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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram Jan 2020

Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Microcystins (MCs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. Algal bloom subsidence can stimulate MC release, which can impair liver function if orally exposed to in large doses. The purpose of this retrospective, U.S. ecological study was to determine if MC exposure represented an environmental risk factor for liver disease mortality using a socioecological approach. A longitudinal ecological substudy investigated the association between average total MCs in Lake Washington and Lake Manatee and age-adjusted chronic liver disease (CLD)/cirrhosis death rates in Brevard County and Manatee County, Florida (FL). A prediction model of total MCs was deduced by ...


Pertussis Resurgence In Europe: Incidence And Epidemiologic Cycles In Immunization Required And Non-Required Countries, Sheryl Ann Duquet Jan 2020

Pertussis Resurgence In Europe: Incidence And Epidemiologic Cycles In Immunization Required And Non-Required Countries, Sheryl Ann Duquet

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although pertussis vaccines have been available for over 7 decades, countries are experiencing a pertussis resurgence. This study sought to establish a relationship between the European pertussis immunization schedule designs (with and without the inclusion of adolescent boosters) and the immunization requirement (recommended or required), which potentially influences immunity waning, and thus the incidence rate and epidemiologic cycles of pertussis. The theoretical foundation for this study was the theory of herd immunity. A quantitative research method was used, supported by a secondary data source. The statistical analysis included the use of linear regression to evaluate the relationship between the requirement ...


Nurse Practitioner Attitudes, Perceptions And Knowledge About Antimicrobial Stewardship, Evelyn C. Fabian Jan 2019

Nurse Practitioner Attitudes, Perceptions And Knowledge About Antimicrobial Stewardship, Evelyn C. Fabian

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically in the United States, with serious associated medical, social, and economic consequences. The purpose of this project was to assess nurse practitioners' attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship and knowledge in the management of anaerobic infections as well as resistant gram-negative bacteremia. Data were collected using a web-based survey in a hospital facility. The practice question explored whether nurse practitioners' attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship significantly increased after an education program on antimicrobial stewardship. The project was framed by Knowles's adult learning theory. A 16-item survey was administered before and ...


Predictors Of Nutritional Status Among U.S. Adults, Erum Syed Jan 2019

Predictors Of Nutritional Status Among U.S. Adults, Erum Syed

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the reasons underlying poor nutritional status among adults in the United States (US) and to provide research findings that can be used to develop programs and policies to help improve nutritional status in the US. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset and the correlational quantitative study design were used to explore the associations between food security, household smoking, and demographics and nutritional status. The social ecologic theory, specifically the social ecology of health as it relates to interventions, was used as the study's theoretical framework. The ...


The Impact Of Lemongrass, Oregano, And Thyme Essential Oils On Candida Albicans' Virulence Factors, Jennifer Marie Eddins Jan 2018

The Impact Of Lemongrass, Oregano, And Thyme Essential Oils On Candida Albicans' Virulence Factors, Jennifer Marie Eddins

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Increased systemic infections and growing resistance of Candida species in immunosuppressed people have prompted research for additional treatment options. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the potential of lemongrass, oregano, and thyme essential oils tested individually, combined, and combined with the antifungal agents fluconazole and caspofungin to kill Candida albicans isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. This study was grounded on the theoretical concepts of the epidemiologic triangle model. The experimental data collected were used to investigate risk factors related to age, gender, race, and comorbidities. Kill rates of lemongrass, oregano, and thyme essential oils individually and ...


Clostridium Difficile Infection (Cdi): Use Of Preventive Bundle To Decrease Cdi Incidences, Lisa Feliciano Jan 2018

Clostridium Difficile Infection (Cdi): Use Of Preventive Bundle To Decrease Cdi Incidences, Lisa Feliciano

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The challenge of combating Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) is a major problem within many health care organizations as CDI adds to the cost of care and is an uncomfortable and sometimes fatal complication of hospitalization for the patient. The practice-focused question for this doctoral project was targeted at patients in hospital settings on a medical surgical floor and asked if clostridium difficile preventive bundles reduce the incidence of CDI compared with nonstandardized preventative methods. Using the plan-do-study-act framework, the purpose of this DNP project was to use a clostridium difficile bundle approach to study the effects of clostridium difficile incidence ...


Waterborne Disease Reduction Using Evidence-Based Microbiology Verification In Lower Nyakach, Kenya, Richard R. Blodgett Jan 2018

Waterborne Disease Reduction Using Evidence-Based Microbiology Verification In Lower Nyakach, Kenya, Richard R. Blodgett

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Waterborne diseases continue to plague the poorest people in low-income countries and are estimated to cause 4,600,000 acute incidents of diarrhea resulting in over 2,000 deaths daily. A major challenge is performing microbiology tests to monitor drinking water quality. Friends of the Old (FOTO) implemented a novel strategy using evidence-based microbiology to educate communities about the relationship between contaminated water and disease. Two commercially available tests for E.coli, adapted for fieldwork, provided easily interpreted results of contamination that correlate with WHO's disease risk categories. Simple and effective household water treatment options 'solar pasteurization and/or ...


Quantitative Study Of Clostridium Difficile Incidence Related To Influenza And Antimicrobial Use, Eileen M. Yaeger Jan 2015

Quantitative Study Of Clostridium Difficile Incidence Related To Influenza And Antimicrobial Use, Eileen M. Yaeger

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In the United States, influenza causes approximately 36,000 deaths and over 200,000 hospitalizations each year with elderly most often affected. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is another major health care challenge and pressing public health issue associated with 14,000 deaths and over 335,000 hospitalizations annually. The use of antibiotics has been implicated in the development of CDI. This study's purpose was to test the relationship of seasonal influenza incidence and antiviral/antibiotic use in CDI development among hospitalized patients. Grounded in the epidemiologic wheel model of man-environment interactions, this retrospective observational study described and analyzed data ...


Correlation Analysis Of Climatic Variables, Migration And Dengue Cases In Southeast Florida, Brunilda Lugo Jan 2015

Correlation Analysis Of Climatic Variables, Migration And Dengue Cases In Southeast Florida, Brunilda Lugo

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Dengue fever is a debilitating, viral, mosquito-borne disease occurring in tropical and subtropical areas in the world. The majority of dengue cases in the United States were acquired in endemic areas by travelers or immigrants. However, in recent years, autochthonous (locally acquired) dengue cases have been diagnosed in Florida. The purpose of this study was to find an association between potential risk factors and the expansion of dengue fever in the United States. Guided by the eco-bio-social framework, which offers a broad assessment of risk factors for the illness, a retrospective design was used with archival data to correlate changes ...


Herpes Virus Infections, Inflammatory Markers And Risk Of Developing T2dm And Cvd: An Analysis Of Nhanes With Adults, Aged 20-49, 1999-2010, Margarita Irizarry-De La Cruz Jan 2015

Herpes Virus Infections, Inflammatory Markers And Risk Of Developing T2dm And Cvd: An Analysis Of Nhanes With Adults, Aged 20-49, 1999-2010, Margarita Irizarry-De La Cruz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs), are among the most virulent and widespread pathogens; they affect 60-90% of the population worldwide. Substantial evidence indicates a possible association between pathogens and chronic disease. HSVs, among other viruses, have been associated with increased risk for inflammatory diseases. However, prior findings have been inconsistent on the role of infection in triggering autoimmune response and chronic disease. This study builds on the premise that pathogens can induce an inflammatory response and increase the risk for disease development. A representative U.S. sample from NHANES, a national population-based cross-sectional survey, was used to examine the relationship between ...


The Burden Of Avian Influenza Viruses In Community Ponds In California, Zin Htway Jan 2014

The Burden Of Avian Influenza Viruses In Community Ponds In California, Zin Htway

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Emerging influenza viruses continue to challenge public health. The problem is public health science professionals have been battling emerging human influenza diseases with tactile and reactionary methods because there is a lack of knowledge and data at the human-animal interface. This research was a baseline study of the proportion of influenza A virus (IAV) in urban and rural communities in California. The population was artificial recirculating water ponds in the geographic locations of rural and urban Californian communities. Surface water samples [N = 182] were collected from artificial recirculating ponds in California. Positivity for IAV was verified by real time RT-PCR ...


Analysis Of Risk Factors Associated With Asymptomatic Colonization Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Among Community College Students, Marilynn Kish-Molina Jan 2011

Analysis Of Risk Factors Associated With Asymptomatic Colonization Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Among Community College Students, Marilynn Kish-Molina

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus has been an important human ailment for centuries, and with the overuse of antibiotics, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a deadly, costly pathogen worldwide. Healthy carriers can become sick or can spread MRSA without symptoms. The amount of asymptomatic colonization among healthy college students and risk factors for colonization by MRSA are not well understood. According to the epidemiologic triangle model, the host (students who take antibiotics or have a history of skin infections), the infectious agent (MRSA) and the environment (direct contact with people, animals, or objects that may harbor MRSA) all ...