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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Cell Biology

Transdifferentiation

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Role Of Arx In Specification And Maintenance Of Pancreatic Islet Α-Cells, Crystal Ley Wilcox Jan 2013

The Role Of Arx In Specification And Maintenance Of Pancreatic Islet Α-Cells, Crystal Ley Wilcox

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Correct specification and maintenance of pancreatic islet cells is an intricate process. Previous studies have demonstrated the essential role transcription factors play in this process. For islet glucagon-producing alpha-cells one such transcription factor is the aristaless-related homeobox gene (Arx). Previous studies have demonstrated that Arx is necessary and sufficient for alpha-cell specification where ablation of Arx results in complete loss of the alpha-cell lineage and misexpression leads to conversion into an alpha-cell phenotype. However, the role of Arx in maintenance of alpha-cell fate as well the impact non-null mutations of Arx have on alpha-cell development has not been explored. In ...


Cellular Mechanisms Of Mammalian Liver Regeneration, Kilangsungla Yanger Jan 2013

Cellular Mechanisms Of Mammalian Liver Regeneration, Kilangsungla Yanger

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF MAMMALIAN LIVER REGENERATION

Kilangsungla Yanger

Ben Z. Stanger

The liver is an essential organ that aids in metabolic processes, protein synthesis and detoxification of harmful substances. As the centre for detoxification, the liver is able to compensate for this routine damage with its robust regenerative ability. All vertebrate livers, for example, can make up for tissue mass loss (via surgical excision of a portion of the liver) by replication of their differentiated cells within the remnant lobes. These differentiated cells include parenchymal cells such as the hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BECs) and also non-parenchymal cells ...