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The Response Of Naive Channel Catfish To Chemical Cues Associated With Predation, Marinda Coulter Dec 2013

The Response Of Naive Channel Catfish To Chemical Cues Associated With Predation, Marinda Coulter

Theses and Dissertations

The chemosensory abilities of fishes, are important in order to understand how prey can perceive and avoid predators. Predator-naïve Channel catfish were exposed to four extracts over eight sessions (naïve bass water (NBW), bass that were fed catfish water (BFCW), catfish skin extract (CS), and naïve bass water paired with catfish skin extract (CO)) to determine whether they have an innate predator response to potential chemical cues indicating possible predation risk. Movement was quantified as grid squares crossed, directional changes, and tail beats. Response increased during the first minute following stimulus injection and decreased during the second minute. Channel catfish ...


Who's Your Daddy? A Study Of Extra-Pair Copulation And Mating Behaviors Of Protonotaria Citrea, Morton Catherine Heidrich Dec 2013

Who's Your Daddy? A Study Of Extra-Pair Copulation And Mating Behaviors Of Protonotaria Citrea, Morton Catherine Heidrich

Theses and Dissertations

Mating behavior has a profound impact on reproductive success and the resulting genetic structure of offspring. Extra-pair copulation is a widely observed behavior within avian species. This study explored the genetic effects of mating behaviors of Prothonotary warblers, Protonotaria citrea (Parulidae), using co-dominant microsatellite markers. Prothonotary warblers are migratory songbirds that build nests in cavities, commonly found in wetland habitats. A set of artificial nest boxes were initiated by Dr Robert Reilly in 2002 in Dutch Gap, Chesterfield County Virginia, USA, a tidal tributary off the James River. From this population, 28 nest boxes were surveyed yielding 47 adults and ...


Lake Michigan Hydrodynamics: Mysis And Larval Fish Interactions, Yutta Wang Dec 2013

Lake Michigan Hydrodynamics: Mysis And Larval Fish Interactions, Yutta Wang

Theses and Dissertations

I studied the interactions between Lake Michigan hydrodynamics (the spring thermal bar) and Mysis, deepwater sculpin, and burbot larvae. The thermal bar is a zone of sinking 4º С water that separates warmer inshore water from colder offshore water. Mysis was a major bycatch of sampling for larval fishes. The density of Mysis did not differ statistically between inshore (about 6º С) and offshore of the thermal bar, but the percentage of Mysis that were newborns was significantly higher inshore (P = 0.007). These "early start" coastal Mysis may have an advantage in growth and survival, but with the risk ...


Life After Adhesion: L-Selectin Throughout The T Cell Lifespan, Abner Garcia Fernandez Dec 2013

Life After Adhesion: L-Selectin Throughout The T Cell Lifespan, Abner Garcia Fernandez

Theses and Dissertations

Lymphocytes require antigenic encounter to activate and proliferate, eventually clearing the source of antigenic challenge. The peripheral lymph nodes (PLN) are the primary sites of antigenic encounter and thus the ability of lymphocytes to migrate to this tissue is a requirement for mounting effective immune responses. The process of lymphocyte migration to the PLN is known as the "adhesion cascade". Specifically, lymphocytes are captured from the blood through the adhesion molecule, L-selectin, followed by CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7)-mediated integrin activation, which ultimately results in cell transmigration into the PLN. Because the PLN is the site where antigenic encounter ...


Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green Dec 2013

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green

Theses and Dissertations

Dramatic range-wide declines in Greater Sage-Grouse populations have prompted efforts to determine habitat characteristics that are selected by sage-grouse for foraging, nesting and brood-rearing areas in an effort to conserve this species. Managers at Heart Mountain and Y U Bench in northwestern Wyoming expressed the need to quantify various habitat characteristics and to determine key use areas at both study sites. Data were collected on a variety of habitat variables in spots selected by grouse for foraging, nesting, and brood-rearing activities. These variables were compared to the same variables measured at random points at both study sites. Significant differences existed ...


The Effects Of Isolation On Endemic Cozumel Island Rodents: A Test Of The Island Rule, Brittany Marie Nuttall Dec 2013

The Effects Of Isolation On Endemic Cozumel Island Rodents: A Test Of The Island Rule, Brittany Marie Nuttall

Theses and Dissertations

Island isolation can cause changes in body size, cranial characteristics, and genetic variation in mammals. We use geometric morphometrics to test skull and mandible shape and size change across three species of endemic Cozumel Island rodents in order to test the “island rule” of larger size in isolated rodents. We also sequenced the D-Loop and cytochrome b region of the mitochondrial genome and tested for differences in genetic variation between island and mainland groups, as well as population structure and gene flow in order to assess the effect of island isolation on these three rodents. We found that the three ...


Ear Manipulations Help Model Neuroplasticity Limitations, Karen Louise Elliott Thompson Dec 2013

Ear Manipulations Help Model Neuroplasticity Limitations, Karen Louise Elliott Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

Sensory organs, such as the inner ear, send information about the outside world to the central nervous system (CNS) through afferent neurons and in turn, the CNS sends information back to certain sensory organs through efferent neurons to modulate the incoming signal. Though how these afferent and efferent neurons navigated with their processes to the hindbrain or hair cells, respectively, is not clear. By transplanting ears to other locations, or adding ears, we can effectively create a novel ear to ask how the CNS adapts to a new sensory system, complete with efferent innervation of hair cells and afferent innervation ...


The Roles Of N-Myc And L-Myc During Inner Ear Neurosensory Development, Benjamin Joseph Kopecky Dec 2013

The Roles Of N-Myc And L-Myc During Inner Ear Neurosensory Development, Benjamin Joseph Kopecky

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Hearing loss affects over 500 million people worldwide and results from irreversible damage to inner ear hair cells. The only available treatment is cochlear implants, which may be unable to provide sensory input if neuronal connections are lost, as they are in mouse models. Thus, regeneration of hair cells offers the only permanent cure; however, such therapeutic intervention requires a detailed molecular understanding inner ear development and hair cell maintenance. During mouse development, there is a balance between proliferation and differentiation that not only determines the size of the ear, but also is needed to form a functional sensory ...


Application Of Next-Generation Transcriptomic Tools For Non-Model Organisms: Gene Discovery And Marker Developmentwithin Plecoptera (Insecta), Nicholas Gregory Davis Dec 2013

Application Of Next-Generation Transcriptomic Tools For Non-Model Organisms: Gene Discovery And Marker Developmentwithin Plecoptera (Insecta), Nicholas Gregory Davis

Theses and Dissertations

Phylogenetic research on non-model organisms has been hindered by limited marker availability. Next generation sequencing techniques are eliminating that barrier. Using Illumina sequencing technology, Trinity assembly software, custom Perl reciprocal BLAST scripts, and Primer3 primer prediction software, we produced and analyzed 7 Plecopteran transcriptomes, representing 7 of the 16 total families, in an attempt to identify and develop conserved orthologous genetic markers. The transcriptomes were used to reconstruct a gene content phylogeny using a simple distance matrix generated from reciprocal blastn data. By producing and filtering a reciprocal blast network we identified and aligned over 450 putative orthologs. Out of ...


A Prickly Situation: Prickle1 Function Depends On The Signaling Context, Tian Yang Dec 2013

A Prickly Situation: Prickle1 Function Depends On The Signaling Context, Tian Yang

Theses and Dissertations

The gene PRICKLE1 is important for human brain function, as mutations in PRCKLE1 are associated with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Mutations in prickle orthologs could cause seizures in flies, zebrafish and mice, suggesting a conserved role of Prickle protein in seizure from fruit flies to humans. The underlying molecular mechanism how PRICKLE1 mutation causes PME is still unknown.

Prickle1 is part of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which regulates cell polarity within plane of cell sheets. In Drosophila, prickle is recruited to one side of the cell by another PCP protein, Van Gogh. This asymmetric protein localization of Van ...


An Investigation Into The Presynaptic Actions By Which Amphetamine Activates Dopamine Signaling Within Striatal Subregions Of The Rat., Dan P. Covey Oct 2013

An Investigation Into The Presynaptic Actions By Which Amphetamine Activates Dopamine Signaling Within Striatal Subregions Of The Rat., Dan P. Covey

Theses and Dissertations

Despite decades of intense research and a consensus view in the field, the work presented herein provides strong evidence that the primary mechanism of amphetamine action should be re-evaluated. Rather than depleting vesicular dopamine stores and promoting non-exocytotic efflux through the dopamine transporter in vivo, recent evidence demonstrates that amphetamine augments phasic dopamine signaling instead. This signaling modality is critical for reinforcement learning and is dependent on intact vesicular stores. The new findings support over-activation of phasic dopamine signaling as a common mechanism in the addiction process.


Confocal Microscopy Study Of The Embryonic Development Of The Viviparous Nemertean Prosorhochmus Americanus Reveals Larval Features Supporting Indirect Development In Hoplonemerteans, S Tyler Spindle Aug 2013

Confocal Microscopy Study Of The Embryonic Development Of The Viviparous Nemertean Prosorhochmus Americanus Reveals Larval Features Supporting Indirect Development In Hoplonemerteans, S Tyler Spindle

Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies of hoplonenemertean planuliform larvae have clarified their development and provided insight into larval evolution within the phylum. However, an assessment of viviparous development using modern techniques is lacking. To help facilitate a comprehensive comparative evaluation of developmental diversity within hoplonemerteans, we have conducted a confocal laser scanning microscopy investigation of the development in Prosorhochmus americanus, one of the few viviparous hoplonemertean species. Phalloidin staining provides evidence of a modified transitory larval epidermis, and reveals that the foregut, midgut, proboscis, central nervous system, and body wall musculature form early in development, consistent with observations for planktonic and encapsulated hoplonemertean ...


Environmental Influences On Sex Ratio And Spatial Distribution Of Dioecious Morella Cerifera L. On A Virginia Barrier Island., Molly Hokkanen Aug 2013

Environmental Influences On Sex Ratio And Spatial Distribution Of Dioecious Morella Cerifera L. On A Virginia Barrier Island., Molly Hokkanen

Theses and Dissertations

For dioecious plant species, sex ratios within a population depend on multiple environmental and life history characteristics. Sex ratio is an indicator of population health and can be a predictor for genetic bottlenecking. My study established the previously unknown sex ratio for the shrub, Morella cerifera, on a Virginia barrier island. The ratio was compared with multiple environmental and reproductive traits to determine their potential influence on sex determination and/or distribution of male and female plants. Multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships between sex, sex ratio and environmental drivers. The sex ratio for M. cerifera changed depending on ...


Development Of Pectoral Apparatus In Ictalurid Catfish, Shweta Lahiri Aug 2013

Development Of Pectoral Apparatus In Ictalurid Catfish, Shweta Lahiri

Theses and Dissertations

The thesis contains two manuscripts- 1) Developmental changes in pectoral muscle fiber diameter and number in the Blue Catfish, Ictalurus furcatus and 2) Reduction in pectoral spine and girdle in domesticated Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is likely caused by the absence of fish predators. The first study showed that fiber diameter increased linearly with fish size, whereas fiber number increases non linearly with fish size in the Blue Catfish correlated with dietary shift. The second study showed shorter spines in domesticated Channel Catfish as compared to wild Channel Catfish was a result of reduction in selection pressure during domestication in ...


Phytoplankton Life History Events: Resting Stages And Physiological Cell Death, Christine R. Kozik Aug 2013

Phytoplankton Life History Events: Resting Stages And Physiological Cell Death, Christine R. Kozik

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding and predicting changes in phytoplankton populations requires knowledge of key life history processes such as recruitment from benthic resting stages and losses due to sedimentation and cell death. Currently, these processes are poorly understood in freshwater systems. Phytoplankton resting stage and cell death life history events were separately examined in two freshwater systems in Wisconsin, four northern lakes and an urban pond. In the norther lakes, sedimentation and benthic recruitment were examined using sediment and recruitment traps that were sampled weekly over two summers. Sedimentation and benthic recruitment contributed little to changes in standing crop chl a, but rather ...


Seasonality Of Conceptions Under Varying Conditions In A Rhesus Macaque Breeding Colony, Ryan Disney Patrick Dunk Aug 2013

Seasonality Of Conceptions Under Varying Conditions In A Rhesus Macaque Breeding Colony, Ryan Disney Patrick Dunk

Theses and Dissertations

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are well documented as seasonal breeders. Despite this, little is known about what factors influence seasonal reproduction in rhesus. It has been proposed that rhesus are "relaxed income breeders" (Brockman and van Schaik, 2005), which means they respond to changes in photoperiod but endogenous cues can allow deviations from photoperiod-timed seasonality. This study presents the results of a natural experiment on the influence of different housing conditions (featuring different levels of environmental exposure) on the seasonal pattern of reproduction in rhesus. Once the number of attempts was controlled for, rhesus did not exhibit a seasonal distribution ...


The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome Aug 2013

The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome

Theses and Dissertations

Reconsolidation is thought to be a process whereby consolidated memories can be modified following retrieval. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reconsolidation process. In the present series of experiments we tested if memories "destabilize" or become labile following retrieval through a specific signaling pathway. We found that retrieval of a contextual fear memory differentially increased proteasome activity in the amygdala and hippocampus and resulted in unique changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression in these brain regions. These changes were dependent on CaMKII activity, which was required for increases in Rpt6-S120 phosphorylation, proteasome activity and ...


Fibrinogen-Conjugated Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles For Antiplatelet Therapy, Evan Schuerer Krystofiak Aug 2013

Fibrinogen-Conjugated Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles For Antiplatelet Therapy, Evan Schuerer Krystofiak

Theses and Dissertations

Ischemic stroke is the world's second leading cause of death and accounts for 2-4% of total worldwide healthcare costs. Ischemic stroke is caused by the occlusion of arteries responsible for supplying blood to the brain, which can result in disability or death. Arterial blood clots consist of aggregates of activated platelets wrapped in a mesh of fibrin. Tissue plasminogen activator, the only current FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke, functions by lysing fibrin in a blood clot. Unfortunately, tissue plasminogen activator significantly increases bleeding risks, which restricts its use. Alternatively, targeting and disrupting platelets within a clot could improve stroke ...


Adhesion Molecule Regulation Of Regulatory T Cell Migration, Jessica Jean Loppnow Aug 2013

Adhesion Molecule Regulation Of Regulatory T Cell Migration, Jessica Jean Loppnow

Theses and Dissertations

Regulatory T (Treg) cells mediate tumor immune evasion by suppressing anti-tumor effector T cell responses in peripheral lymphoid tissues and within the tumor. While elevated Treg cell numbers have been shown to correlate with increased tumor growth, mechanisms that regulate their distribution within secondary lymphoid tissue and tumor tissue are not well understood. L-selectin, an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed on all classes of leukocytes, functions early in the adhesion cascade and regulates the migration of lymphocytes to lymph nodes through high endothelial venules. In addition, L-selectin can mediate migration of lymphocytes to sites of inflammation by binding to ligands present ...


The Effects Of Saltwater Intrusion On Methanogen Community Abundance, Structure, And Activity, Jaimie Gillespie Jul 2013

The Effects Of Saltwater Intrusion On Methanogen Community Abundance, Structure, And Activity, Jaimie Gillespie

Theses and Dissertations

Tidal freshwater wetlands (TFW) are at significant risk of loss or alteration due to global climate change, and saltwater intrusion from sea level rise is of particular concern for these habitats due to their proximity to coastal areas. A space-for-time model was used to investigate the effects of saltwater intrusion on soil methanogen communities along naturally occurring salinity gradients on the Waccamaw, James, and Hudson Rivers. Amplification of the methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) functional gene was used in qPCR, reverse transcription qPCR, and T-RFLP to measure the abundance, activity, and community composition of soil methanogens. Both the abundance and activity ...


Phylogeography And Species Status Of Ramphogordius Sanguineus, Cora Runnels Jul 2013

Phylogeography And Species Status Of Ramphogordius Sanguineus, Cora Runnels

Theses and Dissertations

Ramphogordius sanguineus (Rathke 1799) is a gregarious nemertean with a worldwide distribution and found mainly on hard substrates associated with mussels, oysters and other organisms of the fouling community. Asexual reproduction occurs by spontaneous fragmentation and only anecdotal accounts of sexual reproduction exist. This is the first phylogeographic study of R. sanguineus as well as the first species delimitation analyses employing DNA markers. Analysis of the mitochondrial gene nad6 and nuclear ISSR markers showed little diversity among geographically widespread populations, but AMOVA analyses of both markers revealed moderate to high genetic differentiation. Populations from Maine and Massachusetts exhibited the highest ...


Biogeography And Evolution Of Neotropical Small Mammals, With Emphasis On Hystricognath Spiny Rats Of The Genus Proechimys (Family Echimyidae), Rafael Do Nascimento Leite Jul 2013

Biogeography And Evolution Of Neotropical Small Mammals, With Emphasis On Hystricognath Spiny Rats Of The Genus Proechimys (Family Echimyidae), Rafael Do Nascimento Leite

Theses and Dissertations

The Neotropical region is the most biologically diverse region on the planet. The region encompasses a variety of ecosystems and has long been the target of researchers interested in patterns of species diversity and distribution. More recently, molecular data have been incorporated into methods for reconstructing the historical relationships among geographical areas and their biotas. Molecular phylogenetics has provided insights into diversification patterns and the influence of Late Cenozoic events on the evolutionary history of the region. Nevertheless, considering the vast extent and complexity of the region, more studies are needed to fully appreciate the patterns of biogeography and the ...


Personhood And Cloning: Modern Applications And Ethics Of Stem Cell And Cloning Technology, Sariah Cottrell Mccarrey Jul 2013

Personhood And Cloning: Modern Applications And Ethics Of Stem Cell And Cloning Technology, Sariah Cottrell Mccarrey

Theses and Dissertations

Within many communities and religions, including the LDS community, there is some controversy surrounding the use of stem cells – particularly embryonic stem cells (ESC). Much of this controversy arises from confusion and misconceptions about what stem cells actually are, where they come from , and when life begins. The theology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has interesting implications for the last of these considerations, and it becomes less a question of “when does life begin” and more an exploration of “when does personhood begin” or “when does the spirit enter the body.” With no official Church stance ...


Utilizing High-Throughput Genomics Methodologies To Explore Transcritomes And Exomes, Xiaojing Hong Jul 2013

Utilizing High-Throughput Genomics Methodologies To Explore Transcritomes And Exomes, Xiaojing Hong

Theses and Dissertations

High-throughput genomics methodologies provide us the methods and solutions to the research fields of genomes, transcriptomes and proteomics. In my study, we utilized different high-throughput genomics methodologies to explore the exomes of human patients as well as transcriptomes of Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia pulex.

Exome sequencing, an efficient strategy to sequence the coding regions of the genome, helped us to identify potential disease causing mutations in two human diseases (Renal Agenesis and Cleft lip with or without palate). Although exome sequencing is mostly used to identify mutations underling Mendelian disorders, we chose informative pedigrees that were transmitted in Mendelian fashion ...


Impact Of Self-Fertilization On Fecundity, The Timing Of First Reproduction, And Population Genetic Structure: Is A Mate Worth The Wait?, Serena Caplins Jun 2013

Impact Of Self-Fertilization On Fecundity, The Timing Of First Reproduction, And Population Genetic Structure: Is A Mate Worth The Wait?, Serena Caplins

Theses and Dissertations

Organisms capable of self-fertilization typically exhibit two evolutionary syndromes uniting high inbreeding depression with low levels of selfing, or low inbreeding depression and high levels of selfing. This study tests for inbreeding depression in an apparent self-compatible, hermaphroditic marine nemertean worm, Prosorhochmus americanus. Fecundity and timing to first reproduction were assessed in isolated and paired worms. Isolated worms produced significantly more offspring than paired worms and did not show inbreeding avoidance. The selfing rate of natural populations was evaluated using species-specific microsatellites and is consistent with preferential selfing (mean: 0.801), though some outcrossing appears to take place. Population genetic ...


Genetic And Molecular Analysis Of The Maize R1 Locus, Jennifer Derkits Jun 2013

Genetic And Molecular Analysis Of The Maize R1 Locus, Jennifer Derkits

Theses and Dissertations

Canalization, the stability of phenotypes in the presence of a specific genotype and environment is important for trait selection and understanding gene expression pathways. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms involved in the loss of canalization at the maize r1 locus. A specific lightly colored R-sc derivative, R-sc:86-17(L), was mutagenized with ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS), and the progeny screened for restoration of dark seed color and canalization. Putative revertants/mutants were mapped relative to the r1 locus, tested for complementation to each other to identify a minimum number of genes involved in canalization, tested for ...


Inhibition Of Retinoic Acid Receptors Results In Defasciculation Of The Trigeminal Nerve In Xenopus Laevis, Jeremy Thompson May 2013

Inhibition Of Retinoic Acid Receptors Results In Defasciculation Of The Trigeminal Nerve In Xenopus Laevis, Jeremy Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

The anatomy of the cranial peripheral nervous system has been studied for over a century, yet surprisingly little is known about how the nerves are guided to their targets. The study of the development of these nerves has important implications for our understanding of craniofacial anomalies and possible treatments for both injury and genetic disorders of nerve development such as Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome. We have discovered that retinoic acid (RA) may play a role in the development of the trigeminal nerve. Inhibition of retinoic acid receptors (RAR) results in trigeminal nerves that become unbundled or defasciculated in the eye region. To ...


Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (Vhsv) Great Lakes Strain Ivb: Viral Detection, Mechanisms Of Infection, And Host-Virus Interactions In The Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens), Wendy Joy Olson May 2013

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (Vhsv) Great Lakes Strain Ivb: Viral Detection, Mechanisms Of Infection, And Host-Virus Interactions In The Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens), Wendy Joy Olson

Theses and Dissertations

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most devastating and problematic viral fish diseases to plague the European aquaculture industry, and due to its pathogenicity, disease course, mortality rates, and wide host range, remains one of the most pathogenic viral diseases of finfish worldwide. A new freshwater strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) in the Great Lakes has been found capable of infecting a wide number of naive species, and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. In this study, the yellow perch, Perca flavescence, one ...


Analysis Of Genes Involved In Anaerobic Growth In Porphyromonas Gingivalis And Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1, Dilini Sanjeevi Kumarasinghe May 2013

Analysis Of Genes Involved In Anaerobic Growth In Porphyromonas Gingivalis And Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1, Dilini Sanjeevi Kumarasinghe

Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium implicated in periodontal disease, a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that is correlated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and preterm birth. Therefore understanding the physiology and metabolism of P.gingivalis through genetic manipulation is important in identifying mechanisms to eliminate this pathogen. Although numerous genetic tools have been developed for the manipulation of other bacterial species, they either do not function in P.gingivalis or they have limitations. We modified a Mariner transposon pHimarEM1 system that was developed for Flavobacterium johnsoniae for mutagenesis of P. gingivalisWe introduced the P. gingivalis fimA promoter upstream of ...


Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester May 2013

Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease characterized by neurodegeneration and inflammation of the central nervous system. It affects approximately 250,000 people in the United States alone, with women being affected two times more than men. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the primary animal model of MS, sharing clinical signs and histopathology with MS. The current paradigm supports MS/EAE induction by myelin reactive CD4+ T cells that cross the blood brain barrier to induce an inflammatory response that leads to the destruction of the myelin sheath and eventual loss of axons. Recent data suggest that axonal loss and ...