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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Chytridiomycosis On Myocardial Oxygenation In Columbian Spotted Frogs (Rana Luteiventris), Kaitlyn Holyfield Apr 2013

The Effects Of Chytridiomycosis On Myocardial Oxygenation In Columbian Spotted Frogs (Rana Luteiventris), Kaitlyn Holyfield

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Chytridiomycosis is an infection in amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis that has been linked to world-wide amphibian decline. However, there is currently no clear explanation of how this infection is killing amphibians. I hypothesize that the fungus is preventing effective cutaneous gas exchange, causing hypoxia in the heart which could lead to myocardial ischemia. The objectives of this study are to find an organism that is susceptible to Chytridiomycosis which can be used as a model for detecting myocardial ischemia in frogs and to establish a protocol for ischemia detection. Rana luteiventris (Columbian Spotted Frogs) were collected and ...


The Effect Of Chytridiomycosis And Bioaugmentation On The Metabolic Rate Of Redbacked Salamanders, Plethodon Cinereus, Jonathan Lenz Apr 2013

The Effect Of Chytridiomycosis And Bioaugmentation On The Metabolic Rate Of Redbacked Salamanders, Plethodon Cinereus, Jonathan Lenz

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The infectious disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachocytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, contributes to worldwide amphibian decline, but definitive pathogenesis of lethality for the disease is not well understood. Because amphibians respire through their skin (in addition to respiration using lungs), it is speculated that amphibians with chytridiomycosis may show a decrease in metabolic rate, but amphibians bioaugmented with probiotic bacteria may alleviate possible metabolic stress. A species of lungless salamander (Plethodon cinereus) was used in this study to analyze the cutaneous effects of Bd on metabolic rate in vivo. Net weight change, infection load (using a Taqman real time ...


Rt-Pcr Survey Of Mosquitos In Montana, North Dakota, & South Dakota For The Presence Of Cache Valley Virus, Paige Esposito Apr 2013

Rt-Pcr Survey Of Mosquitos In Montana, North Dakota, & South Dakota For The Presence Of Cache Valley Virus, Paige Esposito

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

In order to contribute to knowledge of Cache Valley Virus, a virus that causes ovine fetal malformations and stillbirths, this study conducted a survey of six mosquito species in three Northwestern states to determine the primary vector of the virus. Total RNA was extracted from mosquito samples and subjected to reverse transcription PCR to determine if viral RNA was present. Of the 369 samples tested, none tested positive for viral RNA. This outcome suggests either that the virus 1) is not present, 2) may be present at low levels or 3) may be carried by another insect. An increase in ...


Blood-Feeding Behavior Of Culex Tarsalis At Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, Maxwell Bernt Apr 2013

Blood-Feeding Behavior Of Culex Tarsalis At Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, Maxwell Bernt

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

It is known that the ornithophillic mosquito, Culex tarsalis is the primary vector of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Montana. An analysis of this mosquito’s blood feeding behavior allows researchers to identify preferred hosts and to determine the rate at which this species parasitizes humans and other tangential hosts. Additionally, an understanding of blood feeding behavior allows an assessment of WNV risk based on the regional availability of preferred hosts and the hosts’ competency in viral amplification. In this study, blood engorged Cx. tarsalis were captured at Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge over three one-week periods spaced through early ...


Infection Rate Of West Nile Virus In Culex Tarsalis At Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge And Ninepipe Wildlife Refuge In 2012, Graham Unis Apr 2013

Infection Rate Of West Nile Virus In Culex Tarsalis At Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge And Ninepipe Wildlife Refuge In 2012, Graham Unis

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

This study focused on the infection rate of West Nile virus of Culex tarsalis populations at Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge (MLWR) and Ninepipe Wildlife Refuge (NWR). My research was done in order to determine if there was a statistical difference in the infection rate between NWR and MLWR via a bias corrected ML estimate. These locations were chosen because they were ideal locations for West Nile virus (WNV) and in the case of MLWR, past positive C. tarsalis pools. My study involved trapping mosquitoes, sorting out the C. tarsalis, and isolating WNV from mosquito homogenate. Once C. tarsalis had been ...


Spatial Risk Mapping Of West Nile Virus In Correlation To Vegetation In Montana, Amanda Wreggelsworth Apr 2013

Spatial Risk Mapping Of West Nile Virus In Correlation To Vegetation In Montana, Amanda Wreggelsworth

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

In the present study, spatial epidemiology was applied to the vegetation in Montana by combining NDVI data, landcover data, and a thermal layer to create a predictive model of C. tarsalis in Montana. Samples of C. tarsalis, which has been identified as the primary vector for West Nile Virus in Montana, were collected from June to August, 2013, at various sites across the state. ArcGIS and MaxENT software was used to create a model for June, July, and August. Overall, there was a modal correlation between vegetation density and the presence of C. tarsalis and a positive correlation between both ...


Microsatellite Analysis Of Gene Flow Between Culex Tarsalis Populations Connected By Irrigation In Yellowstone County, Montana, Mattie Casey Apr 2013

Microsatellite Analysis Of Gene Flow Between Culex Tarsalis Populations Connected By Irrigation In Yellowstone County, Montana, Mattie Casey

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether population connectivity by irrigation enhances gene flow between Culex tarsalis populations in the state of Montana. Four populations of Cx. tarsalis were collected along the Yellowstone and Bighorn rivers and allele frequencies obtained from PCR amplification of four microsatellite loci, visualized using the QIAxcel Advanced System, were used to assess the genetic structure of the populations. Results of the four loci indicate lower pairwise FST values between only two of three populations connected through waterway, which suggests a disparity in the data. If the genetic similarity between these populations reflects rates ...