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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Animal Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ecology, Phylogenetics, And Conservation Of Draba Asterophora Complex: A Rare, Alpine, Endemic From Lake Tahoe, Usa, Emily Ruth Smith Putnam Dec 2013

Ecology, Phylogenetics, And Conservation Of Draba Asterophora Complex: A Rare, Alpine, Endemic From Lake Tahoe, Usa, Emily Ruth Smith Putnam

Theses and Dissertations

Rare, alpine, endemic species are particularly at risk for extinction. Alpine environments are especially vulnerable to climate change and human impacts, such as ski resort development and snowmaking. Draba asterophora Payson is a rare, alpine species that occurs only in three disjunct mountain-top regions surrounding Lake Tahoe. It is currently threatened by human impacts, such as ski resorts, as well as indirect influences of climate change and therefore in need of better understanding for conservation purposes. Draba asterophora may be able to serve as a case study for other similarly vulnerable, rare, alpine, endemic species with conservation needs. We utilized ...


Post-Fire Interactions Between Soil Water Repellency, Islands Of Fertility, And Bromus Tectorum Invasibility, Kaitlynn Jane Fernelius Dec 2013

Post-Fire Interactions Between Soil Water Repellency, Islands Of Fertility, And Bromus Tectorum Invasibility, Kaitlynn Jane Fernelius

Theses and Dissertations

An intrinsic link exists between soil moisture and soil nitrogen. Factors that increase or decrease soil moisture can have a profound effect on soil nitrogen cycling, which may have later repercussions in the plant community. Post-fire soil water repellency is one factor that can limit soil moisture acquisition and may indirectly affect nitrogen cycling and weed invasion in woody islands of fertility. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with a surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. Two years later, soils were excavated from the untreated and treated field plots. In the greenhouse, half of ...


Certain Agave Species Exhibit The Capability To Be Moderately Productive Under Conditions Of High Salt And Drought Stress, Steven J. Bergsten Dec 2013

Certain Agave Species Exhibit The Capability To Be Moderately Productive Under Conditions Of High Salt And Drought Stress, Steven J. Bergsten

Theses and Dissertations

Water availability and arable lands are increasingly limiting resources in many parts of the U.S., particularly in semi-arid and arid regions. As a means of addressing food and fuel demands associated with burgeoning population growth, highly productive and water-use efficient crops need to be identified. One potential crop, Agave, merits consideration and evaluation due to its putative capability to provide sustenance and energy despite growing in water-limited regions and on marginal soils. However, little is known regarding the productivity these succulent plants will have under growing conditions of the Southwest, where high concentrated saline soils are abundant, and water ...


Understory Vegetation Response To Mechanical Mastication Of Piñon And Juniper Woodlands, Jordan Ann Bybee Dec 2013

Understory Vegetation Response To Mechanical Mastication Of Piñon And Juniper Woodlands, Jordan Ann Bybee

Theses and Dissertations

Piñon and juniper encroachment and infilling can alter ecosystem processes and decrease resilience and resistance in sagebrush grasslands. Land managers employ a variety of techniques to eliminate these trees and mitigate their negative effects. Mechanical mastication or shredding is an increasingly popular method of removing these trees in Utah. It is a versatile treatment that can reduce canopy fuels, increase infiltration, and reduced sediment loss. We compared vegetation cover for annual and perennial vegetation functional groups on shredded and adjacent unshredded areas across a range of sites. Our approach was to categorize sites by ecological site type (encroachment or tree ...


Tundra Swan (Cygnus Columbianus Columbianus) Habitat Selection During The Nonbreeding Period, Katelyn H. A. Weaver Dec 2013

Tundra Swan (Cygnus Columbianus Columbianus) Habitat Selection During The Nonbreeding Period, Katelyn H. A. Weaver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Changes in availability and foraging profitability of agricultural and aquatic habitats have the potential to greatly influence population dynamics of waterfowl. Therefore, the purpose of my research was to understand habitat selection by Tundra Swans during the nonbreeding period and to explore the scale-dependency of these relationships. Habitat selection was influenced by seasonal changes in nutritional requirements and food availability; Tundra Swans selected open water and agriculture in winter, wetlands were weakly selected during migration when open water was strongly selected (especially during autumn), and there was a 2-fold increase in use of agriculture from autumn to spring. It appears ...


Bee And Wasp Species Diversity At A Restored Wetland In Seneca Falls, New York, Sabrina Green Dec 2013

Bee And Wasp Species Diversity At A Restored Wetland In Seneca Falls, New York, Sabrina Green

Honors Theses

When monitoring the health and any changes in an ecosystem, having a baseline of species present in the area is important to be able to monitor changes over time. I was interested in the bee and wasp species richness at the Seneca Meadows Wetland Preserve in Seneca Falls, New York as it is a five year old restored wetland with a diverse range of habitat types. I hypothesized that the esker habitat, at the crux between wetland and upland habitat would have the greatest species richness. Using cup traps and sweep netting, I obtained and identified specimens from five major ...


The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis Dec 2013

The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis

Theses and Dissertations

A wealth of research has outlined the neural circuits responsible for the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of standard "delay" fear conditioning, in which awareness is not required for learning. Far less is understood about the neural circuit supporting more complex, explicit associations. "Trace" fear conditioning is considered to be a rodent model of explicit fear because it relies on the cortex and hippocampus and requires explicit contingency awareness in humans for successful acquisition. In the current set of studies, we aimed to better characterize the neural circuit supporting the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of trace fear in order to better ...


Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green Dec 2013

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green

Theses and Dissertations

Dramatic range-wide declines in Greater Sage-Grouse populations have prompted efforts to determine habitat characteristics that are selected by sage-grouse for foraging, nesting and brood-rearing areas in an effort to conserve this species. Managers at Heart Mountain and Y U Bench in northwestern Wyoming expressed the need to quantify various habitat characteristics and to determine key use areas at both study sites. Data were collected on a variety of habitat variables in spots selected by grouse for foraging, nesting, and brood-rearing activities. These variables were compared to the same variables measured at random points at both study sites. Significant differences existed ...


Connecting The Dots: Understanding Migration In The Context Of Other Periods Of The Annual Cycle, Kristina Lee Paxton Dec 2013

Connecting The Dots: Understanding Migration In The Context Of Other Periods Of The Annual Cycle, Kristina Lee Paxton

Dissertations

Migration is a fundamental characteristic of the life history of many organisms. Large-scale seasonal movements expose migratory species to an array of differing environmental conditions such that the ecology, behavior, and life history strategies of migratory species must balance selection pressures associated with each phase of the annual cycle. Therefore, scientists increasingly realize that to understand the ecology of a migratory species in any one phase of the annual cycle requires an understanding of how other phases may interact with and influence the period of interest. That said, following individuals throughout the year poses a serious challenge.

The focus of ...


Population Genetic Structure Of Bromus Tectorum In The American Desert Southwest, Desiree Rochelle Eldon Dec 2013

Population Genetic Structure Of Bromus Tectorum In The American Desert Southwest, Desiree Rochelle Eldon

Theses and Dissertations

Following its introduction to North America in the late nineteenth century, Bromus tectorum L., an inbreeding invasive winter annual grass, has become dominant on millions of hectares of sagebrush steppe habitat throughout Intermountain Western North America. It appears that within the last 30-40 years, B. tectorum has expanded its range southward into the Mojave Desert and also into more climatically extreme salt desert environments. Previous research using microsatellite markers and experimental studies has suggested that lineages found in desert habitats are genetically distinct from those found in the sagebrush-steppe habitat and possess suites of traits that pre-adapt them to these ...


Beaver Reintroduction Correlates With Spotted Frog Population Restoration And Terrestrial Movement Patterns Of Newly Metamorphosed Columbia Spotted Frogs In The Owyhee Uplands Of Southwestern Idaho, Hallie Anne Lingo Dec 2013

Beaver Reintroduction Correlates With Spotted Frog Population Restoration And Terrestrial Movement Patterns Of Newly Metamorphosed Columbia Spotted Frogs In The Owyhee Uplands Of Southwestern Idaho, Hallie Anne Lingo

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines topics relevant to Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Owyhee Uplands of southwestern Idaho. First, I present a detailed discussion of both the ecology and conservation status of spotted frogs. Concerns about declining spotted frog numbers in the southern portions of the species’ range were first expressed in the early 1990’s. In response, several studies on the behavior and ecology of spotted frog have been conducted by Boise State University. In addition, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitors the status of spotted frogs in the Owyhees using an occupancy model developed and implemented ...


The Health Monitoring Of Naïve, Immunocompromised Sows In A Seasoned Facility, Sara Nash Dec 2013

The Health Monitoring Of Naïve, Immunocompromised Sows In A Seasoned Facility, Sara Nash

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Animal Welfare Around The World: Examining The Role The Economy Has On Animal Welfare, Olivia J. Thornton Dec 2013

Animal Welfare Around The World: Examining The Role The Economy Has On Animal Welfare, Olivia J. Thornton

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Managing The Veterinary Clinic Enterprise, Shelby N. Smyly Dec 2013

Managing The Veterinary Clinic Enterprise, Shelby N. Smyly

Animal Science

This document serves as a guideline for the student management of the Veterinary Clinic Enterprise.


Exploring Post-Fire Recovery Of Biocrusts And Desert Ecosystem Services, Jason R. Bahr Dec 2013

Exploring Post-Fire Recovery Of Biocrusts And Desert Ecosystem Services, Jason R. Bahr

Theses and Dissertations

Biocrusts and the ecosystem services they provide are becoming more susceptible to fire as exotic annual grass invasions facilitate the spread of desert wildfires. Further, precipitation patterns across the western United States are predicted to change over the next century, and have the potential to dramatically influence fire regimes and the recovery of burned biocrusts. Despite these changes to desert fire and precipitation cycles, our understanding of post-fire biocrust recovery is limited, especially regarding the first two years after fire. To investigate biocrust recovery, we created burn manipulations (i.e., unburned and burned) and tracked crust form and function over ...


Northwest Arkansas Consumer Perceptions Of Poultry Production, Stuart Estes Dec 2013

Northwest Arkansas Consumer Perceptions Of Poultry Production, Stuart Estes

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Poultry production holds an important place in Arkansas economically and as a food source. The importance of poultry production ultimately hinges on the demands of the consumers and the perceptions that drive their purchases. With this in mind, this study surveyed consumers to assess their perceptions of poultry production in Arkansas. The instrument used to survey consumers was created by the researcher and an expert committee at the University of Arkansas. Consumers were interviewed through direct communication at grocery stores in northwest Arkansas. Data gathered from the study were analyzed for descriptive and correlational statistics. Data showed that consumers were ...


An Assessment Of Habitat Suitability For Pronghorn Populations Of The Central Valley Region Of California, Virginia Burroughs Dec 2013

An Assessment Of Habitat Suitability For Pronghorn Populations Of The Central Valley Region Of California, Virginia Burroughs

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Efforts to reintroduce and maintain populations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) to the California Central Valley, specifically the Carrizo Plain National Monument (CPNM) and the Mojave Desert (Antelope Valley) portion of Tejon Ranch, have largely been unsuccessful due to dwindling numbers of translocated animals. The objective of this study was to improve upon previous models for the CPNM using aerial survey data and then apply the model to the Tejon Ranch. Aerial survey data collected from 2000-2010 on the CPNM was used to establish “use” and “non-use” areas in the model. Model variables included vegetation type (forest, shrub, grassland, semi-desert scrub ...


Conjugated Linoleic Acids Alter Body Composition Differently According To Physiological Age In Moulard Ducks, Jeff Fesler, Daniel Peterson Dec 2013

Conjugated Linoleic Acids Alter Body Composition Differently According To Physiological Age In Moulard Ducks, Jeff Fesler, Daniel Peterson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to have remarkable yet inconsistent metabolic effects in mice, rats, hamsters, chickens, cattle, and humans. In particular, effects on lipogenesis vary with tissue, physiological state and specie. In this study we tested the hypothesis that CLA would differentially affect ducks of the same genetic background but of differing age. Growing (7 wk) and maintenance (11 wk) Moulard ducks were grouped by age and fed a standard diet supplemented with either 5% soybean oil (control) or 5% CLA isomer mixture. Animals were harvested after 3 weeks or 6 weeks for assessment of body composition ...


Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland Dec 2013

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Ascites Incidence In Broilers, Kaylee Rowland

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is key in genetic research due to breeding feasibility, relatively short generation interval, and distinct phenotypes. It is estimated that 8% of broiler deaths annually can be attributed to ascites, an economically important disease that has been challenging the industry for the past 2 decades. Genetically selected ascites resistant (RES) and susceptible (SUS) chicken lines have been established and maintained by the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Intensive research efforts have been made to reveal physiological and biochemical characteristics for the incidence of ascites. Since the whole genome of the major ancestral chicken, the Red Jungle Fowl, has been sequenced ...


Bovine Mammary Interleukin-8 Receptor Expression And Genetic Association With Streptococcus Uberis Based Mastitis., Lydia Jean Siebert Dec 2013

Bovine Mammary Interleukin-8 Receptor Expression And Genetic Association With Streptococcus Uberis Based Mastitis., Lydia Jean Siebert

Masters Theses

Mastitis is an economically distressing disease in the dairy industry. Bacterial pathogens enter the gland and encounter cell types that release immune mediators including interleukin (IL)-8. IL-8 has two membrane bound receptors: CXCR1 and CXCR2. CXCR1 and CXCR2 are expressed on neutrophils and other cell types in other species but their expression is unknown in the bovine mammary gland. To test this, mammary tissue samples from six Holstein dairy cows were subject to dual immunofluorescence with bovine specific CXCR1 and CXCR2 antibodies and cell type markers. CXCR1 was expressed on alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and leukocytes. CXCR2 expression was ...


Development Of Novel Vaccines For Campylobacter Control In Poultry, Lindsay Ann Jones Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Vaccines For Campylobacter Control In Poultry, Lindsay Ann Jones

Masters Theses

Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of human enteritis in developed countries. Human campylobacteriosis is commonly associated with consumption of undercooked, contaminated chicken, a natural host of Campylobacter. Thus, control of Campylobacter colonization in poultry at the farm level would reduce the risk of human exposure to this pathogen. Vaccination is an attractive intervention measure to mitigate Campylobacter in poultry. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the outer membrane proteins CmeC (an essential component of CmeABC multidrug efflux pump) and CfrA (ferric enterobactin receptor) are feasible candidates for immune intervention against Campylobacter. By targeting these two promising vaccine candidates, three ...


Manipulating Lipolysis To Reduce Fatness And Improve Carcass Composition In Commercial Broilers, Rodney Barnett Ray Dec 2013

Manipulating Lipolysis To Reduce Fatness And Improve Carcass Composition In Commercial Broilers, Rodney Barnett Ray

Masters Theses

Betaine has been studied as an osmolyte and methyl group donor for many species. Recent studies have found that betaine is able to increase muscle mass and reduce adiposity in meat type broilers birds. In experiment one, eight-hundred Cobb 500 broiler chicks were supplemented with betaine at 0.6 g/kg and 1.2g/kg. Birds had access to feed and water for ad libitum consumption for forty-two, forty-four, and forty-nine days. Birds and feed were weighed weekly. Carcass parameters (dress weight, breast percentage, and leg percentage) were taken at slaughter on days forty- two and forty-nine. Blood was taken ...


Determination Of The Expression Patterns Of Bovine Non-Classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) Class I Proteins, Parveen Parasar Dec 2013

Determination Of The Expression Patterns Of Bovine Non-Classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) Class I Proteins, Parveen Parasar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation hypothesis is that bovine trophoblast cells express cell-surface and secreted non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-Ib) proteins which inhibit NK cells and other leukocytes by binding to inhibitory receptors (e.g., LILRB1, LILRB2, KIR2DL4, and/or CD94/NKG2A).

Extremely polymorphic and ubiquitously expressed classical MHC class I (MHC-Ia) proteins, which present foreign antigenic peptides to CD8+ T lymphocytes, are involved in acceptance or rejection of tissue grafts. Non-classical MHC class I (MHC-Ib) glycoproteins, such as Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) and murine Qa-2, are important modulators of the maternal immune system during pregnancy. MHC-Ib proteins are: (a) oligomorphic ...


Hydrogeology Of The Little River Animal Agriculture Environmental Research Unit And Impacts Of Dairy Operations On Groundwater, Robert Wesley Hunter Dec 2013

Hydrogeology Of The Little River Animal Agriculture Environmental Research Unit And Impacts Of Dairy Operations On Groundwater, Robert Wesley Hunter

Masters Theses

This thesis describes the development of an integrated hydrogeologic/hydrologic site assessment and groundwater/surface water quality monitoring program at the University of Tennessee – Little River Dairy Farm, located near Townsend, TN. Hydrologic/hydrogeologic investigations of streams and groundwater at the site have been underway for more than 5 years, and these are expected to provide background data for assessing impacts of dairy wastes. The lower half of the ~180 ha site consists of low-relief fields used for row crops, which are underlain by 4 – 9 m of alluvial deposits on top of black shale or limestone that include sinkhole ...


Methane Prediction By Nutrient Profiles In Ruminal Continuous Cultures Fed An All Forage Diet Of Bermudagrass Or Annual Ryegrass, Kaylin Young Dec 2013

Methane Prediction By Nutrient Profiles In Ruminal Continuous Cultures Fed An All Forage Diet Of Bermudagrass Or Annual Ryegrass, Kaylin Young

All Theses

Extensive research has been done on the effect of diet on rumen methane (CH4) production, and on developing equations to accurately predict CH4 in cattle. However, the majority of this research has been gathered from feedlot cattle or cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR). To date, no studies have examined nutrient correlations with CH4 when feeding an all pasture diet of warm season or cool season grasses. This study included two in vitro experiments, one with a warm season forage and one with a cool season forage to see which nutrient characteristics of each forage best correlated with CH4 ...


Habitat Selection By Two K-Selected Species: An Application To Bison And Sage Grouse, Joshua Taft Kaze Dec 2013

Habitat Selection By Two K-Selected Species: An Application To Bison And Sage Grouse, Joshua Taft Kaze

Theses and Dissertations

Population growth for species with long lifespans and low reproductive rates (i.e., K-selected species) is influenced primarily by both survival of adult females and survival of young. Because survival of adults and young is influenced by habitat quality and resource availability, it is important for managers to understand factors that influence habitat selection during the period of reproduction. My thesis contains two chapters addressing this issue for K-selected species in Utah. Chapter one evaluates habitat selection of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus) on Diamond Mountain during the critical nesting and brood-rearing period. Chapter two address selection of birth sites by bison ...


Importance Of Placement Depth In Evaluating Soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Sulfur Using Ion Exchange Resin Capsules In Semi-Arid, Low Fertility Soils, Rachel Lynn Buck Dec 2013

Importance Of Placement Depth In Evaluating Soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Sulfur Using Ion Exchange Resin Capsules In Semi-Arid, Low Fertility Soils, Rachel Lynn Buck

Theses and Dissertations

Ion exchange resin capsules provide a possible alternative to conventional soil testing procedures. Previous studies with semi-arid, low fertility soils observed poor relationships with poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus (P). We propose that placement depth may improve those relationships. Our objective was to (1) determine if placement depth could improve resin capsule estimation of the bioavailability of nitrogen (N), P, and sulfur (S) and (2) to determine if resin capsules can effectively estimate S availability in semi-arid, low fertility soils. Field sites were established in Rush and Skull Valleys, Utah on loam and sandy loam soils, respectively. Fertilizer was ...


Management Of Katahdin Hair Sheep, Elizabeth Ann Backes Dec 2013

Management Of Katahdin Hair Sheep, Elizabeth Ann Backes

Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of different management practices on Katahdin hair sheep performance. For experiment 1, over 2 yr, 5, 0.4-ha pastures were allocated randomly to 1 of 2 grazing treatments: 1) Continuous; or 2) 4-cell rotation. Fifty yearling Katahdin ewes (53 ± 0.7 kg initial BW; 3.3 ± 0.09 initial BCS) were stratified by BW and BCS and allocated randomly to pastures in early May. Grazing d, basal cover, forage quantity or quality did not differ across treatments; however, sampling date effects were detected for forage quantity and quality. Beginning and ...


Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting Breast Fillet Tenderness In Broilers Reared For Divergent Market Demands, Valerie Belle Brewer Dec 2013

Physical And Biochemical Factors Affecting Breast Fillet Tenderness In Broilers Reared For Divergent Market Demands, Valerie Belle Brewer

Theses and Dissertations

Market trends have dictated that broilers be reared for divergent market demands for decades. Also, broiler genetic strains have been adapted to meet market demands which include: genetic selection for improved breast meat, the practice of growing birds to older ages and greater market weights to meet demands, and decreasing postmortem (PM) aging time to improve processing efficiency and fillet yield. These production practices can also affect product quality, specifically boneless breast fillet tenderness and water-holding capacity. To address these factors, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of strain and slaughter age on meat quality parameters ...


The Color And Consistency Of Steaks And Ground Beef Produced From Mature Bulls, Jace Joseph Hollenbeck Dec 2013

The Color And Consistency Of Steaks And Ground Beef Produced From Mature Bulls, Jace Joseph Hollenbeck

Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted to compare the color and cooked attributes of steaks and ground beef produced from mature bulls. Beef from mature bulls was used to test the effects of lactic acid (LA) enhancement solution pH (2.5, 3.0, or 3.5; B25, B30, B35, respectively) on fresh (5 d of display) and cooked color and tenderness of strip loin steaks (Exp. 1) and the effect of high pH trim on precooked ground beef patties (Exp. 2). In experiment 1, mature bull strip steaks were enhanced to 111% with a LA, sodium bicarbonate, and tap water solution, in ...