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Theses/Dissertations

1993

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Trophic Interactions: The Relative Importance Of Dreissena Filtration And Daphnia Grazing On Phytoplankton Abundance And Water Clarity, Eileen M. Malloy Desormeaux Dec 1993

Trophic Interactions: The Relative Importance Of Dreissena Filtration And Daphnia Grazing On Phytoplankton Abundance And Water Clarity, Eileen M. Malloy Desormeaux

Biology Master’s Theses

A series of controlled laboratory experiments were performed (n=4) to determine the effects of Dreissena filtration and Daphnia grazing on phytoplankton abundance and water clarity. Dreissena consumed significantly more phytoplankton than Daphnia at 48 and 72 hours in vessels containing a single herbivore (Daphnia or Dreissena). Dreissena reduced phytoplankton abundance by 39% overall, while Daphnia reduced 19% of the phytoplankton. However, an additive effect was not observed in vessels containing both herbivores. Phosphorus cycling by Daphnia and cycling and retention by Dreissena changed the dynamics of the vessels significantly. Ultimately, it is likely that Dreissena will increase water clarity ...


Perceptions Of Current Club Managers Regarding College Coursework Necessary For Preparation For A Career As A Club Manager, Candice E. Clemenz Dec 1993

Perceptions Of Current Club Managers Regarding College Coursework Necessary For Preparation For A Career As A Club Manager, Candice E. Clemenz

Masters Theses

The purpose of this research was to gather and interpret the perceptions of current club managers regarding the college coursework that they believed was necessary to prepare a student for a career as a club manager. First, a list of course areas was developed via a review of hospitality curriculums, and conversations with industry professionals. The list was used to design Part 1 of a questionnaire that featured 13 course areas with corresponding descriptive and ascending levels of competencies. Instructions clearly directed club managers to select the highest level of competency for each course area that they thought should be ...


A Characterization Of Extractable, Hydroxylated Fatty Acid Bearing Components In Legionella Pneumophila, Jonathan R. Lane Dec 1993

A Characterization Of Extractable, Hydroxylated Fatty Acid Bearing Components In Legionella Pneumophila, Jonathan R. Lane

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Extraction of the lipids of Legionella pneumophila yields phases unlike those produced from other Gram-negative bacteria. A viscous interface forms between the aqueous (wash) and organic phases. More than half of the hydroxylated fatty acids were found distributed between the aqueous phase and the interfacial material, fractions in which such constituents have not been reported in other Gram-negative species. It was further observed that after the material from the aqueous/interfacial phase was dissolved in methanol or chloroform/methanol (2:1 (V/V)), the addition of acetone would create a white, flocculent precipitate. Analyses showed that the supernatant contained fatty ...


Effect Of Lead On Globin Mrna In Vivo And In Vitro, C. A. Aethranis Dec 1993

Effect Of Lead On Globin Mrna In Vivo And In Vitro, C. A. Aethranis

Masters Theses

The total amount of mRNA recovered from Pb2+-treated rabbits was not significantly influenced by lead but dose-dependent loss of template activity of the poly A+ fraction was observed. These observations lead to the conclusion that the messenger RNA of rabbit reticulocytes exposed to Pb2+ in vivo was damaged and inactivated without extensive depolymerization of the mRNA.

In vitro experiments on the effect of Pb2+ on purified rabbit globin mRNA were also performed. After incubation with Pb2+ at micromolar concentrations, the 7-methyl guanosine cap was removed from the mRNA, while damage to the remainder of the ...


Arthropods Associated With Leaf Litter Of Fraser Fir In The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, David Norman Hughes Dec 1993

Arthropods Associated With Leaf Litter Of Fraser Fir In The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, David Norman Hughes

Masters Theses

Fraser Fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret, is a southern endemic conifer species restricted to the higher elevations of the southern Applachian mountains. This forest type is currently threatened by the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg), an exotic pest species native to Europe. This insect has destroyed more than 95% of the mature Fraser fir within the boundaries of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM). The adelgid damages Fraser fir by disrupting the flow of nutrients in the vascular tissues of the bark. This disruption is due to abnormal growth of the vascular tissues resulting from a reaction to ...


Identification And Evaluation Of Nutrition Education Materials For Use In Kindergarten, Mary Katherine Powers Dec 1993

Identification And Evaluation Of Nutrition Education Materials For Use In Kindergarten, Mary Katherine Powers

Masters Theses

The purpose of this project was to determine the extent to which nutrition education lesson plans address the objectives covered in a kindergarten curriculum that is representative of other kindergarten curricula across the United States. Incorporating nutrition education into the kindergarten curriculum can allow children to be exposed to nutrition more often without adding additional subject areas and time to teachers' busy schedules.

We recruited volunteer teachers in a metropolitan school system and provided continuing education on the Dietary Guidelines. Teachers determined that four of the Dietary Guidelines were developmentally appropriate for kindergarten students and evaluated 400 lesson plans as ...


Co-Sensitization Of Dopamine And Serotonin Receptors Occurs In The Absence Of A Change In The Dopamine D1 Receptor Complex After A Neonatal 6-Ohda Lesion, Li Gong Dec 1993

Co-Sensitization Of Dopamine And Serotonin Receptors Occurs In The Absence Of A Change In The Dopamine D1 Receptor Complex After A Neonatal 6-Ohda Lesion, Li Gong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

To test whether SKF 38393 could ontogenetically sensitize dopamine (DA) D$\sb1$ receptors and whether this sensitization would be associated with biochemical changes, intact and neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats (200 $\mu$g i.c.v.) were treated daily from birth with SKF 38393 (3.0 mg/kg i.p. x 28 days) or its vehicle. In DA D$\sb1$ neonatally sensitized 6-OHDA rats, enhanced locomotor responses were observed with the first SKF 38393 challenge dose (3.0 mg/kg i.p.) at 6 weeks. This response increased further with weekly SKF 38393 treatments. Enhanced stereotyped behaviors were seen in ...


Unusual Structure Of A Human Middle Repetitive Dna, Duminda D. Ratnasinghe Dec 1993

Unusual Structure Of A Human Middle Repetitive Dna, Duminda D. Ratnasinghe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The L2Hs sequences are a polymorphic, interspersed, middle repetitive DNA family unique to human genomes. Genomic fingerprinting indicates that these DNAs vary from one individual to another and between tissues of the same individual. Sequence analysis reveals that they are AT-rich (76%) and contain many unusual sequence arrangements (palindromes, inverted and direct repeats). These sequence properties confer on the L2Hs elements the potential to fold into non-B-form structures, a characteristic of recombination hot spots. To test this hypothesis carbodiimide, osmium tetroxide and S$\sb1$ nuclease were used as single-strand specific probes to study a recombinant plasmid, pN6.4.39, containing ...


Nitric Oxide Production: A Mechanism For Inhibition Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Replication, Bojun Chen Dec 1993

Nitric Oxide Production: A Mechanism For Inhibition Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Replication, Bojun Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) replicates in macrophages, but is inhibited by IFN-$\gamma$ or LPS. IFN-$\gamma$ and/or LPS induced nitrite production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1) and McCoy cells. Kinetic studies indicated that peak production occurred 48 hours post-treatment. CT infection itself was insufficient to induce nitrite production, but resulted in enhancement of nitrite production in IFN-$\gamma$-treated cells. Treatment with IFN-$\gamma$ or LPS resulted in significant inhibition of CT replication in these cells. Strong correlation between nitrite production and inhibition of CT replication was observed in RAW264.7 and ...


A Molecular Basis For Erythromycin Sensitivity And Resistance In Escherichia Coli, Harold S. Chittum Dec 1993

A Molecular Basis For Erythromycin Sensitivity And Resistance In Escherichia Coli, Harold S. Chittum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The effect of erythromycin on the 50S ribosomal subunit during cell growth has been extensively investigated. Sucrose density gradient analysis of ribosomes formed in the presence and absence of the drug revealed a 50S specific assembly defect is partially responsible for erythromycin's inhibitory effects on wild type cells. Examination of two erythromycin-resistant mutants of E. coli (N281 and N282) revealed that mutant N281 (L22 mutant) but not N282 (L4 mutant) was assembly defective in the presence of the drug, although only at much higher drug concentrations (300 ug/ml vs. 75 ug/ml for wild type cells). The altered ...


The Slip Velocity Of Coating Formulations Using The High-Shear Viscometer, Daniel Parker Krieger Dec 1993

The Slip Velocity Of Coating Formulations Using The High-Shear Viscometer, Daniel Parker Krieger

Master's Theses

When using a cup and bob viscometer, it has long been recognized that errors in the viscosity measurement can arise from several factors, among them slip. Slip is a phenomenon which occurs when there are slipping layers in the fluid under shear, causing a non-uniform velocity gradient to be generated across the gap of the cup and bob viscometer. A layer of fluid at either the bob or cup wall moves faster than the adjoining layers, causing the slipping effect. This leads to a low viscosity calculation for the fluid.

In this study, experiments with coating formulations were conducted using ...


The Effect Of Viscosity In Beveled Blade Coating, Salih Cebe Dec 1993

The Effect Of Viscosity In Beveled Blade Coating, Salih Cebe

Master's Theses

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several types of coating viscosity on coat weight development during the beveled blade coating process. In this study, the effects of several types of coating viscosity were experimentally investigated at the applicator roll, before and underneath the blade. Coating color viscosities were changed through two methods. The first method involved changing the temperature of coating color at constant carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) concentration, while the second method consisted of varying the CMC concentration in coating formula at constant coating temperature.

Coating viscosity had an influencing effect both on the amount of ...


Complete Nucleotide Sequence Of Psti-L Fragment Of Tanapox Virus Genomic Dna, Sarah J. Neering Dec 1993

Complete Nucleotide Sequence Of Psti-L Fragment Of Tanapox Virus Genomic Dna, Sarah J. Neering

Master's Theses

Tanapox virus (TPV), of the genus Yatapoxvirus, is a human poxvirus that was originally isolated from the Tana River Valley in Kenya in 1962. TPV produces a mild disease characterized by a short febrile illness associated with one or more nodular skin lesions. Although there have been limited studies on TPV, other poxviruses such as vaccinia virus, have been extensively characterized and their genomic DNAs sequenced. In order to examine the molecular features of TPV, we have cloned approximately 17% of the genomic DNA. TPV DNA was digested with Pstl restriction endonuclease and cloned into pUC19. The Pstl-L ...


Characterization Of Male Sterility And Polyploidy In Watermelon, Brent Alan Murdock Dec 1993

Characterization Of Male Sterility And Polyploidy In Watermelon, Brent Alan Murdock

All Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Investigation Of Generalized Watershed Loading Functions Predictions On Sodus East Creek Watershed, Gary Benjamin Brown Oct 1993

Investigation Of Generalized Watershed Loading Functions Predictions On Sodus East Creek Watershed, Gary Benjamin Brown

Biology Master’s Theses

The Generalized Watershed Loading Functions model was applied to the Sodus East Creek watershed to predict streamflow and sediment and nutrient loads. Actual discharge and sediment and nutrient loads were measured by conventional hydrologic and chemical techniques. During a two year period, the model explained 44 % of the total monthly variability in discharge. Total discharge was underestimated by an average of 74%. Potential factors contributing to the underestimation of discharge were investigated and assessed accordingly. Factors investigated were precipitation measurement, discharge measurement, aquifer locations, watershed characteristics and model performance. Analysis of these factors suggested that model inaccuracy was not the ...


Analysis Of And Role For Effector And Target Cell Structures In The Regulation Of Virus Infections By Natural Killer Cells: A Dissertation, Randy R. Brutkiewicz Sep 1993

Analysis Of And Role For Effector And Target Cell Structures In The Regulation Of Virus Infections By Natural Killer Cells: A Dissertation, Randy R. Brutkiewicz

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The overall emphasis in this thesis is the study of the regulation of virus infections by natural killer (NK) cells. In initial analyses, vaccinia virus (VV)-infected cells were found to be more sensitive to NK cell-mediated lysis during a discrete period of time post-infection. This enhanced susceptibility to lysis correlated with enhanced triggering (but not binding) of the effector cells and a concomitant decrease in target cell H-2 class I antigen expression. Furthermore, VV-infected cells became resistant to lysis by allospecific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) at a time when they were very sensitive to killing by NK cells or ...


Sds Non-Acrylamide Polymeric Gel-Filled Capillary Electrophoresis For Molecular Size Separation Of Protein, Devon Andres Aug 1993

Sds Non-Acrylamide Polymeric Gel-Filled Capillary Electrophoresis For Molecular Size Separation Of Protein, Devon Andres

Honors Theses

Sodium dodecyl sulfide (SDS) non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary columns are a new technology being used for analysis and separation of biotechnology-derived proteins. This research was to compare this new technology to the current methods of SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The molecular mass of four different recombinant proteins were determined by two commercialized SDS non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary columns, SDS-PAGE, and HPSEC. The data obtained showed that the SDS non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary columns were compatible with the SDS-PAGE technique for molecular mass determination. HPSEC was shown to be unreliable for molecular weight determination. SDS non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary ...


Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Changes Following Zebra Mussel Colonization Of Southwestern Lake Ontario, Timothy W. Stewart Aug 1993

Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Changes Following Zebra Mussel Colonization Of Southwestern Lake Ontario, Timothy W. Stewart

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

Changes in abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting a natural cobble and artificial reef substrate in southwestern Lake Ontario were quantified following invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Post-zebra mussel invasion data (1991-92) were statistically compared with pre-invasion data (1983) from the same sites. By 1991-92 zebra mussels comprised 73% and 90% of cobble and artificial reef macroinvertebrates, respectively, replacing the amphipod Gammarus fasciatus as the numerically dominant taxon at both sites. Overall abundance of non-zebra mussel taxa was significantly greater (p < 0.05) at cobble and artificial reef sites in 1991-92, than in 1983 before zebra mussels were present. Taxa exhibiting significant population increases at the cobble site during the time period separating the two studies were the annelids Manayunkia speciosa, Spirosperma ferox and unidentified tubificids; the gastropods Helisoma anceps,Physa heterostropha, Stagnicola catascopium, Valvata ...


The Population Biology And Demography Of Cimicifuga Rubifolia Kearney And The Genetic Relationships Among North American Cimicifuga Species, Rebecca Ann Cook Aug 1993

The Population Biology And Demography Of Cimicifuga Rubifolia Kearney And The Genetic Relationships Among North American Cimicifuga Species, Rebecca Ann Cook

Doctoral Dissertations

In this beginning study of the population biology of Cimicifuga species, the life history and demography of the long-lived herbaceous perennial, Cimicifuga rubifolia Kearney, were investigated, the genetic structure of some of its populations was studied, and an investigation of the genetic relationships among the North American species was begun.

The life history and demography were monitored in two populations, one of approximately 1400 individuals (1987-1990) and the second of about 400 individuals (1988-1990). A model of leaf area was used to determine the leaf area (photosynthetic size) of individuals and this was followed during the study. Relationships between the ...


Comparison Of The Geographic Variation In Two Species Of Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus), Karen Marie Watts Aug 1993

Comparison Of The Geographic Variation In Two Species Of Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus), Karen Marie Watts

Theses & Dissertations

Standard external measurement data was recorded from study skins at four Texas institutions. These collections also provided the specimen skulls from which twelve standard cranial measurements were made with digital calipers to the nearest 0.01 mm. This study included 111 Mexican ground squirrels (Spermophilus mexicanus) and 76 spotted ground squirrels (Spermophilus spilosoma). Most specimens had been collected in Texas and Mexico. Fifteen spotted ground squirrels had also been captured in four other states. An adaptation of the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map was used to subdivide the study area, so that geographic variation could be determined. Comparison of mean ...


Inhibition Of Cytochrome P-450 But Not Neutrophil Depletion Prevents The Pulmonary Toxicity Associated With 1-Nitronaphthalene, Steven Michael Green Aug 1993

Inhibition Of Cytochrome P-450 But Not Neutrophil Depletion Prevents The Pulmonary Toxicity Associated With 1-Nitronaphthalene, Steven Michael Green

Master's Theses

1-Nitronaphthalene (1-NN) is an environmental contaminant that has been shown to cause pulmonary toxicity in rodents. To examine the contribution of cytochrome P-450 to the metabolism and subsequent toxicity of 1-NN, rats were pretreated with chloramphenicol, a suicide substrate of P-450. To determine if inflammation plays a role in 1-NN toxicity, rats were pretreated with cyclophosphamide to deplete neutrophils. In both experiments, morphological analysis of the lower airways was performed with light and electron microscopy. A second group of animals was examined for biochemical indicators of inflammation and cell damage. The parameters examined were cell content, protein content and lactate ...


The Influence Of Trichinella Spiralis Infection On Heat Shock Protein 72 Production In Mrl++ Mouse Intestinal Cells, Lisa Ann Kilejian Jul 1993

The Influence Of Trichinella Spiralis Infection On Heat Shock Protein 72 Production In Mrl++ Mouse Intestinal Cells, Lisa Ann Kilejian

Dissertations and Theses

The production of Heat Shock Protein 72, the inducible for~ of the highly conserved 70 kilodalton heat shock protein family, was investigated in MRL++ mouse intestine during the two weeks of a Trichinella spiralis infection. Within hours of an oral infection using the encysted Trichinella spiralis found in the diaphragm of an infected mouse, the larvae are released from the cyst in the stomach. They travel to the intestine and burrow into the epithelial layer of the intestine. The jejunum is the primary site of the intestinal phase of trichinosis (Despommier 1983). This stage of infection in the jejunum was ...


Studies On Type I And Type Ii Dna Topoisomerases From Mammalian Mitochondria, Jia-Hwei Lin Jul 1993

Studies On Type I And Type Ii Dna Topoisomerases From Mammalian Mitochondria, Jia-Hwei Lin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Mammalian mitochondria contain a unique DNA topoisomerase I with characteristics of both nuclear and bacterial type I DNA topoisomerases. This enzyme, purified from bovine liver, requires cations as cofactors and possesses optimal activity at pH 7.0, 37°C and either 150 mM K+ or Na+ ions. Similar to nuclear enzymes and different from the bacterial enzyme, divalent ions such as Ca2+ or Mg2+ will stimulate but are not essential for the enzymatic activity.

Like the nuclear DNA topoisomerase I, the mitochondrial enzyme is capable of relaxing both negatively and positively supercoiled DNA. The relaxation of negatively supercoiled ...


A Limnological Analysis Of Ten Mountain Lakes, Gary Wayne Burns Jun 1993

A Limnological Analysis Of Ten Mountain Lakes, Gary Wayne Burns

Dissertations and Theses

Ten mountain lakes were analyzed in order that they be assigned a trophic status. The lakes which are located in the Mount Hood National Forest of Oregon are Anvil, Beaver Pond, Cripple Creek, Fish, Gifford, Monon, Ollalie, Rimrock, Round, and Sportsman. The purpose of this report is to determine the productivity of these waters. Data were collected for analyses of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, Secchi depth, major ion concentration, light intensity versus depth, alkalinity, phytoplanktcn species composition/total density, and zooplankton species composition/total density. Samples were collected in Van Darn sampling bottles and returned to the laboratory for chemical ...


Mechanisms Of T Cell-Mediated Macrophage Activation: Role Of Antigen Specific And Antigen Nonspecific Cognate Interactions, Xiang Tao Jun 1993

Mechanisms Of T Cell-Mediated Macrophage Activation: Role Of Antigen Specific And Antigen Nonspecific Cognate Interactions, Xiang Tao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Macrophages play an important role in host antimicrobial immunity and in non-septic inflammatory reactions. Most studies on macrophage activation have focused on the roles of the T cell-produced cytokine, interferon-$\gamma$ (IFN$\gamma)$ and bacterial product, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). T cell-macrophage interaction is a critical step in initiating both specific and nonspecific immune responses to antigenic stimulation. The current study examines the role of cognate T cell-macrophage interaction in activation of macrophage effector functions and induction of macrophage early activation gene expression. Viable resting T$\sb{\rm H}$2 clone cells can activate IFN$\gamma$-primed macrophages to produce reactive nitrogen ...


A Survey Of Helminths Of Ondatra Zibethicus In Eight States And Four Foreign Countries, Mike P. Lyons May 1993

A Survey Of Helminths Of Ondatra Zibethicus In Eight States And Four Foreign Countries, Mike P. Lyons

McCabe Thesis Collection

The muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus. is a large member of the Order Rodentia and regarded as the United States' most important fur bearing mammal (Abram, 19 69) . Helminths, or parasitic worms, include amongst its members: trematodes (flukes), cestodes (tape worms) and nematodes (round worms). Parasite surveys based on geography and subspecies of the host, Ondatra zibethicus. have pieced together information gaps based on these criteria and enabled investigators to construct an overall picture of helminth parasites in the United States and elsewhere.

The question of helminths in representative host species can be addressed either through necropsy examinations or through literature surveys ...


Culture Of Black Bullhead (Ameriurus Melas) In Cages And Open Ponds, Linda Sue Holloway May 1993

Culture Of Black Bullhead (Ameriurus Melas) In Cages And Open Ponds, Linda Sue Holloway

Biology Master’s Theses

Black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) fingerlings were stocked in three 0.1 ha ponds at a rate of 900 fish/0.1 ha with 150 fish stocked in 1.2 m3 cages (three cages/pond) and 450 fish stocked free-swimming in each open pond. Fish were simultaneously cultured in cages and open ponds between 4 June 1991 and 28 September 1991. After 117 days, survival rate in all treatments did not differ. Black bullhead reared in open ponds exhibited superior growth and feed conversion when compared to fish reared in cages. Caged fish took longer to double their weight than ...


Investigation Of The Mechanisms Of Estradiol Insensitivity In The Female Squirrel Monkey, Doris Juanita Ward May 1993

Investigation Of The Mechanisms Of Estradiol Insensitivity In The Female Squirrel Monkey, Doris Juanita Ward

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

The reproductively active female squirrel monkey is characterized by markedly elevated plasma estradiol levels. Plasma estradiol levels have been reported to be 10 to 30 times that in Old World primates and humans. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for these elevated estradiol concentrations have not been fully elucidated. In this study, two possible mechanisms contributing to elevated steroid levels were investigated. Investigation of uterine estrogen receptor binding parameters using the nuclear exchange method, revealed a uterine receptor concentration of 228 ±17.6 pmol/1 and a dissociation constant of 2.80 ±0.24 nM. Nuclear receptor levels were found to ...


Black Scholars: Where Are You? A Five Year Study Of Black Scholarship In Black And Multicultural Mental Health Journals, Lynda Renee Smith May 1993

Black Scholars: Where Are You? A Five Year Study Of Black Scholarship In Black And Multicultural Mental Health Journals, Lynda Renee Smith

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

The present study was designed to examine the extent to which research articles focusing on Black/African Americans are published in Black and multicultural mental health journals. Study data shows these articles are few in number. Additionally, the number of such articles written by authors with an affiliation to Historical Black Institutions (HBI) and/or United Negro Colleges and Universities Member Institutions (UNCFMI) were examined. It was found that very few scholars publishing articles of this type were affiliated with HBI, while no UNCFMI scholars published articles in these journals. A content analysis of four journals published between 1988 and ...


An Evaluation Of Hands-On Instruction As A Method To Improve Observation Skills In Second Grade Students, Lydia Rogers May 1993

An Evaluation Of Hands-On Instruction As A Method To Improve Observation Skills In Second Grade Students, Lydia Rogers

Master's Theses

A hands-on assessment tool for testing second-grade students' ability to discriminate physical attributes (size, shape, color, texture, pattern, edge, part-to-whole, and type) of mollusk shells was developed, pretested, and administered to 48 second-grade students at Maybeury Elementary School, Henrico County, Virginia. Treatment group students (n = 24) attended five afterschool, activitybased classes in which close observation of object a~tributes was taught. The classes included the same discriminations as did the assessment test but used different materials. Control and test group students were retested. Neither paired t test nor question-by-question analysis showed a significant improvement in the test group's score ...