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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Lake Michigan Hydrodynamics: Mysis And Larval Fish Interactions, Yutta Wang Dec 2013

Lake Michigan Hydrodynamics: Mysis And Larval Fish Interactions, Yutta Wang

Theses and Dissertations

I studied the interactions between Lake Michigan hydrodynamics (the spring thermal bar) and Mysis, deepwater sculpin, and burbot larvae. The thermal bar is a zone of sinking 4º С water that separates warmer inshore water from colder offshore water. Mysis was a major bycatch of sampling for larval fishes. The density of Mysis did not differ statistically between inshore (about 6º С) and offshore of the thermal bar, but the percentage of Mysis that were newborns was significantly higher inshore (P = 0.007). These "early start" coastal Mysis may have an advantage in growth and survival, but with the risk ...


Life After Adhesion: L-Selectin Throughout The T Cell Lifespan, Abner Garcia Fernandez Dec 2013

Life After Adhesion: L-Selectin Throughout The T Cell Lifespan, Abner Garcia Fernandez

Theses and Dissertations

Lymphocytes require antigenic encounter to activate and proliferate, eventually clearing the source of antigenic challenge. The peripheral lymph nodes (PLN) are the primary sites of antigenic encounter and thus the ability of lymphocytes to migrate to this tissue is a requirement for mounting effective immune responses. The process of lymphocyte migration to the PLN is known as the "adhesion cascade". Specifically, lymphocytes are captured from the blood through the adhesion molecule, L-selectin, followed by CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7)-mediated integrin activation, which ultimately results in cell transmigration into the PLN. Because the PLN is the site where antigenic encounter ...


Phytoplankton Life History Events: Resting Stages And Physiological Cell Death, Christine R. Kozik Aug 2013

Phytoplankton Life History Events: Resting Stages And Physiological Cell Death, Christine R. Kozik

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding and predicting changes in phytoplankton populations requires knowledge of key life history processes such as recruitment from benthic resting stages and losses due to sedimentation and cell death. Currently, these processes are poorly understood in freshwater systems. Phytoplankton resting stage and cell death life history events were separately examined in two freshwater systems in Wisconsin, four northern lakes and an urban pond. In the norther lakes, sedimentation and benthic recruitment were examined using sediment and recruitment traps that were sampled weekly over two summers. Sedimentation and benthic recruitment contributed little to changes in standing crop chl a, but rather ...


Seasonality Of Conceptions Under Varying Conditions In A Rhesus Macaque Breeding Colony, Ryan Disney Patrick Dunk Aug 2013

Seasonality Of Conceptions Under Varying Conditions In A Rhesus Macaque Breeding Colony, Ryan Disney Patrick Dunk

Theses and Dissertations

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are well documented as seasonal breeders. Despite this, little is known about what factors influence seasonal reproduction in rhesus. It has been proposed that rhesus are "relaxed income breeders" (Brockman and van Schaik, 2005), which means they respond to changes in photoperiod but endogenous cues can allow deviations from photoperiod-timed seasonality. This study presents the results of a natural experiment on the influence of different housing conditions (featuring different levels of environmental exposure) on the seasonal pattern of reproduction in rhesus. Once the number of attempts was controlled for, rhesus did not exhibit a seasonal distribution ...


The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome Aug 2013

The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome

Theses and Dissertations

Reconsolidation is thought to be a process whereby consolidated memories can be modified following retrieval. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reconsolidation process. In the present series of experiments we tested if memories "destabilize" or become labile following retrieval through a specific signaling pathway. We found that retrieval of a contextual fear memory differentially increased proteasome activity in the amygdala and hippocampus and resulted in unique changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression in these brain regions. These changes were dependent on CaMKII activity, which was required for increases in Rpt6-S120 phosphorylation, proteasome activity and ...


Fibrinogen-Conjugated Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles For Antiplatelet Therapy, Evan Schuerer Krystofiak Aug 2013

Fibrinogen-Conjugated Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles For Antiplatelet Therapy, Evan Schuerer Krystofiak

Theses and Dissertations

Ischemic stroke is the world's second leading cause of death and accounts for 2-4% of total worldwide healthcare costs. Ischemic stroke is caused by the occlusion of arteries responsible for supplying blood to the brain, which can result in disability or death. Arterial blood clots consist of aggregates of activated platelets wrapped in a mesh of fibrin. Tissue plasminogen activator, the only current FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke, functions by lysing fibrin in a blood clot. Unfortunately, tissue plasminogen activator significantly increases bleeding risks, which restricts its use. Alternatively, targeting and disrupting platelets within a clot could improve stroke ...


Adhesion Molecule Regulation Of Regulatory T Cell Migration, Jessica Jean Loppnow Aug 2013

Adhesion Molecule Regulation Of Regulatory T Cell Migration, Jessica Jean Loppnow

Theses and Dissertations

Regulatory T (Treg) cells mediate tumor immune evasion by suppressing anti-tumor effector T cell responses in peripheral lymphoid tissues and within the tumor. While elevated Treg cell numbers have been shown to correlate with increased tumor growth, mechanisms that regulate their distribution within secondary lymphoid tissue and tumor tissue are not well understood. L-selectin, an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed on all classes of leukocytes, functions early in the adhesion cascade and regulates the migration of lymphocytes to lymph nodes through high endothelial venules. In addition, L-selectin can mediate migration of lymphocytes to sites of inflammation by binding to ligands present ...


Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (Vhsv) Great Lakes Strain Ivb: Viral Detection, Mechanisms Of Infection, And Host-Virus Interactions In The Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens), Wendy Joy Olson May 2013

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (Vhsv) Great Lakes Strain Ivb: Viral Detection, Mechanisms Of Infection, And Host-Virus Interactions In The Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens), Wendy Joy Olson

Theses and Dissertations

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most devastating and problematic viral fish diseases to plague the European aquaculture industry, and due to its pathogenicity, disease course, mortality rates, and wide host range, remains one of the most pathogenic viral diseases of finfish worldwide. A new freshwater strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) in the Great Lakes has been found capable of infecting a wide number of naive species, and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. In this study, the yellow perch, Perca flavescence, one ...


Analysis Of Genes Involved In Anaerobic Growth In Porphyromonas Gingivalis And Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1, Dilini Sanjeevi Kumarasinghe May 2013

Analysis Of Genes Involved In Anaerobic Growth In Porphyromonas Gingivalis And Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1, Dilini Sanjeevi Kumarasinghe

Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium implicated in periodontal disease, a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that is correlated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and preterm birth. Therefore understanding the physiology and metabolism of P.gingivalis through genetic manipulation is important in identifying mechanisms to eliminate this pathogen. Although numerous genetic tools have been developed for the manipulation of other bacterial species, they either do not function in P.gingivalis or they have limitations. We modified a Mariner transposon pHimarEM1 system that was developed for Flavobacterium johnsoniae for mutagenesis of P. gingivalisWe introduced the P. gingivalis fimA promoter upstream of ...


Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester May 2013

Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease characterized by neurodegeneration and inflammation of the central nervous system. It affects approximately 250,000 people in the United States alone, with women being affected two times more than men. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the primary animal model of MS, sharing clinical signs and histopathology with MS. The current paradigm supports MS/EAE induction by myelin reactive CD4+ T cells that cross the blood brain barrier to induce an inflammatory response that leads to the destruction of the myelin sheath and eventual loss of axons. Recent data suggest that axonal loss and ...