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Theses/Dissertations

1988

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Interactions Of Plasmid Dna With The Membranes Of Proteus Mirabilis, James Bernard Stukes Dec 1988

Interactions Of Plasmid Dna With The Membranes Of Proteus Mirabilis, James Bernard Stukes

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

The interactions of plasmid DNA with the membranes of Proteus mirabilis has been investigated under in vitro conditions. Analysis of the endogenous plasmid, NR1, the compatible plasmid, R6K, and the incompatible plasmid, R6- 5, on 5-20% neutral sucrose gradients, following the in vitro binding assay revealed binding to inner and outer membrane preparations. In competition experiments, R6K did not compete with NR1 for binding site(s). However, R6-5 successfully competed with NR1. Furthermore, high salts (0.2 M KCl or MgC12) inhibited the binding of NR1, R6K, and R6-5 to the membranes of P. mirabilis. However, 5-20% gradients containing salts ...


The Regulation Of Natural Killer Cell Activity By Interferons And Interleukin-2, Nathaniel Robinson Sr. Dec 1988

The Regulation Of Natural Killer Cell Activity By Interferons And Interleukin-2, Nathaniel Robinson Sr.

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

Natural killer (NK) cells were first described 16 years ago. Studies with athymic or neonatally thymectomized mice showed they had relatively low incidences of carcinogen-induced tumors and good resistance during the initial encounter with viral infection. These mice lacked mature T cells, but had normal or elevated numbers of cells able to lyse certain tumor cell lines without prior stimulation. Subsequent studies have shown that NK activity can be enhanced by cytokines, specifically by interferons (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL_2).

A second type of unrestricted tumor cell killing has been described. Lymphocytes, incubated overnight with IL-2, acquire the ability to kill ...


Early Events Of Lethal Action By Tobramycin In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Jane Elizabeth Raulston Dec 1988

Early Events Of Lethal Action By Tobramycin In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Jane Elizabeth Raulston

Doctoral Dissertations

The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substrate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 ug/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular component into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of 3H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence ...


Alpha And Pbm As Functional Indicators Of Aquatic Ecosystems, Barry J. Fry Dec 1988

Alpha And Pbm As Functional Indicators Of Aquatic Ecosystems, Barry J. Fry

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

The effect of PCB ' s , DDT, phosphorus and zooplankton density on the photosynthetic parameters Alpha and PBm was investigated . If these parameters prove reliable as functional indicators , their use may simplify the process of monitoring aquatic ecosystems. Unialgal cultures were used in experiments which involved the use of radioactive carbon labeling and an artificial light incubator .

Alpha and PBm increased in response to the addition of phosphorus in Anabaena flos-aquae cultures deficient in this nutrient and to increasing densities of Daphnia pulex in cultures of Chlorella vulgaris. DDT had a stimulatory effect on Alpha but not on PBm in Anabaena ...


An Analysis Of Topographic Effects On Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Using Digital Terain Data, Xiaomin Liu Dec 1988

An Analysis Of Topographic Effects On Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Using Digital Terain Data, Xiaomin Liu

Masters Theses

A comprehensive literature review on the simulation and corrections of topographic variations in remote sensing data was presented. The effects of topography on the scene radiance of LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) image were examined in the context of the remote sensing of vegetation m Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP).

To simulate the image intensity component due to varying orientation of surface elements, two reflectance models were adopted to generate the synthetic images from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Visual and analytical procedures were developed to register the TM image to the DEM data.

The dark tones of scene radiance ...


Effects Of The Addition Of Binder On The Packing Characteristics Of Pigment Particles, Rajesh K. Garg Dec 1988

Effects Of The Addition Of Binder On The Packing Characteristics Of Pigment Particles, Rajesh K. Garg

Master's Theses

This study describes in a quantitative manner the relationships between coating structure and optical properties. Scattering coefficient, gloss and pore volume were measured after applying different blends of polystyrene spheres using various amounts of binder to transparent Mylar film. The coatings were prepared using four proportions of two sizes of polystyrene spheres and varying amount of two binders, starch and latex respectively. Optical properties of coatings were related to changes in coating structure. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structure and to facilitate void size measurement. The void size distribution correlated very well with the scattering and ...


Receptor Localization And Distribution On Normal And Diabetic Cells By Electron Microscopy, Vance L. Kincaid Ii Dec 1988

Receptor Localization And Distribution On Normal And Diabetic Cells By Electron Microscopy, Vance L. Kincaid Ii

Master's Theses

The objective of this research was to evaluate receptor localization and distribution on normal and diabetic cells by electron microscopic analysis.

To achieve this objective, gold-adsorbed and ferritin-conjugated macromolecules were used to determine the location and concentration of specific receptor binding sites on the cells surfaces. To facilitate the use of these ultra-structural histocytochemical markers, normal and diabetic Chinese hamster and other nondiabetic cells were either grown in vitro on ultra thin plastic films or embedded in Lowicryl K4M and pre- or post-labelled with these marker molecules.

Analysis of the data obtained from electron micrographs of these labelled cells was ...


The Analysis Of Wiremark, Karen L. Birks Dec 1988

The Analysis Of Wiremark, Karen L. Birks

Paper Engineering Senior Theses

Wire Mark is the impression left on the paper web by its initial forming fabric. Wire Mark can be explained as differing levels of density in a sheet. By definition, the ideal formation is a sheet which has completely uniform density. Many changes have occurred in forming fabrics over the years to resolve this problem. The development of double and triple layer wires for a smoother surface have come about. This thesis takes these forming wires and further modifies the surfaces to reduce wire mark patterns. The action is analyzed by several common paper tests, along with the aid of ...


"Supercalendering: The Blackening Reaction And Its Effect On Strength And Optical Properties Of Rotogravure Paper", Valerie Bland Dec 1988

"Supercalendering: The Blackening Reaction And Its Effect On Strength And Optical Properties Of Rotogravure Paper", Valerie Bland

Paper Engineering Senior Theses

This senior engineering problem is the study of the mechanism of blackening and methods of measurement for blackening. The effect of blackening is the loss of color and opacity in the sheet. The loss of color results as a darker sheet. There are 3 major variables which cause blackening: moisture content, nip pressures, and roll temperatures. The increase in any of these variables results in blackening. In this experiment, the increase of moisture content produced the most significant blackening. The increase of pressure and increase of temperature produced slight blackening effects. The most blackened sheet occurred at 10% moisture, 200 ...


Activity Of Phosphofructokinase In Summer Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) Of Different Ages, Jeffrey F. Greeno-Shannon Sep 1988

Activity Of Phosphofructokinase In Summer Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) Of Different Ages, Jeffrey F. Greeno-Shannon

Biology Master’s Theses

Phosphofructokinase activity may be an indicator in the aging process of honey bees (Apis mellifera). This paper seeks to quantify phosphofructokinase activity in summer honey bees of different ages.

Honey bee flight muscle was utilized in tests for enzyme activity of phosphofructokinase at sequential stages of honey bee development. Homogenized honey bee flight muscle was ultracentrifuged and spectrophotometric measurements were made. This study found that the enzyme activity of phosphofructokinase of honey bees of different ages is low at day 0-1 and high from day 4-5 through 19-20 day old honey bees. This study lays a foundation for the study ...


A Series Of Laboratory Exercises For Use In Undergraduate Studies, Daniel Patrick Frank Sep 1988

A Series Of Laboratory Exercises For Use In Undergraduate Studies, Daniel Patrick Frank

Biology Master’s Theses

This paper focuses on developing appropriate laboratory exercises to support learning for undergraduate students in advanced biology courses. The researcher created a series of lab exercises: isolation of rat liver mitochondria, restriction enzymes laboratory, ultraviolet repair system laboratory, bacterial transformation, and hybridoma module. Each lab exercise includes a description of the educational goals/rationale, the factors considered in lab design, background information on the task, a detailed description of the sub-tasks, and detailed methods.


Sodium/Proton Exchange In The Gills Of Three Species Of Crabs : Libinia Dubia, Callinectes Sapidus, And Menippe Mercenaria, Nicholas J. Maiolo Aug 1988

Sodium/Proton Exchange In The Gills Of Three Species Of Crabs : Libinia Dubia, Callinectes Sapidus, And Menippe Mercenaria, Nicholas J. Maiolo

Master's Theses

Na+/H+ exchange was studied in plasma membrane vesicles from gills of three species of crabs: Callinectes sapidus (blue crab), Libinia dubia (spider crab), and Menippe mercenaria (stone crab). Spider crabs and stone crabs were acclimated to full (35ppt) seawater, while blue crabs were acclimated to both dilute (5ppt) and full strength seawater. Membrane vesicles were prepared by sucrose density centrifugation. Na+/H+ exchange was analyzed using acridine orange fluorescence. Male C. sapidus showed the most exchange activity (per g gill tissue), followed by M. mercenaria, female C. sapidus and Libinia dubia. No difference in exchange activity was evident when ...


A Reverse Genetics Approach For Studying Histone H4 Structure-Function Relationships In Yeast, Michael J. Bonaduce Aug 1988

A Reverse Genetics Approach For Studying Histone H4 Structure-Function Relationships In Yeast, Michael J. Bonaduce

Master's Theses

A previously constructed mutation of the histone H4 gene has been the subject of a detailed analysis. The mutation involves an H4 gene encoding two amino acid changes which substitute aspartic acid for glycine at positions 13 and 42 of the polypeptide. These substitutions result in a nonfunctional H4 protein when assayed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast, an analysis of an amino terminal deletion of amino acids 3-26 results in a functional H4 protein. Physical biochemistry studies identify the sites of histone-histone interactions between residues 38-102 of histone H4, the same area in which position 42 resides. The question being ...


A Rapid System For Analyzing Histone H4 Mutations In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Edward Rex Lakey Harkrader Aug 1988

A Rapid System For Analyzing Histone H4 Mutations In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Edward Rex Lakey Harkrader

Master's Theses

Genetically engineered, specific histone H4 mutations have been analyzed in yeast which lack normal H4 protein using the time consuming technique of tetrad dissection. The purpose of the present research project has been to develop a rapid new system for analyzing histone H4 mutations in yeast. The new system has made it possible to isolate quickly cells which are surviving on mutant H4 only. The system will make it possible to analyze more quickly large numbers of H4 mutations. It is termed a plasmid shuttle system because of the use of plasmid vectors for shuttling histone H4 alleles in and ...


Changing Adolescents' Food-Related Behavior Via Nutrition Education, Adrienne Adams White Aug 1988

Changing Adolescents' Food-Related Behavior Via Nutrition Education, Adrienne Adams White

Doctoral Dissertations

A nutrition education behavior change strategy for secondary health classes was developed, implemented, and evaluated with 159 adolescents in 6 schools. The experimental design was pretest/posttest, treatment/control group with two treatment groups--one receiving only the behavior change strategy (BC) and one receiving the strategy plus a traditional knowledge-oriented component (BC+). Fundamental concepts of the behavior change strategy included personalization, goal setting, self-management, self-implementation, structured feedback, and structured self-evaluation. Based on a personal nutrient analysis, each adolescent in a treatment group selected improvement of one nutrient as a goal. Effectiveness of the strategy was tested by changes made in ...


A Survey And Distributional Analysis Of The Park Coccoid Fauna Of The Great Smoky Mountains National Park And Evirons, John Keith Watson Aug 1988

A Survey And Distributional Analysis Of The Park Coccoid Fauna Of The Great Smoky Mountains National Park And Evirons, John Keith Watson

Masters Theses

This comprehensive study on the coccoids (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) resulted in the collection of fifty-three species representing six families from which seven new collection records for Tennessee were obtained. Six species were discovered that possibly represent new species. Analysis of distribution and host relationships are provided. Keys to the families, genera, and species are provided as well as descriptions of scale covers or tests and distinguishing morphological characters of the adult females.

A higher number of species were collected at lower elevational vegetative types and decreased inversely with elevation (y = 17.104 - 8 ...


The Importance Of Competition For Food Resources In The Interaction Between Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) And Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri), William E. Ensign Aug 1988

The Importance Of Competition For Food Resources In The Interaction Between Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) And Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri), William E. Ensign

Masters Theses

The last 80 years have seen a drastic reduction in the range of the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) the only salmonid native to the Southern Appalachians. Much of this range reduction is directly correlated with increases in the range of the introduced rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The purpose of this study was to determine if competition for food resources plays a significant role in this interaction.

Stomach contents were obtained from sympatric and allopatric populations of brook and rainbow trout during June, July, August and September of 1987. Terrestrials comprised the majority of food items in the stomachs of adult ...


Prediction Of Forest Type And Productivity Index On Disturbed Sites In Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Charlotte Pyle Aug 1988

Prediction Of Forest Type And Productivity Index On Disturbed Sites In Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Charlotte Pyle

Masters Theses

A study was conducted in a portion of the permanent vegetation plots established by Uplands Field Research Laboratory in Great Smoky Mountains. The plots were located in the northwestern portion of the park in the vicinity of Cades Cove and Tremont on sites previously disturbed by chestnut blight, logging, fire, farming activities, and livestock grazing. Estimated plot productivity, and data on vegetation, soils, and topographic parameters were available from previous study of these plots. The purpose of the present study was to develop methods to predict forest cover type and plot productivity index score using site and disturbance history-related factors ...


Myc And E1a Oncogenes Alter The Response Of Pc12 Cells To Nerve Growth Factor And Block Differentiation: A Thesis, Susan C. Schiavi Aug 1988

Myc And E1a Oncogenes Alter The Response Of Pc12 Cells To Nerve Growth Factor And Block Differentiation: A Thesis, Susan C. Schiavi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) by neuronal differentiation and partial growth arrest. Mouse c-myc and adenovirus E1A genes were introduced into PC12 cells to study the influence of these nuclear oncogenes on neuronal differentiation. Expression of myc and E1A blocked morphological differentiation and caused NGF to stimulate rather than inhibit cell proliferation. NGF binding to cell surface receptors, activation of ribosomal S6 kinase, and ornithine decarboxylase induction were similar in myc and E1A expressing clones compared with wild-type PC12 cells, suggesting that changes in the cellular response to NGF were at a post-receptor level. The ...


Effects Of Ammonia, Salinity And Oxygen On The Growth And Energetics Of The Grass Shrimp, Palaemonetes Pugio, Ahmad Mohammed Altayaran Jul 1988

Effects Of Ammonia, Salinity And Oxygen On The Growth And Energetics Of The Grass Shrimp, Palaemonetes Pugio, Ahmad Mohammed Altayaran

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The growth and energy budget of juvenile grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were examined under various combinations of ammonia, salinity and dissolved oxygen. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of multiple stresses on the growth and physiological processes of the shrimp. The experimental design also allowed an evaluation of the effectiveness of several techniques for determining the productivity potential of aquatic animals exposed to stress.

A flow-through system was used to produce combinations of ammonia concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 mg/l) and salinities (20, 25, 30 and 35 ppt) for 21-day tests. The tests were conducted at high ...


Molecular Study Of The B19 (Human) Pathogenic Parvovirus, Jamshed Ayub Jul 1988

Molecular Study Of The B19 (Human) Pathogenic Parvovirus, Jamshed Ayub

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The B19 (human) parvovirus is a small single stranded DNA virus of 5.4 kilobases. B19 is specific for erythroid progenitor cells and has been propagated in vitro only with human erythroid bone marrow. Replication of viral DNA and the viral protein products of B19 appear similar to those of other animal parvoviruses. However, B19 differs from other parvoviruses in some important aspects, which include the initiation of all transcripts at a strong left side promoter (p6) and the absence of a functional internal promoter. B19 has an unusual transcription map which is described in this study.

The transcription map ...


The Occurrence Of Fish Remains In Modern Lake Systems : A Test Of The Stratified-Lake Mode, Douglas R. Britton Jun 1988

The Occurrence Of Fish Remains In Modern Lake Systems : A Test Of The Stratified-Lake Mode, Douglas R. Britton

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Theories regarding the taphonomy of fishes in lacustrine environments have traditionally relied on an anoxic water column to explain the excellent preservation. This concept has never been directly tested in modern lacustrine environments that are thought to be analogous to the lacustrine environments predicted by the Stratified-lake Model. This research tested that model by searching for fish remains in 38 collected bottom samples of six modern lacustrine analogues, including Fayetteville Green Lake, New York. The bottom sediments of a warm, holomictic, shallow, and saline lake (Salton Sea, California) were also examined. Although laminated sediments were found in all of the ...


The Influence Of Job Characteristics On Organizational Commitment To Job Satisfaction Of Foodservice Employees, Carole M. Herman Jun 1988

The Influence Of Job Characteristics On Organizational Commitment To Job Satisfaction Of Foodservice Employees, Carole M. Herman

Masters Theses

The purpose in this study was to determine the relationship among job characteristics, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction of hospital foodservice employees. A 4-part questionnaire was developed including the 30-item Job Characteristics Inventory, 15-item Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, 6 items related to job satisfaction, and 7 demographic items. Separate written questionnaires were administered to 45 supervisors and 172 employees in dietary departments in 11 East Tennessee hospitals. Data from school and university setting was collected from previous studies.

The reliability for the instruments (Cronbach's alpha) was .89 for employees and .87 for supervisors. Multiple regression analyses were used to test ...


A Study Of Alkaline Sodium Sulfite Pretreatment Of Spruce During Thermomechanical Pulping, Nagaraju Dendukuri Jun 1988

A Study Of Alkaline Sodium Sulfite Pretreatment Of Spruce During Thermomechanical Pulping, Nagaraju Dendukuri

Master's Theses

A review of literature relating sodium sulfite pretreatment during thermomechanical pulping to pulp physical properties revealed many contradictions. Thermomechanical pulping variables were studied for their effect on pulp physical properties. An improvement in pulp physical properties was observed above 1% sodium sulfite treatment. Regression analysis and analysis of variance showed that there was a significant effect of sodium sulfite on the reduction of shive content, pulp brightness, and tear index. Fiber length, tensile, burst, and density were not found to be significantly affected by the amount of sodium sulfite. Sodium sulfite treatment during thermomechanical pulping showed a negative relationship with ...


A Pilot Plant Evaluation Of Selected Hardwood Pulps For Supercalendered Grade B Paper, Devendra Kumar Srivastava Jun 1988

A Pilot Plant Evaluation Of Selected Hardwood Pulps For Supercalendered Grade B Paper, Devendra Kumar Srivastava

Master's Theses

The proliferation of wood free printing and writing papers suggests the evaluation of hardwood kraft and chemithermomechanical pulps for the manufacture of uncoated rotogravure paper. In this study 100% aspen kraft, 100% eucalyptus kraft, and 50% aspen chemithermomechanical with 50% kraft pulps were used to produce rotogravure paper on as 32" trim Fourdriner paper machine under alkaline papermaking condition.

The machine runnability was smooth using 100% hardwood furnish for the production of rotogravure paper. The paper produced was found suitable for supercalender grade B applications, such as Sunday magazines, inserts, and flyers. The tensile index and tear index values were ...


The Effect Of Ph Variation On The Evolution Of Non-Condensible Gases From Hardwood Black Liquors, Gregory Allen Goode Jun 1988

The Effect Of Ph Variation On The Evolution Of Non-Condensible Gases From Hardwood Black Liquors, Gregory Allen Goode

Paper Engineering Senior Theses

A distillation process utilizing hardwood black liquor samples from Mead in Escanaba was used to determine the effect of ph on non-condensible gas evolution.

Ph was found to be highly negatively correlated to the volumetric production of non-condensible gas. The correlation for all the black liquor samples tested was found to be greater than -.990. This indicates that as ph increases the volumetric production of non-condensible gas decreases.

Ph was found to be more correlated to the effect of gas volume reduction in the ph range of I 1.5 to 12.5.

Non-condensible gases produced in the fifth and ...


Problems And Opportunities For The Republic Of China In Regard To Distant Water Tuna Fisheries, Chih-I Sha May 1988

Problems And Opportunities For The Republic Of China In Regard To Distant Water Tuna Fisheries, Chih-I Sha

Theses and Major Papers

The extension of fishery jurisdiction out to 200 miles from the baselines used to measure the territorial sea by most of the coastal states was the dominant event in global fisheries during the decade of the 1970s. In principle, under extended jurisdiction, the coastal states have the authority to eliminate economic waste and to reduce excessive fishing pressure; on the other hand, the distant water fishing states will have to curtail their fishing activities from the traditional fishing grounds off the coastal states. The Republic of China is a typical distant water fishing state, and is seriously impacted by the ...


Some Chemical And Physical Factors Influencing Growth Of Panus Stipticus Bulliard Ex Fries And Armillariella Mellea (Vahl Ex Fries) Karsten, James Robert Kirkland May 1988

Some Chemical And Physical Factors Influencing Growth Of Panus Stipticus Bulliard Ex Fries And Armillariella Mellea (Vahl Ex Fries) Karsten, James Robert Kirkland

Master's Theses

Two species of wood rotting fungi were used to investigate the possibility that growth-enhancing or inhibitory substances in woods from various trees are responsible for the distribution of these fungi in nature. Panus stipticus (Bulliard ex Fries) and Armillariella mellea (Vahl ex Fries) Karsten were cultured in the laboratory on blocks of wood from Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard, Juniperus virginiana L., Pinus taeda L. and Quercus rubra L. Panus stipticus grew well on the surface of the wood blocks; histological studies showed less penetration into the xylem of the softwoods than into that of Q. rubra. Armillariella mellea grew well ...


Patterns Of Singing By House Wrens With Respect To The Breeding Cycle, Michael H. Tove May 1988

Patterns Of Singing By House Wrens With Respect To The Breeding Cycle, Michael H. Tove

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I recorded the songs and studied the reproductive behavior of a population of marked House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) to identify patterns of singing and correlate them with behavioral contexts and stages of the breeding cycle. I found that House Wren singing could be organized into three hierarchical regimes: routine patterns of daily singing, context-specific patterns of singing and long-term fluctuations in singing rate throughout the breeding cycle. During routine daily singing, predictable structural changes occurred. Songs were clustered in discrete groups called bouts. The songs within a bout were more similar in structure than songs from different bouts. Although I ...


Winter Ecological Energetics Of Blue Grouse, Peter Jeffrey Pekins May 1988

Winter Ecological Energetics Of Blue Grouse, Peter Jeffrey Pekins

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated relationships between blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) winter habitat and blue grouse adaptive strategies and overwinter survival. Blue grouse metabolism, physical characteristics of use-trees and roost sites , microclimatic parameters at roost sites, daily winter energy costs, and specific energy-saving behaviors were studied. Blue grouse have a relatively low standard metabolic rate (SMR; 0.835 ml o2 · g-1 · hr-1) and lower critical temperature in comparison to other northern tetraonids . Metabolic rate did not significantly increase from -5 to -20 C. Ambient temperature (Tal and the square root of wind speed were significantly correlated with metabolic rate.

Blue grouse ...