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Association Between Maoa U Vntr Genetic Polymorphism And Aggression, Gender, And Race In Adolescents, Almaz Adair Johnson Jan 2020

Association Between Maoa U Vntr Genetic Polymorphism And Aggression, Gender, And Race In Adolescents, Almaz Adair Johnson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A genetic polymorphism found in the upstream region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene upstream variable number tandem repeat (u VNTR) has been shown to have an influence on aggression with mixed results. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the association between the u VNTR genetic polymorphism of the MAOA gene and aggression in an adolescent population 13–18 years of age. The conceptual framework was based on the biosocial model of antisocial behavior that indicates genes can influence aggressive behaviors with or without environmental influences. Data (N = 2506) from the National Longitudinal Adolescents and Adult ...


Unintended Consequences Of Dna Analysis Delays In North Carolina, Pamela Cook Woodard Jan 2019

Unintended Consequences Of Dna Analysis Delays In North Carolina, Pamela Cook Woodard

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The processing of DNA recovered from felony crime scenes often causes delays in trials of up to 3 years, calling into question defendants' rights to a speedy trial. Using Lewin's force field analysis as the theoretical framework, the purpose of this quantitative, comparative study was to compare the processing and reporting of results related to DNA testing in 4 states. Survey data were collected from state bar members (n=137), members of a professional law organization (n=149), and members of a state DNA laboratory (n=20). The purpose of this quantitative, comparative study was to determine whether these ...


Medication Adherence For Foster Children From The Perspective Of Foster Care Providers, Odette Boyd Jan 2019

Medication Adherence For Foster Children From The Perspective Of Foster Care Providers, Odette Boyd

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2015, over 427,000 children were in foster care and the largest population were in California's system. Of those children, more than 9,400 were prescribed psychotropic medications. Increases of psychotropic medication use have led to investigations and findings of medication oversights in foster care. Medication oversights included medication nonadherence, which was linked to an increase of problematic behaviors in foster children. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the issues of medication adherence for foster care providers who care for foster children of mild to chronic health concerns who were prescribed medications and experienced multiple ...


Associations Between Income, Acculturation, Country Of Origin, And Type Ii Diabetes Among African Immigrants To Ontario, Canada, Girma Aman Goshe Jan 2019

Associations Between Income, Acculturation, Country Of Origin, And Type Ii Diabetes Among African Immigrants To Ontario, Canada, Girma Aman Goshe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Diabetes has become a longstanding public health challenge around the world. Over the last 3 decades, the number of people with Type II diabetes (T2DM) has grown to an epidemic level in Canada. Prior research indicated African immigrants residing in Ontario, Canada experienced a 2-4 times higher prevalence of T2DM than Canadian-born individuals. The social determinants of health theoretical framework guided this study assessing the relationship of the risk factors with T2DM. A quantitative, cross-sectional design was employed using the 2007-2014 Canadian Community Health Survey data. The random sample included 1,526 African immigrants residing in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive, bivariate ...


Resilience Building In Biracial And Multiracial, Bisexual Adults: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Melissa Gale Swartz Jan 2019

Resilience Building In Biracial And Multiracial, Bisexual Adults: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Melissa Gale Swartz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Until recently, society and science often ignored, erased, and avoided bisexual women and men and individuals with biracial and multiracial identities, and rarely considered these identities simultaneously. Prior research has shown that some lesbians and gay people of color exhibit resilience against sexual minority stress due in part to an inoculating effect of exposure to racism earlier in life. However, little is known about the lived experience of thriving, resilient bisexual multiracial individuals. In the tradition of positive psychology and context of intersectionality theory, this qualitative study explored how multiracial bisexual individuals develop and maintain flourishing well-€being despite sociocultural ...


Domestic Violence And Demographic Variables As Predictors Of Resiliency Among Young Adults, Sylvanus O. Abraham Jan 2018

Domestic Violence And Demographic Variables As Predictors Of Resiliency Among Young Adults, Sylvanus O. Abraham

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

An increased understanding of resilience may determine how human psychological development can result in positive outcomes despite adversarial situations. However, current studies have not provided a relevant predictive model that can adequately predict resilience, particularly among young adults exposed to domestic violence. Based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, the purpose of this quantitative noncomparative study was to examine whether domestic violence, age, gender, ethnicity, individual emotional and physical abilities, types of domestic violence exposure, and frequency of domestic violence exposure could adequately predict resilience among young adults. Quantitative data were collected from 118 young adults in the Midsouth region ...


Individual Understanding Of The Risks Associated With Polypharmacy, Michelle Patricia Mchenry Jan 2018

Individual Understanding Of The Risks Associated With Polypharmacy, Michelle Patricia Mchenry

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

With many individuals experiencing multimorbidity, individuals are being prescribed more medications. Although there are benefits to taking medications to manage symptoms and treat disease processes, there are also risks to taking multiple medications. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore participants' understanding of the risks associated with practicing polypharmacy. Game theory, credibility theory, and belief bias were the conceptual frameworks used to explain how individuals experienced their care and being prescribed 5 or more medications. Eight participants residing in subsidized housing in a small Midwest city, who were taking 5 or more medications volunteered to take part in ...


Life Chaos As A Predictor Of Diet Quality In U.S. Adults, Heidi Barbara Buchert Egan Jan 2018

Life Chaos As A Predictor Of Diet Quality In U.S. Adults, Heidi Barbara Buchert Egan

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Poor diet quality is a source of morbidity and mortality within the United States. Previous researchers have examined psychosocial influences on diet; however, the relationship between life chaos, a psychosocial measure, and diet quality was not known. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to use the Life Chaos Scale and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 to collect data on life chaos and diet quality, consistent with the biopsychosocial model of health, from a sample of 103 U.S. adults. Regression analysis was used to construct a predictive model. According to the study results, life chaos was not a significant ...


Understanding Feeding Style And Young Children's Consumption Of Food, Mary W. Bean Jan 2018

Understanding Feeding Style And Young Children's Consumption Of Food, Mary W. Bean

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Due to increased rates of childhood obesity since 2010, researchers have examined family environmental factors and family influences on children's consumption of healthy foods. While previous research has examined how factors such as food presentation and the food intake of other family members can predict a child's body mass index, there has been little research examining whether parent factors predict the amount of healthy foods children eat. This quantitative survey study examined whether certain parent factors, specifically parents' attitudes about food, parents' feeding styles, and parents' attachment styles, predicted the amount of fruits and vegetables children ate. Understanding ...


Quantifying The Spectrum Of Depression, Octavious Bishop Jan 2018

Quantifying The Spectrum Of Depression, Octavious Bishop

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Walden University

College of Social and Behavioral Sciences

This is to certify that the doctoral dissertation by

Octavious Bishop

has been found to be complete and satisfactory in all respects,

and that any and all revisions required by

the review committee have been made.

Review Committee

Dr. Thomas Edman, Committee Chairperson, Psychology Faculty

Dr. Ricardo Thomas, Committee Member, Psychology Faculty

Dr. Joanna Bissell-Havran, University Reviewer, Psychology Faculty

Chief Academic Officer

Eric Riedel, Ph.D.

Quantifying the Spectrum of Depression

by

Octavious Bishop

MA, University of Texas at Austin, 2008

BS, University of Texas at Austin, 2001

Dissertation Submitted in Partial ...


Effect Of Attentional Capture And Cross-Modal Interference In Multisensory Cognitive Processing, Michael Jennings Jan 2018

Effect Of Attentional Capture And Cross-Modal Interference In Multisensory Cognitive Processing, Michael Jennings

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Despite considerable research, the effects of common types of noise on verbal and spatial information processing are still relatively unknown. Three experiments, using convenience sampling were conducted to investigate the effect of auditory interference on the cognitive performance of 24 adult men and women during the Stroop test, perception of object recognition and spatial location tasks, and the perception of object size, shape, and spatial location tasks. The data were analyzed using univariate analysis of variance and 1-way multivariate analysis of variance. The Experiment 1 findings indicated reaction time performance for gender and age group was affected by auditory interference ...


Impact Of The Zambian Agricultural Policy On Grain Trade, Onesphore Karuho Jan 2017

Impact Of The Zambian Agricultural Policy On Grain Trade, Onesphore Karuho

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The agricultural sector in Zambia is supported through the government use of public expenditure programs to spur the production and subsidize the consumption of key grains to stabilize prices. Previous research has documented the effects of public spending on agriculture in terms of food prices and food security. The effects of government spending on the trade of key grains, however, is not well understood. As such, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the impact of agricultural policy on the agricultural trade. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Zambian agricultural policy on grain trade. A ...


Perceived Threats To Food Security And Possible Responses Following An Agro-Terrorist Attack, Lamesha Lashal Craft Jan 2017

Perceived Threats To Food Security And Possible Responses Following An Agro-Terrorist Attack, Lamesha Lashal Craft

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks exposed vulnerabilities to U.S. homeland security and defense, leading U.S. officials to analyze threats to domestic and international interests. Terrorist attacks against food and water supplies (agro-terrorism), were deemed a national security threat because of the assessed fear, economic instability, and social instability that could occur following a food shortage. Research indicated a comprehensive response plan does not exist across the federal, state, and local levels of government to mitigate the public's possible responses to a perceived threat to food security and food shortages following an agro-terrorist attack. This ethnographic case ...


Strategies For Preventing And Mitigating The Effects Of Agro-Food Supply Chain Disruptions, Everjoyce Muzvondiwa Jan 2017

Strategies For Preventing And Mitigating The Effects Of Agro-Food Supply Chain Disruptions, Everjoyce Muzvondiwa

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Supply chain disruptions are detrimental to the performance of companies due to the associated loss of profitability and reduced sustainability. In 2016, organizations lost at least $1.2 million in a single supply chain disruption. Guided by the contingency theory of fit, the purpose of this exploratory multiple case study was to explore the strategies agribusiness managers use to prevent and mitigate the effects of disruptions in the agro-food supply chains. A total of 5 purposefully-selected agribusiness managers from Harare, Zimbabwe participated in semistructured interviews. Participants were senior agribusiness managers who implemented successful strategies for preventing and mitigating the effects ...


Evaluation Of The Brazilian Agrarian Reform Objective: Agricultural Production Yield Change, Tiffany Kwader Harbour Jan 2017

Evaluation Of The Brazilian Agrarian Reform Objective: Agricultural Production Yield Change, Tiffany Kwader Harbour

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Brazil has an active agrarian reform policy program, publicly organized by the federal government and publicly administered at the state level by the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform. The objective of the agrarian reform policy program is to retitle unproductive and underproductive rural lands to increase agricultural production and land use. Previous agrarian reform researchers have examined quantities of land redistributed, rural technology developments, and the impact of social movements on land redistribution, but a knowledge gap remains regarding the correlation of agricultural production yields in rural municipalities before and after policy program participation. The State of Cearà ...


Breast Cancer, Mana'olana/Hope, And The Experience Of Native Hawaiian Women, Karla Marie Calumet Jan 2017

Breast Cancer, Mana'olana/Hope, And The Experience Of Native Hawaiian Women, Karla Marie Calumet

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. A diagnosis of cancer is a stressful event that requires an individual to adapt to new stressors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the perceptions of mana'olana/hope and living with breast cancer among Native Hawaiian women. The conceptual framework of this phenomenological study was positive psychology. Data collection included in-depth interviews with 5 Native Hawaiian women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Data coding and analysis resulted in identification of 8 themes.

The themes included: (a) mana'olana /hope ...


The Effects Of Female Genital Mutilation On Women Of Sierra Leone, Nenneh Kalokoh Kalokoh Jan 2017

The Effects Of Female Genital Mutilation On Women Of Sierra Leone, Nenneh Kalokoh Kalokoh

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C), a common practice among Sierra Leonean women, carries significant psychological and physical risks. Prior to this study, a substantial need existed for inquiry of the experiences and belief systems within this cultural group to better understand the effects of FGM/C on women and girls. Guided by feminist theory and the theory of cultural relativism, the goal of this phenomenological study was to review the cultural perspectives and experiences of Sierra Leonean women who underwent FGM/C to investigate their concerns about safety and their perceptions of the practices. In addition, this study ...


Effect Of The National Accelerated Agricultural Inputs Access Subsidy Program On Fertilizer Usage And Food Production In Kakamega County, Western Kenya, Abednego Kiwia Mavuthu Jan 2017

Effect Of The National Accelerated Agricultural Inputs Access Subsidy Program On Fertilizer Usage And Food Production In Kakamega County, Western Kenya, Abednego Kiwia Mavuthu

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Despite 25 years of concerted efforts by African governments to adopt consistent policies for increasing food production, hunger and poverty are still prevalent in the continent. Using Bernanke's conceptualization of the credit channel theory of monetary policy, the purpose of this correlational study was to investigate whether a subsidy program, the National Accelerated Agricultural Inputs Access Program (NAAIAP), affected the rates of fertilizer usage and food production in Kakamega County, Western Kenya. Purposive stratified sampling was used to select 114 participants consisting of 72 farmers in each of the 2 groups: NAAIAP beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Participants completed a survey ...


Exploring The Impact Of Collective Bargaining Agreements On Employee Performance Management, Nana Gyesie Jan 2017

Exploring The Impact Of Collective Bargaining Agreements On Employee Performance Management, Nana Gyesie

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

As of 2014, union density in the United States had dropped compared to union density during the 1950s. Collective bargaining agreements are the foundational agreement for all issues related to salary, benefits, and working conditions. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore how collective bargaining agreements hindered or enabled managers from creating and sustaining high performance work practices. The conceptual framework included Walton and McKersie's work on behavioral theories for labor negotiations, human capital, and collective bargaining, and Huselid's work on high performance work practices. Fifteen respondents across 5 labor unions in Washington DC were ...


Defense And Prosecuting Attorney Perceptions Of Facility Dogs In The Courtroom, Kristy Melissa Donaldson Jan 2017

Defense And Prosecuting Attorney Perceptions Of Facility Dogs In The Courtroom, Kristy Melissa Donaldson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Attorneys must obtain evidence for purporting their position on a court case. Many factors are considered when working with witness testimony such as age, development, narrative recall, and retraumatization. Research has detailed the hardship of obtaining evidence during witness testimony and the importance of support systems to help with the process. Existing research illustrates the stressors caused by the court processes, witness fear, and difficulty for attorneys to ascertain testimony. Therapeutic animals have been well researched and shown to have an important support role in many professions and situations. Additionally, much has been written regarding the use of varying types ...


Subsistence Farmers' Perceptions Of Pluralistic Agriculture Extension In Northern Ghana, Amos Kwame Egyir Baah Jan 2017

Subsistence Farmers' Perceptions Of Pluralistic Agriculture Extension In Northern Ghana, Amos Kwame Egyir Baah

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2013, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of the Republic of Ghana implemented a reformed food and agriculture sector development policy (FASDEP II) to reduce poverty among the poorest subsistence farmers in the nation. These extension efforts have been unsuccessful. The purpose of this ethnographic case study was to understand the perceptions of subsistence farmers in the Savelugu-Nanton District (SND) who participated in FASDEP II on how the program had affected their ability to meet their subsistence needs. The theoretical framework of collaborative advantage was used to analyze farmers' opinions of how the decentralized, pluralistic extension policy did or ...


Equine Assisted Activities And Therapies: The Measuring Of Equine Temperament, Thecla M. Helmbrecht Howard Jan 2016

Equine Assisted Activities And Therapies: The Measuring Of Equine Temperament, Thecla M. Helmbrecht Howard

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The field of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) is growing in popularity as an alternative healing approach. However, there is a paucity of peer-reviewed research on the horses who serve as equal partners in EAAT. The purpose of this quantitative study was to discover the impact of equine-facilitated therapeutic activities on the temperament of horses, and to determine how to select a better human-to-horse therapeutic match when providing EAAT services. The theoretical framework for this research drew from Romanes' theory of animal intelligence, which predicts that temperament would change as a result of prolonged participation in specific work (EAAT ...


Equine Facilitated Psychotherapy For Veteran Survivors With Full Or Partial Ptsd, Mark Aaron Mayfield Jan 2016

Equine Facilitated Psychotherapy For Veteran Survivors With Full Or Partial Ptsd, Mark Aaron Mayfield

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Symptom severity among veteran survivors with partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continues to increase, with approximately 40% of U.S. veterans reporting significant symptomology 10 years after initial onset of the condition. Veteran survivors often struggle to find therapeutic interventions that meet their specific needs and have a difficult time maintaining a therapy that is both equitable and evidenced based. Grounded in the Rogerian, client-centered theory, the purpose of this qualitative collective exploratory case study was to explore the effects of equine-facilitated psychotherapy with 3 veteran survivors with partial or full PTSD. A 4-stage process was used to ...


Short Term Memory Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists, Samuel Maldonado Jan 2016

Short Term Memory Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists, Samuel Maldonado

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

This study examined the short term memory (STM) difference of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists versus non-MRI technologists. Human and animal studies have indicated that residual magnetic fields have caused changes within the cerebral structure. Research on residual magnetic fields and their effect on STM is still at its infancy. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine if any significant difference existed between the STM of MRI technologists (n = x) and a control population sample (n = x). The STM of both groups was assessed with the use of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-Third Edition. Solicitation of the participants was from ...


Influences Of Nutritional Food Label Understanding In African-American Women With Obesity, Cynthia Jean Hickman Jan 2016

Influences Of Nutritional Food Label Understanding In African-American Women With Obesity, Cynthia Jean Hickman

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Nutritional food label understanding (NFLU) in African American Women (AAW) is a philosophy that addresses obesity. Public health efforts have implemented nutritional and caloric information to packaged and restaurant foods to improve nutrient and calorie literacy. Research suggest NFLU might have a minimal effect on reducing obesity. However, it is not known how obese AAW born during the baby-boom era (51 to 64 years of age) perceive NFLU in relation to their dietary behaviors. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the lived experience of obese AAW regarding NFLU from a cognitive and behavioral perspective. Twelve, AAW answered ...


Public Health Leaders' Perceptions Of And Attitudes Concerning Eating Disorders, Karin L. Lightfoot Jan 2016

Public Health Leaders' Perceptions Of And Attitudes Concerning Eating Disorders, Karin L. Lightfoot

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Eating disorders are associated with high mortality rates. Most eating disorder prevention research is conducted within the fields of psychology and psychiatry, not in public health. This gap in public health research can lead to insufficient attention to the root causes of eating disorders and minimal upstream prevention efforts. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify public health leaders' perceptions of and attitudes concerning eating disorders as a public health issue. Objectification theory was used to describe how societal expectations have created an environment in which people's self-worth is based on their outward physical appearance. Ecological theory ...


The Relationship Between Nutrient Intake And Social Emotional Functioning In Preschool Children, Tracy L. Daniel Jan 2016

The Relationship Between Nutrient Intake And Social Emotional Functioning In Preschool Children, Tracy L. Daniel

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Mental health disorders are rising in children and being referred to as an epidemic. Numerous studies have shown micronutrient deficiencies and poor diet quality are suspected of playing a contributory role in the escalation of certain disorders. However, there is no research in young children focusing specifically on social emotional disorders and possible links to nutrition. Conventional treatment for social emotional disorders in children typically involves medication. Parents are increasingly turning to complementary and alternative medicine to treat their children with a method that is individualized and holistic. The biopsychosocial model provided the theoretical framework for this correlational study that ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Policies On Production Efficiency Of Nigeria's Rice Economy, Samuel Chukwueyem Rapu Jan 2016

Evaluating The Impact Of Policies On Production Efficiency Of Nigeria's Rice Economy, Samuel Chukwueyem Rapu

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Nigeria, like all other rice consuming nations, has experienced a surge in domestic demand for rice since 1970. However, local rice production has not been sufficient to meet local demand, leading to this demand continually being filled by imports. The Federal Government of Nigeria has initiated subsidies programs intended to improve Nigerian rice farmers' technical and cost efficiency levels. This quantitative study evaluated the impact of these policies on the technical and cost efficiency levels of paddy rice farm households in Nigeria. Farrell's (1957) efficiency theory and production theory served as the theoretical frameworks. Data were collected from a ...


Relationships Between A Prenatal Nutrition Education Intervention And Maternal Nutrition In Ethiopia, Divya Lakshmi Selvakumar Jan 2015

Relationships Between A Prenatal Nutrition Education Intervention And Maternal Nutrition In Ethiopia, Divya Lakshmi Selvakumar

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In Ethiopia, 17% of pregnant women ages 18-49 are malnourished and have low awareness of prenatal nutrition, which may relate to increasingly high rates of maternal and infant mortality. The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to determine the effects of a community-based prenatal nutrition education intervention program on maternal nutrition knowledge and attitudes in the Alaje district of Ethiopia. The theoretical framework was Sen's capability theory of poverty, in which opportunities can lead to well-being and promote economic development. Research questions focused on the relationships among 8 independent variables-age, income source, degree of program implementation, marital ...


Relationships Between Specific Health-Related Fitness Components And Standardized Academic Achievement Tests, Tona Wilson Jan 2015

Relationships Between Specific Health-Related Fitness Components And Standardized Academic Achievement Tests, Tona Wilson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In an attempt to meet monetary-driven mandates to improve student achievement test scores, administrators are replacing physical education activities with subject matter classes in many American schools. This practice negates the positive contributions of physical activity to academic performance and student fitness. Guided by self-efficacy theory, this study assessed the impact of optimal versus minimal physical fitness state on student academic achievement. The study sample included 5,416 9th grade students from the same school district who completed a minimum of 5 of the 6 components of the FITNESSGRAM tests, and who also completed the math and English language arts ...