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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

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The Function Of Carmil1 In Migrating Cells, Marc Edwards Dec 2013

The Function Of Carmil1 In Migrating Cells, Marc Edwards

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

This dissertation describes the physiological role of the Capping Protein- CARMIL interaction in migrating cells. I establish the CARMIL-CP complex as a key regulator of lamellipodial actin assembly and of lamellipodial dynamics. Membrane ruffling at the leading edge of motile cells and macropinocytosis were also found to be dependent on the CARMIL1-CP interaction. This is consistent with macropinocytosis and ruffling being dependent on a functional and dynamic lamellipodium.: Kerr and Teasdale, 2009).

In chapter two I demonstrate that the CBR of CARMIL1 is competent to inhibit CP in cells. I show that overexpression of the CBR in cells leads to ...


The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh Dec 2013

The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a heritable, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. An unstable CAG expansion within the gene normally encoding for the Huntingtin protein is responsible. The expanded mutant form of Huntingtin and the putative protein co-factor Rhes interact and cause cell death within the striatum. We hypothesized chronic treatment with simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, would disrupt the biosynthetical pathway which gives both Rhes and its target cells binding sites and render Rhes inactive. Healthy and HD mice were treated with simvastatin or a vehicle. Animals’ motor behavior was assessed with three separate tests ...


Anion-Peptide Adduct Formation And Decomposition As Studied By Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (Ft-Icr) Mass Spectrometry, Xiaohua Liu Dec 2013

Anion-Peptide Adduct Formation And Decomposition As Studied By Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (Ft-Icr) Mass Spectrometry, Xiaohua Liu

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A new “best match” match model has been developed to account for adduct formation on multiply charged peptides observed in negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry. To obtain a stable adduct, the model necessitates an approximate matching of apparent gas-phase basicity (GBapp) of a given proton bearing site on the peptide with the gas-phase basicity (GB) of the anion attaching at that site. Evidence supporting the model is derived from the fact that singly charged adducts were only observed for lower GB anions: HSO4-, I-, CF3COO-. Ions that have medium GBs (NO3-, Br-, H2PO4-) only form adducts ...


Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang Dec 2013

Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of coordination of bacterial gene expression in response to cell population. System two QS is regulated by the small signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and is implicated in the infectious behaviors of various bacterial species. AI-2 is biosynthesized from S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) by the enzyme LuxS and induces interspecies cell-to-cell communication. Inhibition of LuxS would therefore inhibit interspecies QS. Herein, a search for novel molecular species that will competitively bind with SRH in the LuxS binding site is performed in silico. Computational screening results are then validated in vitro using an optimized LuxS inhibition assay.


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim Dec 2013

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen Dec 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen

Theses and Dissertations

Nanomaterials have attracted substantial attention in the area of catalysis due to the unique properties they exhibit such as high surface areas, intricate pore networks and unique morphologies. TiO2 has attracted attention as a catalyst since the discovery of its high photocatalytic activity by Fuishima and Honda in 1972. Given its high thermal stability, low cost, low environmental impact, and versatility, TiO2 is a widely used commercial catalyst and catalyst support. TiO2 is used in many applications such as photocatalysis is also an excellent support material for noble metals in a number of oxidative synthesis and pollution-control reactions. Though TiO2 ...


Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson Dec 2013

Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a commonly used separation technique in chemistry. Nevertheless, the mechanistic interactions at the molecular level among the eluent, analyte, and the stationary phase are not fully understood. Because of this limited understanding, optimization of the separation must be done experimentally. Learning more about molecular interactions should aid in improving separations. We are currently using second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy to investigate how analytes adsorb to the surface. SHG is a spectroscopic technique that produces signal only at places of non-isotropic symmetry; this typically occurs at surfaces. SHG can be used to produce surface isotherms of test ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Regulation Of Eukaryotic Mcm2-7 Activity, Lance F. Dasilva Dec 2013

Regulation Of Eukaryotic Mcm2-7 Activity, Lance F. Dasilva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The transfer of genetic material from one cell generation to the next requires precise genome duplication. Aberrant DNA replication can lead to genomic instability and contribute to diseases arising from an unregulated cell cycle, such as cancer. Replicative DNA polymerases require a single-stranded (ssDNA) template from which to produce newly synthesized DNA. In eukaryotes, ssDNA is generated by the heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance 2 through 7 (Mcm2-7) replicative helicase that unwinds duplex DNA. Strict temporal separation of helicase loading and activation at multiple replication origins ensures once per cell cycle replication. The processes involved in activating Mcm2-7 to unwind DNA during ...


Metabolic Remodeling And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Maladaptive Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Secondary To Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Jose Gomez-Arroyo Dec 2013

Metabolic Remodeling And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Maladaptive Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Secondary To Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Jose Gomez-Arroyo

Theses and Dissertations

Right ventricular dysfunction is the most frequent cause of death in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although abnormal energy substrate use has been implicated in the development of chronic left heart failure, data describing such metabolic remodeling in failing right ventricular tissue remain incomplete. In the present dissertation we sought to characterize metabolic gene expression changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in functional and dysfunctional RV hypertrophy. Two different rat models of RV hypertrophy were studied. The model of right ventricular failure (SU5416/hypoxia) exhibited a significantly decreased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator-1α, peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-α and estrogen-related receptor-α ...


Regulation Of Satiety Quiescence: Cyclic Gmp, Tgf Beta, And The Asi Neuron, Thomas Gallagher Dec 2013

Regulation Of Satiety Quiescence: Cyclic Gmp, Tgf Beta, And The Asi Neuron, Thomas Gallagher

Theses and Dissertations

The worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-studied model organism in numerous aspects of its biology. This small free living nematode has less than 1,000 cells, but shows clear conservation in both signaling and behavior to mammals in aspects of appetite control. This is of importance to humans, where failure of appetite control is a major factor in the unprecedented obesity epidemic that we see today. In general, worm behavior reflects its internal nutritional state and the availability and quality of food. Specifically, worms show a behavioral state that mimics aspects of the mammalian behavioral satiety sequence, which has been ...


Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock Dec 2013

Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, methods to synthesize ZnO are reported. First, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized with small amounts of transition metal ions to create materials called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). We employed a low temperature sol-gel method that produces ZnO nanoparticles of reproducible size and incorporates cobalt, nickel, and manganese ions into the nanoparticles. Conditions were controlled such that a range of amounts of Co, Ni, and Mn were incorporated. The incorporation was tracked by color changes in the white ZnO powder to blue for Co, green for Ni and yellow for Mn. XRD measurements showed the nanoparticles were on ...


The Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Adhesin Spsd Contains A Central Fibronectin-Binding Domain, Andrea S. Bordt Dec 2013

The Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Adhesin Spsd Contains A Central Fibronectin-Binding Domain, Andrea S. Bordt

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a Gram-positive bacterium significant because of its ability to cause costly and difficult to treat veterinary infections worldwide. It exhibits several similarities to Staphylococcus aureus, however, very little is known about its surface adhesins. Surface adhesins in S. aureus are significant contributors to pathogenesis. S. pseudintermedius encodes the surface protein SpsD, which contains characteristics of the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules family and confers attachment of the heterologous host Lactococcus lactis to fibronectin. This work has identified a centrally-located fibronectin binding domain in SpsD which binds the 30 kDa N-terminal domain of fibronectin with high ...


New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li Dec 2013

New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Integrity of the human genome is frequently threatened by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging reagents that may lead to genome instability and cancer. Cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the damaged cells beyond repair and to prevent diverse diseases. Among these are ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA damage checkpoint and nucleotide excision repair (NER) that are the major pathways by which cells handle ultraviolet C (UV-C)- or other exogenous genotoxin-induced bulky DNA damage. However, it is unclear how these 2 pathways may be coordinated. In this study we show that ATR physically ...


Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey Dec 2013

Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey

Theses and Dissertations

Waterborne illnesses, attributed to the ingestion or contact with contaminated water, present a significant global health concern. Surface water sources can be impacted by wide array of pollution inputs, but fecal pollution generates the most significant and acute threat to human health. Therefore, the detection of fecal bacteria in surface water sources remains an important public health objective. Current surface water monitoring employs the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including E. coli and enterococci as proxies for pathogenic organisms carried in fecal pollution. These traditional indicators, detected by culture-based microbiological methods, do not discriminate fecal sources from another. New ...


Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF VDR–COACTIVATOR INHIBITORS USING BIOCHEMICAL AND CELL–BASED ASSAYS

by

Athena Baranowski

The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, 2013

Under the Supervision of Dr. Alexander Arnold

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand–dependent transcription factor, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. VDR–mediated gene regulation is governed by coregulators (coactivators and corepressors). VDR coregulator binding inhibitors (CBIs), which were discovered using high throughput screening (HTS), were evaluated using cell–based assays and biochemical assays to determine their ability to inhibit the interaction between VDR and steroid receptor coactivator–2 (SRC–2). Determining their ability to ...


Structure And Function Of Proteins Investigated By Crystallographic And Spectroscopic Time-Resolved Methods, Namrta Purwar Dec 2013

Structure And Function Of Proteins Investigated By Crystallographic And Spectroscopic Time-Resolved Methods, Namrta Purwar

Theses and Dissertations

Biomolecules play an essential role in performing the necessary functions for life. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to an understanding of how biological systems work on the molecular level. We used two biological systems, beef liver catalase (BLC) and photoactive yellow protein (PYP). BLC is a metalloprotein that protects living cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species by converting H2O2 into water and oxygen. By binding nitric oxide (NO) to the catalase, a complex was generated that mimics the Cat-H2O2 adduct, a crucial intermediate in the reaction promoted by the catalase. The Cat-NO complex is ...


Evaluating The Influence Of Environmental Factors On The Rate Of Extra-Pair Matings In Tropical And Temperate Populations Of The House Wren (Troglodytes Aedon), Kaitlin Claire Mckenney Dec 2013

Evaluating The Influence Of Environmental Factors On The Rate Of Extra-Pair Matings In Tropical And Temperate Populations Of The House Wren (Troglodytes Aedon), Kaitlin Claire Mckenney

Theses and Dissertations

Considerable variation exists in the rate of extra-pair matings (EPMs) in birds. Environmental variability likely influences EPM rates within species, but the effects of local environmental factors on EPM rates are largely unpredictable. To determine whether broad-scale environmental factors might be better predictors of EPM rates within species, we quantified levels of extra-pair paternity in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon) in four populations spanning a range of latitude, elevation, and primary productivity (measured by actual evapotranspiration rates). Our results indicated an intermediate and variable level of EPM among populations (6 -31% extra-pair young) that was not significantly affected by 3 ...


Protein Association In Living Cells Using Fret Spectrometry: Application To G-Protein Coupled Receptors, Suparna Patowary Dec 2013

Protein Association In Living Cells Using Fret Spectrometry: Application To G-Protein Coupled Receptors, Suparna Patowary

Theses and Dissertations

Recent advancements in fluorescence microscopy coupled with newly developed fluorescent tags have transformed Fluorescence (Förster) Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) into a powerful tool studying in vivo molecular interactions with improved spatial (angstrom) resolution. Though widely used to study protein-protein interactions, generalizing and testing the FRET theory for oligomeric complexes containing multiple donors and acceptors has only become possible in recent years. Therefore, many aspects of it are yet unexplored.

In this work, we tested the kinetic theory of FRET using linked fluorescent proteins located in the cytoplasm or at the plasma membrane. We used a novel method developed in our ...


A Synthetic Biology Approach To Engineering New Anticancer Agents, Shane Robert Wesener Dec 2013

A Synthetic Biology Approach To Engineering New Anticancer Agents, Shane Robert Wesener

Theses and Dissertations

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are becoming increasingly valuable therapeutic agents in treatment of several types of malignancies. FK228 is a depsipeptde anticancer compound produced by Chromobacterium violaceum no. 968 through a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-polyketide synthase (PKS) hybrid assembly line. In the present study, reconstitution of the biosynthetic pathway responsible for the production of FK228 revealed cross-talk between modular PKS and fatty acid synthase. This pathway contains two PKS modules on the DepBC enzymes that lack a functional acyltransferase (AT) domain, and no apparent AT-encoding gene exists within the gene cluster or its vicinity. We reported through heterologous expression ...


The Role Of Gap-43 Phosphorylation In Axon Behavior In The Developing Zebrafish Visual System, Jennifer Forecki Dec 2013

The Role Of Gap-43 Phosphorylation In Axon Behavior In The Developing Zebrafish Visual System, Jennifer Forecki

Theses and Dissertations

Developing neurons extend processes to specific targets and establish connections that are essential for future function of the nervous system. One of these processes, the axon, has a motile tip called a growth cone that rearranges its membrane-associated actin cytoskeleton to turn toward or away from environmental guidance cues. Growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is one of the most abundant proteins associated with axonal growth cone membranes and is known to modulate the formation and stability of the actin cytoskeleton during axon guidance. Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of GAP-43 on serine 42 regulates its interactions with actin. Phosphorylated ...


Expression And Function Of Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels In Uterine Arteries, Ronghui Zhu Dec 2013

Expression And Function Of Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels In Uterine Arteries, Ronghui Zhu

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy is one of the most common insults to the maternal cardiovascular system and fetal development, and is associated with increased uterine vascular tone and heightened risk of preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The present study tested the hypothesis that calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels play an essential role in uterine vascular adaptation to pregnancy, which is inhibited by chronic hypoxia during gestation. Uterine arteries (UAs) were isolated from nonpregnant ewes (NPUAs) and near-term pregnant ewes (PUAs) that had been maintained at sea level (~300 m) or exposed to high altitude (3,801 m) for 110 ...


Characterization Of The Rna Binding And Rna Degrading Subunits Of The Eukaryotic Exosome, Borislava Tsanova Dec 2013

Characterization Of The Rna Binding And Rna Degrading Subunits Of The Eukaryotic Exosome, Borislava Tsanova

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The exosome is an essential complex of ten proteins involved in the processing and degradation of many RNAs in the cell. These include various stable RNAs, mRNAs, and aberrant transcripts both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm.

In this work I characterize the three members of the exosome “cap”, the RNA binding proteins Rrp4, Rrp40, and Csl4. I determine that in spite of their structural similarity, they each have a unique essential role. Second, I determine that two of the cap proteins Rrp4 and Rrp40 have a role in bridging subunits of the PH ring of the exosome. The ...


Development Of Novel Subunit Vaccine Against H5n1 Influenza, Lu Zhang Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Subunit Vaccine Against H5n1 Influenza, Lu Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza is a common infectious disease resulting from a frequently mutated RNA virus. Vaccination is currently the most effective method to prevent people from seasonal or pandemic influenza. The production of traditional egg-based influenza vaccine is time-consuming and provides limited effect against new strains. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid method to produce influenza vaccines. We proposed a novel influenza vaccine based on the E.coli expression system. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the major target surface protein of influenza virus for vaccine development. In this study, we sub-cloned the HAs encoding gene into an E. coli expression vector; the ...


The Role Of Histone H3 And H4 In Centromere Function And Genome Integrity, Payel Chaudhuri Dec 2013

The Role Of Histone H3 And H4 In Centromere Function And Genome Integrity, Payel Chaudhuri

Theses and Dissertations

Histone H2A plays an important role in chromosomal segregation among parent and daughter cells during mitosis. While it is established that this histone is important in maintaining chromosome number in cell, further work is carried out to explore the role of other histones like H3 and H4 for similar effects. A systematic study is initiated by screening a library based on mutation of different amino acid residues in these histones. This detailed screening identified specific regions within H3 and H4, which are critically important for centromeric function. These histones residing near the DNA entry/exit region of nucleosome effects the ...


Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku Dec 2013

Molecular And Biochemical Mechanisms Of Pathogenesis In The Maize Foliar Pathogen Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Winfred-Peck Dorleku

Theses and Dissertations

GLS is a serious foliar disease of maize, a major staple crop grown commercially in the USA for both human and animal feed production, and increasingly, for ethanol production. The disease is caused by two Cercospora species, C. zeae-maydis and C. zeina, both of which infect maize in the USA and in other parts of the world, with yield losses potentially greater than 50%, depending on local conditions. In culture, C. zeae-maydis produces a phytotoxic, host non-specific perylenequinone, cercosporin, and abscisic acid (ABA), for which there is no known pathological or physiological function in the fungus. Experimental evidence indicates that ...


Mechanisms Of The Anti-Pneumococcal Function Of C-Reactive Protein, Toh B. Gang Dec 2013

Mechanisms Of The Anti-Pneumococcal Function Of C-Reactive Protein, Toh B. Gang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human C-reactive protein (CRP) increases survival of and decreases bacteremia in mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Such protection of mice against pneumococcal infection is seen only when CRP is administered into mice 6 hours before to 2 hours after the injection of pneumococci, but not when CRP is given to mice at a later time. Our first aim was to define the mechanism of CRP-mediated initial protection of mice against infection. It was proposed that CRP binds to phosphocholine (PCh) moieties present in the cell wall and activates the complement system on the pneumococcal surface that kills the pathogen. We ...


The Glycine And Proline Reductase Systems: An Evolutionary Perspective And Presence In Enterobacteriaceae, Joshua Witt Dec 2013

The Glycine And Proline Reductase Systems: An Evolutionary Perspective And Presence In Enterobacteriaceae, Joshua Witt

HIM 1990-2015

The Glycine and Proline Reduction systems are two of the best characterized selenoenzymes in bacteria and have been found to occur in a wide variety of clostridia [1-5]. These enzymes are utilized to reduce glycine or D-proline to obtain energy via substrate level phosporylation or membrane gradients, respectively [6, 7]. This includes the pathogens C. difficile and C. botulinum [5, 8]. Strains of C. difficile are activate toxigenic pathways whenever either of these pathways is active within the cell [5, 8]. Though evolutionary studies have been conducted on ammonia producing bacteria [9] none has been done to directly characterize these ...


An Examination Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Combinations On Ribosome Biosynthesis In Staphylococcus Aureus, Justin Beach Dec 2013

An Examination Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Combinations On Ribosome Biosynthesis In Staphylococcus Aureus, Justin Beach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacteremia initiated by Staphylococcus aureus infections can be a serious medical problem. Although a number of different antibiotics are used to combat staphylococcal infections, resistance has continued to develop. Combination therapy for certain infections has been used to reduce the emergence of resistance when a single agent has become ineffective. We hypothesize that the use of rifampicin and ciprofloxacin in combination with azithromycin, known for its inhibitory effects on the bacterial ribosome, can create potential synergistic effects resulting from indirect effects on ribosomal subunit synthesis.

To determine this we measured the effects of single and multiple antibiotics on cell growth ...


Biochemical And Biophysical Studies Of Novel Features Of Ras-Related Protein Interactions, Kyla Marie Morinini Morris Dec 2013

Biochemical And Biophysical Studies Of Novel Features Of Ras-Related Protein Interactions, Kyla Marie Morinini Morris

Theses and Dissertations

The Ras superfamily of G-proteins are of great research interest for structure-function relationships among proteins as they act as molecular switches in the regulation of various biochemical reactions in the cell. They are regulated by protein-protein interactions targeted to the highly flexible switch regions. Mutations in G-proteins or their effectors may cause alterations in structure and/or function that can lead to overactivity.

The Ras-related protein Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is important in regulating cell-signaling processes. The T35A mutation in Cdc42 leads to a decrease in flexibility of the Switch I region responsible for effector binding. The kinetics of ...