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Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram Jan 2020

Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Microcystins (MCs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. Algal bloom subsidence can stimulate MC release, which can impair liver function if orally exposed to in large doses. The purpose of this retrospective, U.S. ecological study was to determine if MC exposure represented an environmental risk factor for liver disease mortality using a socioecological approach. A longitudinal ecological substudy investigated the association between average total MCs in Lake Washington and Lake Manatee and age-adjusted chronic liver disease (CLD)/cirrhosis death rates in Brevard County and Manatee County, Florida (FL). A prediction model of total MCs was deduced by ...


Predictors Of Nutritional Status Among U.S. Adults, Erum Syed Jan 2019

Predictors Of Nutritional Status Among U.S. Adults, Erum Syed

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the reasons underlying poor nutritional status among adults in the United States (US) and to provide research findings that can be used to develop programs and policies to help improve nutritional status in the US. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset and the correlational quantitative study design were used to explore the associations between food security, household smoking, and demographics and nutritional status. The social ecologic theory, specifically the social ecology of health as it relates to interventions, was used as the study's theoretical framework. The ...


Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe Jan 2019

Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breast cancer is a world health problem and is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. However, breast cancer risks were reported to be reduced through exposure to Vitamin D through its Receptors identified as the p53 target gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms knowledge/awareness and decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening among women in Texas. Data from survey were used. Roy adaptation model was the theoretical framework that guided this quasi- experimental, quantitative research. The dependent variables were decisions ...


The Role Of Glucose Level On The Performance Of The Framingham Risk Score, Uohna June Thiessen Jan 2019

The Role Of Glucose Level On The Performance Of The Framingham Risk Score, Uohna June Thiessen

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for more deaths than any other disease, continue to threaten the quality of life for many, and is a major burden to the health care system. The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) identified the major CVD risk factors that became essential to effective CVD screening strategies and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), is used to assess CVD risk. Based on the concepts of the health behavior model and CVD as a cardiometabolic disorder, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and a CHD event, and to determine ...


The Impact Of Lemongrass, Oregano, And Thyme Essential Oils On Candida Albicans' Virulence Factors, Jennifer Marie Eddins Jan 2018

The Impact Of Lemongrass, Oregano, And Thyme Essential Oils On Candida Albicans' Virulence Factors, Jennifer Marie Eddins

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Increased systemic infections and growing resistance of Candida species in immunosuppressed people have prompted research for additional treatment options. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the potential of lemongrass, oregano, and thyme essential oils tested individually, combined, and combined with the antifungal agents fluconazole and caspofungin to kill Candida albicans isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. This study was grounded on the theoretical concepts of the epidemiologic triangle model. The experimental data collected were used to investigate risk factors related to age, gender, race, and comorbidities. Kill rates of lemongrass, oregano, and thyme essential oils individually and ...


Waterborne Disease Reduction Using Evidence-Based Microbiology Verification In Lower Nyakach, Kenya, Richard R. Blodgett Jan 2018

Waterborne Disease Reduction Using Evidence-Based Microbiology Verification In Lower Nyakach, Kenya, Richard R. Blodgett

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Waterborne diseases continue to plague the poorest people in low-income countries and are estimated to cause 4,600,000 acute incidents of diarrhea resulting in over 2,000 deaths daily. A major challenge is performing microbiology tests to monitor drinking water quality. Friends of the Old (FOTO) implemented a novel strategy using evidence-based microbiology to educate communities about the relationship between contaminated water and disease. Two commercially available tests for E.coli, adapted for fieldwork, provided easily interpreted results of contamination that correlate with WHO's disease risk categories. Simple and effective household water treatment options 'solar pasteurization and/or ...


Oral Glucose Insulin Secretion Test For Identifying Patients With Insulin Resistance, David Kershner Jan 2018

Oral Glucose Insulin Secretion Test For Identifying Patients With Insulin Resistance, David Kershner

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Insulin resistance is an increasing public health issue with the current literature, suggesting reduced sensitivity of insulin leads to adult onset diabetes and associated downstream pathologies that reduce life expectancy. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of the Oral Glucose Insulin Secretion Test (OGIST) to identify insulin resistance and examine differences in the insulin sensitivity based on gender, age, and ethnicity. This study was supported by the insulin resistance theory which focuses on the reduced ability of insulin to bind to the cellular insulin receptor, reducing the sensitivity of insulin. The OGIST lab results of ...


Education Models For Teaching Adults About Modifying Dietary Carbohydrate And Controlling Weight, Vincient Cleamons Jan 2018

Education Models For Teaching Adults About Modifying Dietary Carbohydrate And Controlling Weight, Vincient Cleamons

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The prevalence of diabetes and other pathophysiological conditions has been correlated with the incidence of obesity. A large portion of an adult community in the northwestern United States suffers from excessive weight that has been linked to premature mortality rates and certain forms of diabetes. Excess calories from carbohydrate have been shown to increase weight. Therefore, diets that are modified in carbohydrate and calories may help mitigate weight and obesity comorbidities. This qualitative, single case study's purpose was to explore the methods health care professionals use for teaching adults about controlling weight. Altheide and Johnson's analytic realism theory ...


Immunoglobulin Therapy And Primary Immunodeficient Patients' Health-Related Quality Of Life And Well-Being, Niedre Heckman Jan 2018

Immunoglobulin Therapy And Primary Immunodeficient Patients' Health-Related Quality Of Life And Well-Being, Niedre Heckman

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Individuals born with primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDD) have a dysfunctional immune system, and many are treated by lifelong injections of immunoglobulin therapy. Studies have shown that these patients have low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and well-being (WB) and that these outcomes might be improved by the availability of therapy innovated according to preferences for fewer needle sticks or a shorter infusion time. Regulators at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved therapies innovated per these preferences. However, there is limited data demonstrating how these innovations impact HRQOL and WB. Using the biopsychosocial model, the purpose ...


Association Of Dietary Intake With Suicidal Ideation Or Suicide Attempts In Adolescents, Zenobia J. Bryant Jan 2018

Association Of Dietary Intake With Suicidal Ideation Or Suicide Attempts In Adolescents, Zenobia J. Bryant

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Suicide is among the leading cause of adolescent deaths worldwide and thus a significant public health concern. Risk factors for suicidal behavior include drinking alcohol, smoking, and engaging in risky sexual behaviors. One area of concern is dietary patterns and their association with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Bandura's social cognitive theory emphasizes the assumption that one can perform specific actions to bring about desired outcomes. The primary research questions for this quantitative, retrospective, cross-sectional study concerned whether there is a statistically significant interaction between fruit and vegetable intake and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Data from 71,776 ...


Understanding Feeding Style And Young Children's Consumption Of Food, Mary W. Bean Jan 2018

Understanding Feeding Style And Young Children's Consumption Of Food, Mary W. Bean

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Due to increased rates of childhood obesity since 2010, researchers have examined family environmental factors and family influences on children's consumption of healthy foods. While previous research has examined how factors such as food presentation and the food intake of other family members can predict a child's body mass index, there has been little research examining whether parent factors predict the amount of healthy foods children eat. This quantitative survey study examined whether certain parent factors, specifically parents' attitudes about food, parents' feeding styles, and parents' attachment styles, predicted the amount of fruits and vegetables children ate. Understanding ...


Nutrition Services, Viral Suppression, Cd4, And Retention In Ryan White Program Participants, Theresa Jumento Jan 2017

Nutrition Services, Viral Suppression, Cd4, And Retention In Ryan White Program Participants, Theresa Jumento

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) provides HIV-related medical and support services for uninsured and underinsured people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States. In addition to HIV-related medical care, the program provides medical nutrition therapy and food assistance. The role of nutrition in the health of PLWH is well-documented, especially in resource poor areas; however, the role of medical nutrition therapy and food assistance provided through the RWHAP in resource rich areas is not well documented. This study addressed the association between the nutrition services of food assistance and medical nutrition therapy and the HIV-related health outcomes ...


Assessing For Awareness And Knowledge Regarding Diabetes In Pre-Diabetes Obese Patients, Remona Lysa Brown Jan 2017

Assessing For Awareness And Knowledge Regarding Diabetes In Pre-Diabetes Obese Patients, Remona Lysa Brown

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Over the past few decades, there has been an increase in prevalence of diabetes in the United States. Prevention of diabetes and improving patients' knowledge and awareness of diabetes are crucial for healthcare providers. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical foundation, the student used the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to improve awareness and knowledge of diabetes among obese individuals with prediabetes. The key research question of this project was to determine whether the patients' diabetes knowledge and awareness improved after the NDPP program. A convenience sample of ...


Culturally Competent Nutrition Counseling And Health Outcomes Of Patients On Emergency Dialysis, Edlyn Geraldine Bustamante Jan 2017

Culturally Competent Nutrition Counseling And Health Outcomes Of Patients On Emergency Dialysis, Edlyn Geraldine Bustamante

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Undocumented end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in the United States only have access to emergency dialysis. To compensate for the lack of regular dialysis these patients must follow strict renal dietary restrictions. However, nutrition counseling by a dietitian is not part of the renal management of patients on emergency dialysis. The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental treatment-control study was to assess how the application of nutritional counseling that is both culturally and linguistically competent affects dialysis frequency and biochemical lab values such as serum potassium, phosphorus, and vitamin D of patients in emergency dialysis. The study was grounded on ...


Paths To Tier 1 Genomics Implementation: A Survey Of Chronic Disease Directors, Amy Ponte Jan 2017

Paths To Tier 1 Genomics Implementation: A Survey Of Chronic Disease Directors, Amy Ponte

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although evidence is currently available for population-based genetic screening and testing of individuals and their family members for certain hereditary chronic disease conditions (Tier 1), few states have integrated these genomic applications into chronic disease prevention programs. State and territorial chronic disease directors (CDDs) could provide the leadership needed to deliver these applications in more states. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between current chronic disease genomics funding or specific state genomic activities and the level of knowledge and interests in genomics by these directors. Rogers's diffusion of innovations (DIT) theory was used ...


Using Multi-Theory Model To Predict Low Salt Intake - Nigerian Adults With Hypertension, Christine Adekemi Dokun-Mowete Jan 2017

Using Multi-Theory Model To Predict Low Salt Intake - Nigerian Adults With Hypertension, Christine Adekemi Dokun-Mowete

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Hypertension is a chronic non-communicable disease and a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, renal malfunction, disability, and premature death. One of the public health recommendations for the management of hypertension is the reduction of sodium/salt intake. There is need to develop and implement new evidence-based theoretical interventions to initiate and sustain behavior change in health education and promotion. Therefore, the quantitative cross-sectional method and design was used to investigate the adequacy of multi-theory model (MTM) constructs for the initiation and the sustenance of low sodium/salt intake behavior in hypertensive Nigerian adults. In addition, the impact of the ...


The Association Between Dietary Flavonoid Intake And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Systemic Inflammation, And Comorbidity Burden, Tennador Sanderson Jan 2017

The Association Between Dietary Flavonoid Intake And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Systemic Inflammation, And Comorbidity Burden, Tennador Sanderson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Dietary habits may have an impact on COPD through anti-inflammatory mechanisms. For this cross-sectional secondary data analysis study, the advanced model of the epidemiology triangle was used as a guide to assess the association between total daily flavonoid intake and COPD diagnosis, COPD severity, systemic inflammation, and comorbidity burden. Data from over 5,100 male and female participants aged 30 and older were obtained from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of COPD was 5.2% according to spirometry ...


Risk Factors Associated With Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Cases, Ryan Gatdula Ortiguerra Jan 2016

Risk Factors Associated With Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Cases, Ryan Gatdula Ortiguerra

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The close proximity of the United States to the Mexican border poses a concern for communicable diseases because of the high flow of population movement. The purpose of this retrospective, quantitative study was to identify risks associated with respiratory diseases using an analysis of archived data from the Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) surveillance program. Based on the epidemiologic triangle theory, demographic and etiologic factors were analyzed to examine any associations with SARI in this population. Between 2010 and 2012, 798 subjects enrolled in this program, with 336 (42.1%) testing positive for respiratory pathogens. Chi square analysis determined that ...


Time To Diagnosis Of Second Primary Cancers Among Patients With Breast Cancer, Edward Okezie Irobi Jan 2016

Time To Diagnosis Of Second Primary Cancers Among Patients With Breast Cancer, Edward Okezie Irobi

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Many breast cancer diagnoses and second cancers are associated with BRCA gene mutations. Early detection of cancer is necessary to improve health outcomes, particularly with second cancers. Little is known about the influence of risk factors on time to diagnosis of second primary cancers after diagnosis with BRCA-related breast cancer. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the risk of diagnosis of second primary cancers among women diagnosed with breast cancer after adjusting for BRCA status, age, and ethnicity. The study was guided by the empirical evidence supporting the mechanism of action in the mutation of BRCA leading ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Vaccine Responses To Francisella Tularensis Or Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Rebecca Ann Erwin-Cohen Jan 2016

Transcriptome Analysis Of Vaccine Responses To Francisella Tularensis Or Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Rebecca Ann Erwin-Cohen

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The lack of vaccines for emerging and re-emerging diseases highlights technical gaps and indicates a need for innovative approaches to produce new vaccines. Vaccines may be improved by knowledge of host responses to vaccination, disease pathogenesis, and the effect of age and genetics on vaccine outcome. This study's purpose was to quantitatively assess the molecular epidemiology of Francisella tularensis (Ft) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Study results support the Epidemiology Nexus model which holds that association of changes in gene expression to vaccination facilitate understanding the mechanisms of immune development and link public health and disease epidemiology. My ...


Incidence And Factors Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ani K. John Jan 2016

Incidence And Factors Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ani K. John

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common hepatic diseases worldwide, making the diagnosis and management of NAFLD an emerging public health issue. Theories associated with NAFLD surmise that inflammation may be the root cause, along with the complex interplay of other chronic conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unknown if other inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), along with the use of methotrexate (MTX), might confer increased risk for NAFLD. Longitudinal data collected from a retrospective cohort of 17,481 adult RA patients in the United ...


Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader Jan 2016

Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Widespread consumption of canned tuna fish since the 1950s may explain some of the increase in breast cancer prevalence in the United States and Europe. Although canned tuna is the primary source of human exposure to methylmercury, its role as an estrogen activating metalloestrogen has been overlooked in the etiology and incidence of breast cancer. Carcinogenic theory asserts that increased exposure to estrogen elevates the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this population-based, case control study was to examine the association between canned tuna consumption, total blood mercury, and breast cancer in the NHANES 2003-2006 surveys. A multivariable logistic ...


Acculturation, Inflammation, And Depression Among Hispanic Adults In The United States, Kristin Marie Marano Jan 2016

Acculturation, Inflammation, And Depression Among Hispanic Adults In The United States, Kristin Marie Marano

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Disparities exist in the recognition and treatment of depression among Hispanics in the United States, creating a social, ethical, economic, and public health burden. This study was designed to generate an improved understanding of the causes of and/or contributors to depression within this population. It was specifically designed to 1) assess the prevalence and severity of depression among Hispanic adults in the United States relative to adults of other race/ethnicities in the United States; 2) clarify the inconsistent results in the literature concerning the relationship between acculturation and depression among Hispanic adults in the United States; and 3 ...


Evaluation Of Active And Passive Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems In Katsina State, Nigeria, Shafique Sani Nass Jan 2016

Evaluation Of Active And Passive Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems In Katsina State, Nigeria, Shafique Sani Nass

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was guided by the Mosley and Chen's model for the elements of child survival in developing countries. The goals of the study were twofold: (a) to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina state, Nigeria and (b) to assess the associations between selected NNT risk factors, number of maternal tetanus toxoid injections, frequency of antenatal visits, place of delivery ...


The Association Of Cancer Development In Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rose Michelle Coley Jan 2016

The Association Of Cancer Development In Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rose Michelle Coley

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The Association of Cancer Development in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by

Rose Michelle Coley

MPH, Walden University, 2011

BS, University of Mount Olive, 2008

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Public Health

Walden University

March 2016

Both cancer and autoimmune diseases have been associated with numerous factors that may independently lead to the development of either disease. When these factors overlap the difficulty in assessing association is compounded. The numerous factors that are thought to cause systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which leads to the development of cancer, makes the study ...


Public Health Leaders' Perceptions Of And Attitudes Concerning Eating Disorders, Karin L. Lightfoot Jan 2016

Public Health Leaders' Perceptions Of And Attitudes Concerning Eating Disorders, Karin L. Lightfoot

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Eating disorders are associated with high mortality rates. Most eating disorder prevention research is conducted within the fields of psychology and psychiatry, not in public health. This gap in public health research can lead to insufficient attention to the root causes of eating disorders and minimal upstream prevention efforts. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify public health leaders' perceptions of and attitudes concerning eating disorders as a public health issue. Objectification theory was used to describe how societal expectations have created an environment in which people's self-worth is based on their outward physical appearance. Ecological theory ...


Adventist Affiliation And Type 2 Diabetes Pre- And Post-Complete Health Improvement Program (Chip), Janie Unruh Jan 2016

Adventist Affiliation And Type 2 Diabetes Pre- And Post-Complete Health Improvement Program (Chip), Janie Unruh

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Adventists following a plant-based diet have half the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarian Adventists. This study used a quantitative, correlational study design to assess if there was a significant difference in type 2 diabetes prevalence rate between Adventists and non-Adventists preprogram, and if there were significant differences in biometrics between Adventists and non-Adventists with diabetes pre- and post-Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP). This study incorporated the social ecological model for its conceptual framework and examined pre- and postprogram changes among Adventists (n=210; 20.1%) and non-Adventists (n=836; 79.9%) with type 2 diabetes. It ...


Influence Of Overweight, Obesity, Social Support, And Self-Efficacy On Breastfeeding Outcomes Among African-American Women, Elizabeth Hoo Jan 2016

Influence Of Overweight, Obesity, Social Support, And Self-Efficacy On Breastfeeding Outcomes Among African-American Women, Elizabeth Hoo

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breastfeeding reduces morbidity and mortality among mothers and children, yet African-American women breastfeed at lower rates than women of other racial and ethnic groups do. Higher rates of overweight, obesity, and low socioeconomic status may be contributing factors in this population; however, limited research exists regarding the roles of maternal overweight and obesity on breastfeeding outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether social support and self-efficacy positively influence breastfeeding outcomes among overweight and obese African American women. Self-efficacy and social support theories provided the theoretical framework for the study. Research questions examined whether (a) maternal overweight and ...


The Effects Of Barriers Toward Fighting Childhood Obesity Within Head Start, Vanessa Chaney Jan 2015

The Effects Of Barriers Toward Fighting Childhood Obesity Within Head Start, Vanessa Chaney

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Childhood obesity is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and poses a health care burden. Child care facilities serve at the forefront in fighting childhood obesity among preschoolers. Since 2009, a significant shift has occurred in studying child care settings among children aged 3-5 in North Carolina and South Carolina in response to the rising rates of obesity in this population. Some of the hypothesized determinants of childhood obesity among preschoolers in North Carolina and South Carolina are outdoor activity, staff behavior, center's size and location. The purpose of this study was to investigate if significant relationships exist between ...


A Cross-Sectional Study: Dietary Micronutrient Levels In Allied Health And Nursing Students, Grisseel A. Cruz-Espaillat Jan 2015

A Cross-Sectional Study: Dietary Micronutrient Levels In Allied Health And Nursing Students, Grisseel A. Cruz-Espaillat

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The adequate intake of micronutrients is important to maintain optimal health and prevent nutritional disorders and chronic disease. Studies have shown that medical students often reduce self-care behaviors and lack adequate dietary intake, leading to nutritional deficiencies. In this quantitative cross-sectional study, measurements of micronutrient levels in a sample of allied health and nursing students were compared to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) values. NutritionQuest Data-on-Demand System was used to analyze nutrients and food group intake. The postpositivist paradigm was used to examine how the independent and dependent variables relate to each other. Using a one-sample t test, a comparison of ...