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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Dueling Scientists And Dueling Historians: Controversy Over The External History Of Germ Theory, Glenn Jones May 2013

Dueling Scientists And Dueling Historians: Controversy Over The External History Of Germ Theory, Glenn Jones

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Louis Pasteur and Félix Pouchet, two scientists studying the fermentation of organic media, engaged in debate concerning spontaneous generation before the French Académie des sciences in 1864. This instance of clashing paradigms is thought to be one of the most important moments in the historical development and establishment of the germ theory of disease. But was this confrontation an example of truth prevailing through purely scientific discourse, or were other external factors at play in determining the course of the debate? A review of the literature reveals a controversy about this controversy, where historians of science disagree concerning the extent ...


Optimal Control Theory And Its Applications, Pamela Kirkpatrick May 2013

Optimal Control Theory And Its Applications, Pamela Kirkpatrick

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Attempts to create controls to regulate processes can be traced back as far as ancient Greece when the Greeks created systems to control the water levels in their aqueducts. Since then the field of Control Theory has grown to include influences from mathematics, engineering, finance, computing and psychology. Control theory is a set of rules and practices that determine if and how specific outcomes can be attained based on the current conditions and certain limiting factors. Similarly, Optimal Control Theory seeks to achieve these outcomes in the most efficient way. This project seeks to outline the history and development of ...


Determination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) In Fish Using Gc-Ms, Kyle Kessler, Jeff Erikson, Richard Schaeffer Apr 2013

Determination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) In Fish Using Gc-Ms, Kyle Kessler, Jeff Erikson, Richard Schaeffer

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are bioaccumulating organic pollutants found throughout the environment. They are base neutral compounds formed by the chlorination of biphenyl with 209 different congeners. As they are such persistent contaminants, they have many adverse affects and lead to potential health risks. This study aimed to determine PCB concentrations found in aquatic environments, specifically game fish species. Through Soxhlet extraction followed by GC/MS analysis, PCB levels were determined in hopes of comparing with EPA advisory limits. Unfortunately, due to instrumental failure prior to quality control testing, no concrete conclusions were able to be drawn.


Determination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) In Fish Using Gc-Ms, Kyle Kessler, Jeff Erikson, Richard Schaeffer Apr 2013

Determination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) In Fish Using Gc-Ms, Kyle Kessler, Jeff Erikson, Richard Schaeffer

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are bioaccumulating organic pollutants found throughout the environment. They are base neutral compounds formed by the chlorination of biphenyl with 209 different congeners. As they are such persistent contaminants, they have many adverse affects and lead to potential health risks. This study aimed to determine PCB concentrations found in aquatic environments, specifically game fish species. Through Soxhlet extraction followed by GC/MS analysis, PCB levels were determined in hopes of comparing with EPA advisory limits. Unfortunately, due to instrumental failure prior to quality control testing, no concrete conclusions were able to be drawn.


Methanothermus Fervidus Histone Binding Affinity And Packaging Of Archaeal Dna, Natalie Ziegler, Hannah S. Tims Jan 2013

Methanothermus Fervidus Histone Binding Affinity And Packaging Of Archaeal Dna, Natalie Ziegler, Hannah S. Tims

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Each domain of life requires specific strategies for compacting the large amount of genomic material within the spatial confines of the cell. Packaging of the DNA is essential for protection, genetic stability, and gene accessibility. Archaea are categorized as prokaryotes and thrive under diverse environmental conditions; however they use a mechanism for DNA packaging similar to eukaryotes. Eukaryotes and archaea compact their DNA in nucleosome structures by wrapping their DNA around complexes of histone proteins. Although similarities exist between histone structure in eukaryotes and archaea, it is unknown how the proteins and DNA are stabilized under diverse conditions under which ...


Developing And Implementing An Index Of Biotic Integrity For The Limestone Streams Of Central Pennsylvania, David Dippold Jan 2013

Developing And Implementing An Index Of Biotic Integrity For The Limestone Streams Of Central Pennsylvania, David Dippold

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

The main purpose of this study was to assess the health of local limestone streams by developing an appropriate Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). The goal of developing an IBI for local streams was to calculate a reliable, quantitative, measure of the stream health using fish assemblage. In order to develop the IBI, collection and analysis methods described by the EPA in the publication Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Rivers: Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish were followed to ensure appropriate sampling methodology and IBI calculation. While many metrics were considered, six applicable metrics were chosen for usage in ...


Construction Of A Novel System To Analyze Recognition Of Mhc Class Ii-Restricted Epitopes By Cd4+ T Cell Hybridoma Clones In Vitro, Samuel Bray, Lawrence Mylin Jan 2013

Construction Of A Novel System To Analyze Recognition Of Mhc Class Ii-Restricted Epitopes By Cd4+ T Cell Hybridoma Clones In Vitro, Samuel Bray, Lawrence Mylin

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

The Simian Virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 Tag) is an excellent model system for studies in cancer immunology because it is strongly immunogenic, but capable of causing tumors when expressed as a transgene in vivo when protected by immune tolerance. The CD8+ T cell response to Tag in the C57BL/6 murine system is directed against four well-characterized epitopes. However, the CD4+ T cell response in this system remains uncharacterized. Recent work using Tag-specific CD4+ hybridoma clones and immune splenocytes to screen a 175 member, overlapping 15-mer peptide library corresponding to the 708 amino acid Tag protein sequence have ...


Physiochemical Parameters Affecting Trichoptera Communities In Limestone And Sandstone Streams, Lindsay King, Jeff Erikson Jan 2013

Physiochemical Parameters Affecting Trichoptera Communities In Limestone And Sandstone Streams, Lindsay King, Jeff Erikson

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Trichoptera are a silk spinning order of stream macroinvertebrates that play an important role in stream ecosystems. Commonly used in metrics used to evaluate water quality and stream health, Trichoptera are a valuable source of information, and as such the most detailed understanding of them available is desirable. This project sought to achieve better understanding of how physiochemical parameters affect Trichoptera populations. Since geology is a key determinant of physiochemical factors in streams, Trichoptera populations were sampled from a limestone stream, a sandstone stream, and the mix zone where the two streams converged in order to determine if the differing ...