Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Program Designed To Address Academic Failure Due To Alcohol Abuse, Frank James Plateroti Jan 2015

A Program Designed To Address Academic Failure Due To Alcohol Abuse, Frank James Plateroti

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

This project study addressed the problem of alcohol and binge drinking at a local rural college campus in the Northeast United States and the lack of an effective long-term academic intervention program to address the problem. The purpose of this research study was to determine the prevalence of the problem of the alcohol abuse problem and to develop a long-term program that would respond to the problem of repeat alcohol offenders. Guided by Mezirow’s transformative learning theory, which holds that transformational learning causes changes in a learner that significantly shift the pattern of a learner’s future experiences, this ...


A Cross-Sectional Study: Dietary Micronutrient Levels In Allied Health And Nursing Students, Grisseel A. Cruz-Espaillat Jan 2015

A Cross-Sectional Study: Dietary Micronutrient Levels In Allied Health And Nursing Students, Grisseel A. Cruz-Espaillat

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The adequate intake of micronutrients is important to maintain optimal health and prevent nutritional disorders and chronic disease. Studies have shown that medical students often reduce self-care behaviors and lack adequate dietary intake, leading to nutritional deficiencies. In this quantitative cross-sectional study, measurements of micronutrient levels in a sample of allied health and nursing students were compared to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) values. NutritionQuest Data-on-Demand System was used to analyze nutrients and food group intake. The postpositivist paradigm was used to examine how the independent and dependent variables relate to each other. Using a one-sample t test, a comparison of ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Association Between One-Carbon Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms And Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Mahmood Tazari Jan 2015

A Meta-Analysis Of Association Between One-Carbon Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms And Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Mahmood Tazari

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. The purpose of this quantitative, meta-analysis study was to examine one-carbon metabolism gene polymorphisms in a group of genes to determine their association with prostate cancer risk. The genetic epidemiology theory provided the framework for the study. The data collected were from published articles. From over 2,800 individual studies, 20 articles were retained for results and data abstraction, following the title, abstract screen, and full text screening in the second phase. The data were analyzed by a meta-analysis statistical method, combining the results from selected studies to estimate the overall ...


Oral Care Practice Guidelines For The Care-Dependent Hospitalized Adult Outside Of The Intensive Care Unit Setting, Cynthia Susan Drapal Jan 2015

Oral Care Practice Guidelines For The Care-Dependent Hospitalized Adult Outside Of The Intensive Care Unit Setting, Cynthia Susan Drapal

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Many nurses lack evidence-based knowledge to deliver appropriate oral care, view oral care in the care-dependent patient as a comfort measure, and give it a low clinical priority. An estimated 44%-65% of hospitalized care-dependent patients do not receive adequate oral care, an intervention that can prevent aspiration pneumonia or pneumonitis. The purpose of this project was to develop a policy for use of an oral assessment tool and evidence-based guidelines for oral care in hospitalized care-dependent adults outside of the intensive care unit setting at a regional health system in the Southeast United States. The project used the theoretical ...


Awareness Of Diabetes Risk Associated With Individuals 18 And Older, Rebecca Jane Boone Jan 2015

Awareness Of Diabetes Risk Associated With Individuals 18 And Older, Rebecca Jane Boone

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The risk of developing Type 2 diabetes is increasing at epidemic proportions, and is 12-17% higher in Marion County Florida than it is across the state, based on Florida Department of Health statistics. The purpose of this DNP project was to determine if awareness of individual risk of developing Type 2 diabetes through a questionnaire would result in high-risk participants agreeing to attend a diabetes prevention program (DPP) at a local medical clinic. The health belief model and Rosswurm and Larrabee's model for change were used as frameworks. The review of the literature showed that prevention programs were highly ...


Increasing Knowledge About Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency In The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Population, Maureen Ann Wentink Barta Jan 2015

Increasing Knowledge About Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency In The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Population, Maureen Ann Wentink Barta

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of the project was to increase awareness about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly among those with a familial history of genetic factor AATD; an additional goal was to understand its relationship to COPD. COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States, with more than half of COPD patients experiencing significant disabilities. Major causes for COPD include smoking, air pollution, secondary smoke, upper respiratory infections, hereditary factors, occupational factors, environmental factors, and socioeconomic factors. Genetic factors, however, also play a significant role in early onset COPD and in those ...


Sewer Overflows And The Vector Mosquito Proximity To Human West Nile Virus Infections, Andrea Simone Bowers Jan 2015

Sewer Overflows And The Vector Mosquito Proximity To Human West Nile Virus Infections, Andrea Simone Bowers

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

DeKalb and Fulton Counties, which share the metropolitan Atlanta area, have seen an increase in West Nile infected vector mosquitoes; the increase is associated with close proximity to combined sewer overflow facilities. Despite completion of the remediation system in 2008, the mosquito population testing positive for West Nile virus has increased each year from 2010 through 2012. Guided by the Geographical Information System framework and using spatial analysis and regression analyses, this study described and quantified the relationship between sewer system overflows and amplification of vector mosquitoes; an additional goal was to investigate their proximity to human cases of West ...


Correlation Analysis Of Climatic Variables, Migration And Dengue Cases In Southeast Florida, Brunilda Lugo Jan 2015

Correlation Analysis Of Climatic Variables, Migration And Dengue Cases In Southeast Florida, Brunilda Lugo

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Dengue fever is a debilitating, viral, mosquito-borne disease occurring in tropical and subtropical areas in the world. The majority of dengue cases in the United States were acquired in endemic areas by travelers or immigrants. However, in recent years, autochthonous (locally acquired) dengue cases have been diagnosed in Florida. The purpose of this study was to find an association between potential risk factors and the expansion of dengue fever in the United States. Guided by the eco-bio-social framework, which offers a broad assessment of risk factors for the illness, a retrospective design was used with archival data to correlate changes ...


Primary Factors Affecting Breastfeeding In African American Communities, Lowest Jefferson Jan 2015

Primary Factors Affecting Breastfeeding In African American Communities, Lowest Jefferson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Prior research has shown that African Americans are less likely than are Hispanics and Whites to breastfeed their children. Compounding this problem is the scarcity of research that examines African American's culture, perceptions, and beliefs about breastfeeding. This study was conducted to gain a greater understanding of the phenomenon of breastfeeding through the perspectives of African American mothers. Guided by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, this ethnographic study elicited African American mothers' perspectives on breastfeeding by examining what influenced their decision to breastfeed or not. This study took place in Washington State. Ten women recruited through ...


Evaluation Of The System Attributes Of Timeliness And Completeness Of The West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System' Nationaledss Based System, Rebecca Lee Fahey Jan 2015

Evaluation Of The System Attributes Of Timeliness And Completeness Of The West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System' Nationaledss Based System, Rebecca Lee Fahey

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Despite technological advances in public health informatics, the evaluation of infectious

disease surveillance systems data remains incomplete. In this study, a thorough

evaluation was performed of the West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System

(WVEDSS, 2007-2010) and the West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System NationalEDSS -Based System (WVEDSS-NBS; March 2012 - March 2014) for Category II infectious diseases in West Virginia. The purpose was to identify key areas in the surveillance system process from disease diagnosis to disease prevention that need improvement. Grounded in the diffusion of innovation theory, a quasi-experimental, interrupted, time-series design was used to evaluate the 2 data sets ...


Effect Of Neighborhood Features On Bmi Of African American Adolescents In South Los Angeles, Francisca Omelogo Obiora Jan 2015

Effect Of Neighborhood Features On Bmi Of African American Adolescents In South Los Angeles, Francisca Omelogo Obiora

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Childhood obesity is a major national and worldwide public health crisis. The occurrence of childhood obesity, caused to large extent by an imbalance between caloric intake and caloric expenditure, has increased in the last 30 years. Although the prevalence of obesity has stabilized in recent years, it remains a top public health concern in the United States, especially in urban centers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between diet, physical activity, and the built environment in relation to the mean body mass index (BMI) of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years living in South Los Angeles ...


Increasing Student Interest In Poultry Science Careers Through 4-H, Peggy Lynn Armstrong Jan 2015

Increasing Student Interest In Poultry Science Careers Through 4-H, Peggy Lynn Armstrong

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The demand for poultry science graduates to fill available positions in the poultry industry continues to increase. At the same time, there are not enough graduates to fill the positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of the poultry curriculum in the 4-H program and student recruitment through the 4-H program into the Poultry Science Department. The targeted populations were 4-H leaders who implement the poultry curriculum and university students who were currently studying poultry. Career development theories suggest that previous experiences during adolescence can be a major influence in future vocation choice. A mixed methods ...


Relationships Between A Prenatal Nutrition Education Intervention And Maternal Nutrition In Ethiopia, Divya Lakshmi Selvakumar Jan 2015

Relationships Between A Prenatal Nutrition Education Intervention And Maternal Nutrition In Ethiopia, Divya Lakshmi Selvakumar

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In Ethiopia, 17% of pregnant women ages 18-49 are malnourished and have low awareness of prenatal nutrition, which may relate to increasingly high rates of maternal and infant mortality. The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to determine the effects of a community-based prenatal nutrition education intervention program on maternal nutrition knowledge and attitudes in the Alaje district of Ethiopia. The theoretical framework was Sen's capability theory of poverty, in which opportunities can lead to well-being and promote economic development. Research questions focused on the relationships among 8 independent variables-age, income source, degree of program implementation, marital ...


Observations And Teachers' Perceptions Of The Implementation, Benefits, And Challenges Of Breakfast In The Classroom, Dixie Shaffer Jan 2015

Observations And Teachers' Perceptions Of The Implementation, Benefits, And Challenges Of Breakfast In The Classroom, Dixie Shaffer

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The federal government established nutrition assistance programs such as the School Breakfast Program and school districts have implemented Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) to improve participation rates, yet millions of low-income children do not partake in these programs. Thus, many school districts are failing to meet the nutritional needs of the low-income population, which can have negative effects on a child's healthy development. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to observe and explore teachers' perspectives regarding school breakfast implementation in a small school district in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Research questions examined experiences with ...


Acceptance And Uptake Of Influenza Vaccination By Health Care Workers, Leshonda Wallace Jan 2015

Acceptance And Uptake Of Influenza Vaccination By Health Care Workers, Leshonda Wallace

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Influenza is a preventable infectious disease, against which vaccination is the primary means of protection. Health care workers (HCW) are among the most vulnerable to the illness and are likely to be sources of infection transmission while caring for patients. Circumstantial evidence suggests higher rates of vaccination coverage by HCW will coincide with a lower incidence of influenza transmission, yet a gap remains in the literature regarding governing health agencies' (i.e., licensing boards, medical and nursing associations) influence on the influenza vaccination practices of their constituents. Moreover, discrepancies exist between governing health agencies' and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee ...


Electronic Benefit Transfer: Food Choices, Food Insecurity, And Type 2 Diabetes, Diana Louise Malkin-Washeim Jan 2015

Electronic Benefit Transfer: Food Choices, Food Insecurity, And Type 2 Diabetes, Diana Louise Malkin-Washeim

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this research was to examine food security for people with prediabetes participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), focusing on their food choice decisions and coping strategies over a 30-day benefit cycle that potentially increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional, quantitative design based on food choice process model constructs was used. SNAP participants (n = 36) with prediabetes, aged 21-70 years, were recruited as outpatients from Bronx Lebanon Hospital and completed self-reported questionnaires on demographics and health, food security, and food frequency. Descriptive statistics, Pearson chi square tests, and regression analysis were performed using ...


Uric Acid Level Is Associated With Postprandial Lipemic Response To A High Saturated Fat Meal, Roy Gail Cutler Jan 2015

Uric Acid Level Is Associated With Postprandial Lipemic Response To A High Saturated Fat Meal, Roy Gail Cutler

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Hyperlipidemia caused by a diet high in saturated fat can lead to visceral fat weight gain, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Being over-weight from visceral fat has been linked to increased risk of developing most age-related diseases and disability, along with a lower income potential and quality of life. However, researchers are just beginning to understand the biological mechanisms that regulate the conversion of excess calories into visceral fat storage rather than glycogen or muscle. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown a comorbid association between age-related diseases involving hyperlipemia and circulating levels of uric acid, but not a direct association. This study ...


Relationships Between Specific Health-Related Fitness Components And Standardized Academic Achievement Tests, Tona Wilson Jan 2015

Relationships Between Specific Health-Related Fitness Components And Standardized Academic Achievement Tests, Tona Wilson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In an attempt to meet monetary-driven mandates to improve student achievement test scores, administrators are replacing physical education activities with subject matter classes in many American schools. This practice negates the positive contributions of physical activity to academic performance and student fitness. Guided by self-efficacy theory, this study assessed the impact of optimal versus minimal physical fitness state on student academic achievement. The study sample included 5,416 9th grade students from the same school district who completed a minimum of 5 of the 6 components of the FITNESSGRAM tests, and who also completed the math and English language arts ...


Relationships Between The Coordinated School Health Program And Childhood Obesity In Tennessee, Tekeela Shonta Green Jan 2015

Relationships Between The Coordinated School Health Program And Childhood Obesity In Tennessee, Tekeela Shonta Green

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Childhood obesity rates have increased nationwide, but rates of childhood obesity are higher in Tennessee (TN). The Coordinated School Health (CSH) Program is a multicomponent approach designed to improve academics and health in children in Tennessee; however, researchers have not evaluated the 8 components of the plan and the impact it has on weight in children. The purpose of the study was to determine if a relationship existed between the Coordinated School Health Program and obesity in children. The conceptual framework for this study was Bandura's social cognitive theory. One hundred forty CSH coordinators in TN were surveyed and ...


Rural Year-Round Growing To Ameliorate A Possible Negative Effect From Climate Change, Kimberlie A. Brussa Jan 2015

Rural Year-Round Growing To Ameliorate A Possible Negative Effect From Climate Change, Kimberlie A. Brussa

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggested that, as the world population grows, food and water shortages will become even more serious issues (IPPC's 2014 predictions about the future effects of climate change (CC), Year-round growing (YRG) may provide a way for communities to extend growing seasons, expand local farm systems, and provide food year round. This case study included a detailed analysis of responses from representatives of all sectors of rural Mesa County, Colorado, regarding YRG and a local food and farm plan due to CC. The case was bounded by time (6 months of data collection ...


The Association Of Lead With Cataracts And Vision-Related Problems In Perimenopausal Women, Imogene Drakes Jan 2015

The Association Of Lead With Cataracts And Vision-Related Problems In Perimenopausal Women, Imogene Drakes

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Around the world, women are subject to an earlier incidence of cataracts, have a higher risk for cataracts, and also have a higher risk for other vision-related problems than men. Previous research has indicated an association between endogenous lead stored in long bones and cataracts in men over 60 years of age; however, a similar study in women did not reveal an association. This case control study was conducted to investigate whether perimenopausal mobilization of endogenous lead serves as a possible causative factor for women's generalized vision issues and cataract incidence in particular. Secondary data were gathered from 1 ...


The Association Of Gender And Socioeconomic Position With Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adolescents, Quentin Oliphant Jan 2015

The Association Of Gender And Socioeconomic Position With Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adolescents, Quentin Oliphant

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

This meta-analysis investigated the association of gender and socioeconomic position with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents. Public health professionals know the importance of physical activity level as a modifiable behavior; however, the literature has revealed that more research is needed on the association of sociodemographic variables like gender and socioeconomic position with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents. Using the physical fitness and health outcomes conceptual model as a guide, the overall effect sizes across studies were assessed as well as the moderators of study design, sample size, age, and country. A systematic review of literature identified a total of 18 peer-reviewed studies ...


Impact Of Whole Grain Consumption Compliance On Gluten Sensitivity And Bowel Health, Sarah Anne Roberts Jan 2015

Impact Of Whole Grain Consumption Compliance On Gluten Sensitivity And Bowel Health, Sarah Anne Roberts

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

While many health benefits have been associated with increased whole grain consumption, current researchers have not considered if the consumption of whole grains in currently recommended or higher amounts actually leads to health problems, specifically to a correlated increase in gluten sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine if diets high in whole grains or those that met the recommended daily intake of whole grains help minimize or increase gluten sensitivity, and when whole grains are consumed as recommended if they cause more harm than good. The theoretical basis for this quantitative, cross sectional design was the precaution ...


Quantitative Study Of Clostridium Difficile Incidence Related To Influenza And Antimicrobial Use, Eileen M. Yaeger Jan 2015

Quantitative Study Of Clostridium Difficile Incidence Related To Influenza And Antimicrobial Use, Eileen M. Yaeger

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In the United States, influenza causes approximately 36,000 deaths and over 200,000 hospitalizations each year with elderly most often affected. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is another major health care challenge and pressing public health issue associated with 14,000 deaths and over 335,000 hospitalizations annually. The use of antibiotics has been implicated in the development of CDI. This study's purpose was to test the relationship of seasonal influenza incidence and antiviral/antibiotic use in CDI development among hospitalized patients. Grounded in the epidemiologic wheel model of man-environment interactions, this retrospective observational study described and analyzed data ...


Herpes Virus Infections, Inflammatory Markers And Risk Of Developing T2dm And Cvd: An Analysis Of Nhanes With Adults, Aged 20-49, 1999-2010, Margarita Irizarry-De La Cruz Jan 2015

Herpes Virus Infections, Inflammatory Markers And Risk Of Developing T2dm And Cvd: An Analysis Of Nhanes With Adults, Aged 20-49, 1999-2010, Margarita Irizarry-De La Cruz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs), are among the most virulent and widespread pathogens; they affect 60-90% of the population worldwide. Substantial evidence indicates a possible association between pathogens and chronic disease. HSVs, among other viruses, have been associated with increased risk for inflammatory diseases. However, prior findings have been inconsistent on the role of infection in triggering autoimmune response and chronic disease. This study builds on the premise that pathogens can induce an inflammatory response and increase the risk for disease development. A representative U.S. sample from NHANES, a national population-based cross-sectional survey, was used to examine the relationship between ...


Examining Behavioral Reactivity And Cognitive Differences Within The Chc Theory Of Intelligence Among Children., Steven Matthew Jozwiak Jan 2015

Examining Behavioral Reactivity And Cognitive Differences Within The Chc Theory Of Intelligence Among Children., Steven Matthew Jozwiak

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Linking cognition and behavior has long been an area of interest to the field of psychology in its endeavors to understand what innate factors influence human behavior. To date, the majority of research linking emotional reactivity to cognition has focused on single areas of intellectual functioning on specific diagnostic profiles or learning disorders rather than a comprehensive comparison to cognitive profile typology. Nearly all the research conducted to date continues to define cognition and emotion as disparate entities, rather than exploring a more integrated view of emotion and cognition. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine cognitive profile ...


Germline Mutations In Chek1 And Chek2 In Women With Ovarian, Peritoneal, Or Fallopian Tube Cancer, Maria Isabel Harrell Jan 2015

Germline Mutations In Chek1 And Chek2 In Women With Ovarian, Peritoneal, Or Fallopian Tube Cancer, Maria Isabel Harrell

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy affecting women. Diagnosis often occurs late due to non-specific symptoms, but if detected early, there is excellent chance for survival. One of the most important risk factors is family history. Up to 24% of cases are due to inherited loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in the DNA damage response. The theory underlying hereditary cancers is Knudson's two-hit theory of cancer causation, where two hits are necessary for cancer to occur in an individual: one in the germline and one in the tissue. The genes, CHEK1 and CHEK2, are modulators of the DNA ...


Cortisol Levels And Voltage Conditions Of College Students, Adriana Steffens Jan 2015

Cortisol Levels And Voltage Conditions Of College Students, Adriana Steffens

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is a limited research base on low voltage brain conditions, which are characterized by electrical activity being measured at below 20 microvolts. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between saliva cortisol levels and voltage using an EGG in a college student population. Illuminating this relationship is important to inform how low voltage conditions can affect daily memory and cognitive functioning of undergraduate college students that may be a result of stress. The college student population may be vulnerable to the low voltage condition because of stress from the transition between teenage and adult life and ...


Albumin Levels In Hispanic Dialysis Patients With And Without Type Ii Diabetes, Hector Hernandez Jan 2015

Albumin Levels In Hispanic Dialysis Patients With And Without Type Ii Diabetes, Hector Hernandez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Albumin provides the vital scaffolding for growth and tissue repair and supports oncotic blood pressure and hemodynamics. In hemodialysis patients, albumin aids with fluid removal by drawing excess fluid from edematous tissues back into the blood where it can then be removed by a dialyzer. The hyperglycemia seen in dialysis patients with Type II diabetes progressively damages kidney glomeruli, which permits albumin seepage into the urine, thus lowering serum albumin. The conceptual framework underpinning this research is the van't Hoff theory of osmotic pressure. Under this framework, the solute-solvent relationship largely contributes to the osmotic movement of fluid. The ...


The Effects Of Barriers Toward Fighting Childhood Obesity Within Head Start, Vanessa Chaney Jan 2015

The Effects Of Barriers Toward Fighting Childhood Obesity Within Head Start, Vanessa Chaney

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Childhood obesity is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and poses a health care burden. Child care facilities serve at the forefront in fighting childhood obesity among preschoolers. Since 2009, a significant shift has occurred in studying child care settings among children aged 3-5 in North Carolina and South Carolina in response to the rising rates of obesity in this population. Some of the hypothesized determinants of childhood obesity among preschoolers in North Carolina and South Carolina are outdoor activity, staff behavior, center's size and location. The purpose of this study was to investigate if significant relationships exist between ...