underlying the diversified physiological properties of different BCs. In this dissertation, I investigated the high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium current in retinal bipolar cells in mice. In the first part of my dissertation, I characterized multiple bipolar cell-expressing GFP and/or Cre transgenic mouse lines. In the second part of my dissertation, by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, I examined the electrophysiological properties of HVA calcium currents among CBCs ...


Regulation Of Nuclear Localization Of The Sole Sumo-Conjugating Enzyme, Ubc9, Palak Sekhri Jan 2013

Regulation Of Nuclear Localization Of The Sole Sumo-Conjugating Enzyme, Ubc9, Palak Sekhri

Wayne State University Theses

The covalent and reversible conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to hundreds of different cellular proteins is catalyzed by a cascade of enzymes including an E1-activating enzyme (SAE1/SAE2), an E2-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) and multiple E3 ligases. As the only E2 enzyme for SUMO-conjugation, Ubc9 localizes mainly in the nucleus and plays an essential role in regulation of many cellular processes including cell cycle progression through mitosis, cell migration, genome stability, stress response, transcription, and nuclear transport in eukaryotic cells. It is hypothesized that the nuclear localization of Ubc9 is required for efficient sumoylation inside the nucleus because both ...


Influence Of Mechanical Cues And The Extracellular Matrix On Cell Migration Patterns And The Proliferation Rates Of Cells, Tara Shane Alger Jan 2013

Influence Of Mechanical Cues And The Extracellular Matrix On Cell Migration Patterns And The Proliferation Rates Of Cells, Tara Shane Alger

Wayne State University Theses

The mechanical environment of a cell and its tissue can impact multiple biological processes including development, wound healing, and metastasis. Specific cellular behaviors influenced by the mechanical microenvironment include differentiation, morphology, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. In this thesis I have focused specifically on the effect of environmental stiffness and applied mechanical forces on cellular migration and proliferation, respectively. Using two different applications, both tailored to evaluate the mechanical forces alone on cellular behavior, I attempted to simulate the mechanical composition of the in vivo tissue microenvironments in vitro using polyacrylamide hydrogels. To test whether cells maintain a mechanical memory for ...


Defining The Mechanism Of Enhanced Cellular Invasion Induced By Mechanical Stimulation, Snehal Sunil Ozarkar Jan 2013

Defining The Mechanism Of Enhanced Cellular Invasion Induced By Mechanical Stimulation, Snehal Sunil Ozarkar

Wayne State University Theses

Metastasis is a multistep process driven by various biochemical and mechanical factors, which eventually leads to formation of secondary tumors. The tumor mass is surrounded by basement membrane (BM) and stroma made of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. During metastasis tumor cells disseminate from the primary tumor, breach the BM, invade the stroma, travel through blood and lymph and colonize tissues distant from the primary tumor. Formation of secondary tumors by metastasis is a leading cause of death in cancer patients. Even though plenty of research has been focused on biochemical factors affecting metastasis, information on role of mechanical factors ...