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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determining Parentage And The Effects Of Relatedness On Play Partner Preference In Belding's Ground Squirrels, Jessica Weidenbach Dec 2013

Determining Parentage And The Effects Of Relatedness On Play Partner Preference In Belding's Ground Squirrels, Jessica Weidenbach

Master's Theses

I investigated 1) multiple paternity in Belding’s ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) and 2) social partner preferences in juvenile U. beldingi. Prior work with blood allozymes demonstrated multiple paternity in U. beldingi litters. I evaluated paternity using microsatellite DNA analysis, which is more accurate than examining blood allozymes. My results indicate that multiple paternity in U. beldingi is more extensive than previously shown, occurring in about 90% of litters with more than one juvenile, and averaging 2.95 fathers in multiply sired litters. I also evaluated the hypothesis that play and other social behavior promotes bonding among juvenile female U ...


Comparative Analysis Of Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Jundi Wang Aug 2013

Comparative Analysis Of Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Jundi Wang

Master's Theses

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cells that have unlimited capacity for selfrenewal and differentiation. These properties make ESCs a great cell source for application in regenerative medicine. When used for cell therapy, ESC-derived cells could be placed in a wounded area that is likely to be exposed to various pathogens. However, it is not well-understood whether ESCs and ESC-derived cells have active antiviral responses against infectious agents from the environment. To answer this important question, I comparatively analyzed the antiviral responses of ESCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, C3H10Tl/2 cell line) to infectious agents. Using the expression of type ...


An Insight Into The Microbial Diversity And Expression Of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors (Cystatin) In Rickettsia Parkeri Infected Amblyomma Maculatum, Khemraj Budachetri Aug 2013

An Insight Into The Microbial Diversity And Expression Of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors (Cystatin) In Rickettsia Parkeri Infected Amblyomma Maculatum, Khemraj Budachetri

Master's Theses

Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick) is an emerging tick species of public health significance in United States. It is a competent vector of Rickettsia parkeri, an etiological agent of a human rickettsiosis. In this study, we investigated the spotted fever group of rickettsial diversity in A. maculatum based on rickettsial ompA gene PCR. Our results showed A. maculatum harbors R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, and R. endosymbiont of A. maculatum. While only R. parkeri was detected in female salivary glands which suggest its ability to traffic from midgut to salivary glands via hemocoel. The presence of R. parkeri was further confirmed ...


Use Of A Specific Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Can Prevent Loss Of Retinal Ganglion Cells In An In Vivo Rat Glaucoma Model, David Mata Jun 2013

Use Of A Specific Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Can Prevent Loss Of Retinal Ganglion Cells In An In Vivo Rat Glaucoma Model, David Mata

Master's Theses

Acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through activation of α7 nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs). In this study, the neuroprotective effects of the α7 nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, were investigated using an in vivo model of glaucoma in adult Long Evans rats. Hypertonic saline injections were used to induce a glaucoma model. After one month, retinas were removed, flat mounted, fixed and labeled with an antibody against Thy 1.1 to label RGCs and fluorescently tagged for visualization. Eye drop application of PNU-282987 resulted in neuroprotection against RGC loss ...


Antimicrobial Producing Bacteria Isolated From Petroleum-Laced Hypersaline Soil, Joanna L. Fay May 2013

Antimicrobial Producing Bacteria Isolated From Petroleum-Laced Hypersaline Soil, Joanna L. Fay

Master's Theses

Given the alternative functions of “antibiotics” as communication molecules or participants in metabolism, it seems probable that production might be influenced by factors such as nutrient availability, interactions with neighboring microbes, and/or colony or community structure and maturity. With this in mind, the present study aimed to broaden the scope of the search for novel antibiotics by experimenting with the following parameters: source of bacterial isolation, growth and assay media, and culturing techniques. Bacteria for this study were isolated from two categories of soil (petroleum-contaminated or uncontaminated) to compare diversity and antimicrobial activity. Compared to the uncontaminated soil, isolates ...


Effects Of Long-Term Exposure To Kanamycin And/Or Ampicillin On Resistance Genes On An E. Coli Plasmid, Justin W.R. Kerby Ii May 2013

Effects Of Long-Term Exposure To Kanamycin And/Or Ampicillin On Resistance Genes On An E. Coli Plasmid, Justin W.R. Kerby Ii

Master's Theses

Multi-drug-resistant bacteria are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic resistance in these organisms is often plasmid mediated, which has become a growing concern. Plasmids conferring resistance to multiple antibiotics are increasingly becoming a common source of antibiotic resistance. The behavior of these plasmids under and in the absence of selective pressure is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to determine the behavior of a multiple-resistance plasmid under selective pressure pCR 2.1-TOPO, a commercial plasmid, was inserted into an Escherichia coli host and grown in a continuous culture under four conditions: broth with 1) kanamycin alone, 2) ampicillin alone ...


Influence Of Wind Turbines On Mammalian Occupancy Patterns, Brian P. Tanis May 2013

Influence Of Wind Turbines On Mammalian Occupancy Patterns, Brian P. Tanis

Master's Theses

Wind energy is among the most rapidly growing energy industries in the United States, with support for development coming from both state and federal governments. While the industry depicts an environmentally friendly image, the addition of infrastructure associated with wind farms alters landscapes in novel ways. Numerous studies have documented impacts wind turbines have on bird and bat mortality; however, far less attention has been directed towards responses of non-volant, terrestrial organisms. Mammalian mesocarnivores are model organisms to assess the alteration of communities surrounding wind turbines as they respond to addition of turbines and human activity, addition and improvement of ...


Stable Isotope Analysis Of Two Mephitidae Species Reflects Population Trends And Landscape Structure, Amanda E. Cheeseman May 2013

Stable Isotope Analysis Of Two Mephitidae Species Reflects Population Trends And Landscape Structure, Amanda E. Cheeseman

Master's Theses

The eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius) is a small omnivorous Carnivora similar in much of its natural history to the commonly found striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). Spilogale putorius has experienced drastic population declines over a large portion of its geographic range. Many hypotheses for the decline of S. putorius have been proposed. δ13C and δ15N isotope analysis provides a unique opportunity to examine diet over an expanded time span. Thus was used on hair sampled from natural history collections, teaching collections, and road kills to examine dietary change for both S. putorius and M. mephitis from 1852 to 2012. Because ...


Interactions Between Protozoan Prey (Phylum Protista) And Their Mosquito Predators (Order Diptera, Family Cuclicidae) Prey Size And Predator Behavior Effects, Jeffrey Jay Skiff May 2013

Interactions Between Protozoan Prey (Phylum Protista) And Their Mosquito Predators (Order Diptera, Family Cuclicidae) Prey Size And Predator Behavior Effects, Jeffrey Jay Skiff

Master's Theses

Mosquitoes (Diptera. Culicidae) are insects that are medically important as adults as they vector numerous diseases. Yet, understanding the ecology of the larval stage can lead to surveillance and control of adult populations. Aedes albopictus, Aedes triseriatus, Cu/ex corona/or, and Culex quinquefasciatus are four species of mosquito that co-occur in discarded automobile tires. Mosqui-to larvae feed on microorganisms (including protozoans) and particulate organic matter Most larval feeding experiments. howt:ver, have dealt exclusively with bacteria, fungi , and particulate organic matter Although bactena and fungi are important sources of nitrogen and lipids, they may be 111sufficient sources of carbon ...


Isolation Of A Dosage Dependent Suppressor Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae As A Model System, Rachel Chimner Apr 2013

Isolation Of A Dosage Dependent Suppressor Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae As A Model System, Rachel Chimner

Master's Theses

Human pathogenic Yersinia use a type three secretion system to deliver various effector proteins into host cells. Once these effector proteins are within the cell, they elicit a cascade of events that disrupt the normal immune response. One of these effectors, YopT, is known to disrupt actin distribution but it is currently unknown what YopT targets within the host cell. To investigate the cellular targets of the YopT effector, we use a yeast model system and a dosage-dependent suppression screen. The dosage-dependent suppression screen isolated three plasmids able to suppress YopT induced lethality within yeast. One of them, 2T9, was ...


Behavior And Ecosystem Effects Of The Invasive Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea) In Urban Streams, Kayla Turek Jan 2013

Behavior And Ecosystem Effects Of The Invasive Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea) In Urban Streams, Kayla Turek

Master's Theses

Invasive species can be detrimental to freshwater ecosystems. By completing laboratory and field studies to observe processes and behaviors of the invasive Asian Clam (Corbicula fluminea), I documented pathways whereby this invasive species impacts aquatic ecosystems under conditions typical of urbanized streams I found. The predominant pathways by which clams impacted nitrogen (N) cycling was through excretion thus increasing ammonium (NH4+) flux out of sediment and through bioturbation, which increased nitrate (NO3-) diffusion to the sediment and dinitrogen gas (N2) production (i.e., denitrification). The effect was greater under urban conditions, where C. fluminea population density and water column NO3- ...