Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram Jan 2020

Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Microcystins (MCs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. Algal bloom subsidence can stimulate MC release, which can impair liver function if orally exposed to in large doses. The purpose of this retrospective, U.S. ecological study was to determine if MC exposure represented an environmental risk factor for liver disease mortality using a socioecological approach. A longitudinal ecological substudy investigated the association between average total MCs in Lake Washington and Lake Manatee and age-adjusted chronic liver disease (CLD)/cirrhosis death rates in Brevard County and Manatee County, Florida (FL). A prediction model of total MCs was deduced by ...


Predictors Of Nutritional Status Among U.S. Adults, Erum Syed Jan 2019

Predictors Of Nutritional Status Among U.S. Adults, Erum Syed

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the reasons underlying poor nutritional status among adults in the United States (US) and to provide research findings that can be used to develop programs and policies to help improve nutritional status in the US. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset and the correlational quantitative study design were used to explore the associations between food security, household smoking, and demographics and nutritional status. The social ecologic theory, specifically the social ecology of health as it relates to interventions, was used as the study's theoretical framework. The ...


Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe Jan 2019

Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breast cancer is a world health problem and is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. However, breast cancer risks were reported to be reduced through exposure to Vitamin D through its Receptors identified as the p53 target gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms knowledge/awareness and decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening among women in Texas. Data from survey were used. Roy adaptation model was the theoretical framework that guided this quasi- experimental, quantitative research. The dependent variables were decisions ...


Waterborne Disease Reduction Using Evidence-Based Microbiology Verification In Lower Nyakach, Kenya, Richard R. Blodgett Jan 2018

Waterborne Disease Reduction Using Evidence-Based Microbiology Verification In Lower Nyakach, Kenya, Richard R. Blodgett

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Waterborne diseases continue to plague the poorest people in low-income countries and are estimated to cause 4,600,000 acute incidents of diarrhea resulting in over 2,000 deaths daily. A major challenge is performing microbiology tests to monitor drinking water quality. Friends of the Old (FOTO) implemented a novel strategy using evidence-based microbiology to educate communities about the relationship between contaminated water and disease. Two commercially available tests for E.coli, adapted for fieldwork, provided easily interpreted results of contamination that correlate with WHO's disease risk categories. Simple and effective household water treatment options 'solar pasteurization and/or ...


Oral Glucose Insulin Secretion Test For Identifying Patients With Insulin Resistance, David Kershner Jan 2018

Oral Glucose Insulin Secretion Test For Identifying Patients With Insulin Resistance, David Kershner

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Insulin resistance is an increasing public health issue with the current literature, suggesting reduced sensitivity of insulin leads to adult onset diabetes and associated downstream pathologies that reduce life expectancy. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of the Oral Glucose Insulin Secretion Test (OGIST) to identify insulin resistance and examine differences in the insulin sensitivity based on gender, age, and ethnicity. This study was supported by the insulin resistance theory which focuses on the reduced ability of insulin to bind to the cellular insulin receptor, reducing the sensitivity of insulin. The OGIST lab results of ...


Association Of Dietary Intake With Suicidal Ideation Or Suicide Attempts In Adolescents, Zenobia J. Bryant Jan 2018

Association Of Dietary Intake With Suicidal Ideation Or Suicide Attempts In Adolescents, Zenobia J. Bryant

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Suicide is among the leading cause of adolescent deaths worldwide and thus a significant public health concern. Risk factors for suicidal behavior include drinking alcohol, smoking, and engaging in risky sexual behaviors. One area of concern is dietary patterns and their association with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Bandura's social cognitive theory emphasizes the assumption that one can perform specific actions to bring about desired outcomes. The primary research questions for this quantitative, retrospective, cross-sectional study concerned whether there is a statistically significant interaction between fruit and vegetable intake and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Data from 71,776 ...


The Association Between Dietary Flavonoid Intake And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Systemic Inflammation, And Comorbidity Burden, Tennador Sanderson Jan 2017

The Association Between Dietary Flavonoid Intake And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Systemic Inflammation, And Comorbidity Burden, Tennador Sanderson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Dietary habits may have an impact on COPD through anti-inflammatory mechanisms. For this cross-sectional secondary data analysis study, the advanced model of the epidemiology triangle was used as a guide to assess the association between total daily flavonoid intake and COPD diagnosis, COPD severity, systemic inflammation, and comorbidity burden. Data from over 5,100 male and female participants aged 30 and older were obtained from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of COPD was 5.2% according to spirometry ...


Incidence And Factors Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ani K. John Jan 2016

Incidence And Factors Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ani K. John

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common hepatic diseases worldwide, making the diagnosis and management of NAFLD an emerging public health issue. Theories associated with NAFLD surmise that inflammation may be the root cause, along with the complex interplay of other chronic conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unknown if other inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), along with the use of methotrexate (MTX), might confer increased risk for NAFLD. Longitudinal data collected from a retrospective cohort of 17,481 adult RA patients in the United ...


Time To Diagnosis Of Second Primary Cancers Among Patients With Breast Cancer, Edward Okezie Irobi Jan 2016

Time To Diagnosis Of Second Primary Cancers Among Patients With Breast Cancer, Edward Okezie Irobi

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Many breast cancer diagnoses and second cancers are associated with BRCA gene mutations. Early detection of cancer is necessary to improve health outcomes, particularly with second cancers. Little is known about the influence of risk factors on time to diagnosis of second primary cancers after diagnosis with BRCA-related breast cancer. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the risk of diagnosis of second primary cancers among women diagnosed with breast cancer after adjusting for BRCA status, age, and ethnicity. The study was guided by the empirical evidence supporting the mechanism of action in the mutation of BRCA leading ...


The Association Of Cancer Development In Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rose Michelle Coley Jan 2016

The Association Of Cancer Development In Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rose Michelle Coley

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The Association of Cancer Development in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by

Rose Michelle Coley

MPH, Walden University, 2011

BS, University of Mount Olive, 2008

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Public Health

Walden University

March 2016

Both cancer and autoimmune diseases have been associated with numerous factors that may independently lead to the development of either disease. When these factors overlap the difficulty in assessing association is compounded. The numerous factors that are thought to cause systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which leads to the development of cancer, makes the study ...


Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader Jan 2016

Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Widespread consumption of canned tuna fish since the 1950s may explain some of the increase in breast cancer prevalence in the United States and Europe. Although canned tuna is the primary source of human exposure to methylmercury, its role as an estrogen activating metalloestrogen has been overlooked in the etiology and incidence of breast cancer. Carcinogenic theory asserts that increased exposure to estrogen elevates the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this population-based, case control study was to examine the association between canned tuna consumption, total blood mercury, and breast cancer in the NHANES 2003-2006 surveys. A multivariable logistic ...


Evaluation Of Active And Passive Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems In Katsina State, Nigeria, Shafique Sani Nass Jan 2016

Evaluation Of Active And Passive Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems In Katsina State, Nigeria, Shafique Sani Nass

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was guided by the Mosley and Chen's model for the elements of child survival in developing countries. The goals of the study were twofold: (a) to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina state, Nigeria and (b) to assess the associations between selected NNT risk factors, number of maternal tetanus toxoid injections, frequency of antenatal visits, place of delivery ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Vaccine Responses To Francisella Tularensis Or Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Rebecca Ann Erwin-Cohen Jan 2016

Transcriptome Analysis Of Vaccine Responses To Francisella Tularensis Or Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Rebecca Ann Erwin-Cohen

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The lack of vaccines for emerging and re-emerging diseases highlights technical gaps and indicates a need for innovative approaches to produce new vaccines. Vaccines may be improved by knowledge of host responses to vaccination, disease pathogenesis, and the effect of age and genetics on vaccine outcome. This study's purpose was to quantitatively assess the molecular epidemiology of Francisella tularensis (Ft) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Study results support the Epidemiology Nexus model which holds that association of changes in gene expression to vaccination facilitate understanding the mechanisms of immune development and link public health and disease epidemiology. My ...


Germline Mutations In Chek1 And Chek2 In Women With Ovarian, Peritoneal, Or Fallopian Tube Cancer, Maria Isabel Harrell Jan 2015

Germline Mutations In Chek1 And Chek2 In Women With Ovarian, Peritoneal, Or Fallopian Tube Cancer, Maria Isabel Harrell

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy affecting women. Diagnosis often occurs late due to non-specific symptoms, but if detected early, there is excellent chance for survival. One of the most important risk factors is family history. Up to 24% of cases are due to inherited loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in the DNA damage response. The theory underlying hereditary cancers is Knudson's two-hit theory of cancer causation, where two hits are necessary for cancer to occur in an individual: one in the germline and one in the tissue. The genes, CHEK1 and CHEK2, are modulators of the DNA ...


Evaluation Of The System Attributes Of Timeliness And Completeness Of The West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System' Nationaledss Based System, Rebecca Lee Fahey Jan 2015

Evaluation Of The System Attributes Of Timeliness And Completeness Of The West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System' Nationaledss Based System, Rebecca Lee Fahey

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Despite technological advances in public health informatics, the evaluation of infectious

disease surveillance systems data remains incomplete. In this study, a thorough

evaluation was performed of the West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System

(WVEDSS, 2007-2010) and the West Virginia Electronic Disease Surveillance System NationalEDSS -Based System (WVEDSS-NBS; March 2012 - March 2014) for Category II infectious diseases in West Virginia. The purpose was to identify key areas in the surveillance system process from disease diagnosis to disease prevention that need improvement. Grounded in the diffusion of innovation theory, a quasi-experimental, interrupted, time-series design was used to evaluate the 2 data sets ...


Increasing Knowledge About Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency In The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Population, Maureen Ann Wentink Barta Jan 2015

Increasing Knowledge About Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency In The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Population, Maureen Ann Wentink Barta

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of the project was to increase awareness about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly among those with a familial history of genetic factor AATD; an additional goal was to understand its relationship to COPD. COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States, with more than half of COPD patients experiencing significant disabilities. Major causes for COPD include smoking, air pollution, secondary smoke, upper respiratory infections, hereditary factors, occupational factors, environmental factors, and socioeconomic factors. Genetic factors, however, also play a significant role in early onset COPD and in those ...


Sewer Overflows And The Vector Mosquito Proximity To Human West Nile Virus Infections, Andrea Simone Bowers Jan 2015

Sewer Overflows And The Vector Mosquito Proximity To Human West Nile Virus Infections, Andrea Simone Bowers

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

DeKalb and Fulton Counties, which share the metropolitan Atlanta area, have seen an increase in West Nile infected vector mosquitoes; the increase is associated with close proximity to combined sewer overflow facilities. Despite completion of the remediation system in 2008, the mosquito population testing positive for West Nile virus has increased each year from 2010 through 2012. Guided by the Geographical Information System framework and using spatial analysis and regression analyses, this study described and quantified the relationship between sewer system overflows and amplification of vector mosquitoes; an additional goal was to investigate their proximity to human cases of West ...


Correlation Analysis Of Climatic Variables, Migration And Dengue Cases In Southeast Florida, Brunilda Lugo Jan 2015

Correlation Analysis Of Climatic Variables, Migration And Dengue Cases In Southeast Florida, Brunilda Lugo

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Dengue fever is a debilitating, viral, mosquito-borne disease occurring in tropical and subtropical areas in the world. The majority of dengue cases in the United States were acquired in endemic areas by travelers or immigrants. However, in recent years, autochthonous (locally acquired) dengue cases have been diagnosed in Florida. The purpose of this study was to find an association between potential risk factors and the expansion of dengue fever in the United States. Guided by the eco-bio-social framework, which offers a broad assessment of risk factors for the illness, a retrospective design was used with archival data to correlate changes ...


Quantitative Study Of Clostridium Difficile Incidence Related To Influenza And Antimicrobial Use, Eileen M. Yaeger Jan 2015

Quantitative Study Of Clostridium Difficile Incidence Related To Influenza And Antimicrobial Use, Eileen M. Yaeger

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In the United States, influenza causes approximately 36,000 deaths and over 200,000 hospitalizations each year with elderly most often affected. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is another major health care challenge and pressing public health issue associated with 14,000 deaths and over 335,000 hospitalizations annually. The use of antibiotics has been implicated in the development of CDI. This study's purpose was to test the relationship of seasonal influenza incidence and antiviral/antibiotic use in CDI development among hospitalized patients. Grounded in the epidemiologic wheel model of man-environment interactions, this retrospective observational study described and analyzed data ...


Herpes Virus Infections, Inflammatory Markers And Risk Of Developing T2dm And Cvd: An Analysis Of Nhanes With Adults, Aged 20-49, 1999-2010, Margarita Irizarry-De La Cruz Jan 2015

Herpes Virus Infections, Inflammatory Markers And Risk Of Developing T2dm And Cvd: An Analysis Of Nhanes With Adults, Aged 20-49, 1999-2010, Margarita Irizarry-De La Cruz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs), are among the most virulent and widespread pathogens; they affect 60-90% of the population worldwide. Substantial evidence indicates a possible association between pathogens and chronic disease. HSVs, among other viruses, have been associated with increased risk for inflammatory diseases. However, prior findings have been inconsistent on the role of infection in triggering autoimmune response and chronic disease. This study builds on the premise that pathogens can induce an inflammatory response and increase the risk for disease development. A representative U.S. sample from NHANES, a national population-based cross-sectional survey, was used to examine the relationship between ...


Albumin Levels In Hispanic Dialysis Patients With And Without Type Ii Diabetes, Hector Hernandez Jan 2015

Albumin Levels In Hispanic Dialysis Patients With And Without Type Ii Diabetes, Hector Hernandez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Albumin provides the vital scaffolding for growth and tissue repair and supports oncotic blood pressure and hemodynamics. In hemodialysis patients, albumin aids with fluid removal by drawing excess fluid from edematous tissues back into the blood where it can then be removed by a dialyzer. The hyperglycemia seen in dialysis patients with Type II diabetes progressively damages kidney glomeruli, which permits albumin seepage into the urine, thus lowering serum albumin. The conceptual framework underpinning this research is the van't Hoff theory of osmotic pressure. Under this framework, the solute-solvent relationship largely contributes to the osmotic movement of fluid. The ...


A Cross-Sectional Study: Dietary Micronutrient Levels In Allied Health And Nursing Students, Grisseel A. Cruz-Espaillat Jan 2015

A Cross-Sectional Study: Dietary Micronutrient Levels In Allied Health And Nursing Students, Grisseel A. Cruz-Espaillat

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The adequate intake of micronutrients is important to maintain optimal health and prevent nutritional disorders and chronic disease. Studies have shown that medical students often reduce self-care behaviors and lack adequate dietary intake, leading to nutritional deficiencies. In this quantitative cross-sectional study, measurements of micronutrient levels in a sample of allied health and nursing students were compared to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) values. NutritionQuest Data-on-Demand System was used to analyze nutrients and food group intake. The postpositivist paradigm was used to examine how the independent and dependent variables relate to each other. Using a one-sample t test, a comparison of ...


The Association Of Lead With Cataracts And Vision-Related Problems In Perimenopausal Women, Imogene Drakes Jan 2015

The Association Of Lead With Cataracts And Vision-Related Problems In Perimenopausal Women, Imogene Drakes

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Around the world, women are subject to an earlier incidence of cataracts, have a higher risk for cataracts, and also have a higher risk for other vision-related problems than men. Previous research has indicated an association between endogenous lead stored in long bones and cataracts in men over 60 years of age; however, a similar study in women did not reveal an association. This case control study was conducted to investigate whether perimenopausal mobilization of endogenous lead serves as a possible causative factor for women's generalized vision issues and cataract incidence in particular. Secondary data were gathered from 1 ...


Uric Acid Level Is Associated With Postprandial Lipemic Response To A High Saturated Fat Meal, Roy Gail Cutler Jan 2015

Uric Acid Level Is Associated With Postprandial Lipemic Response To A High Saturated Fat Meal, Roy Gail Cutler

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Hyperlipidemia caused by a diet high in saturated fat can lead to visceral fat weight gain, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Being over-weight from visceral fat has been linked to increased risk of developing most age-related diseases and disability, along with a lower income potential and quality of life. However, researchers are just beginning to understand the biological mechanisms that regulate the conversion of excess calories into visceral fat storage rather than glycogen or muscle. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown a comorbid association between age-related diseases involving hyperlipemia and circulating levels of uric acid, but not a direct association. This study ...


Analysis Of Risk Factors Associated With Asymptomatic Colonization Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Among Community College Students, Marilynn Kish-Molina Jan 2011

Analysis Of Risk Factors Associated With Asymptomatic Colonization Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Among Community College Students, Marilynn Kish-Molina

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus has been an important human ailment for centuries, and with the overuse of antibiotics, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a deadly, costly pathogen worldwide. Healthy carriers can become sick or can spread MRSA without symptoms. The amount of asymptomatic colonization among healthy college students and risk factors for colonization by MRSA are not well understood. According to the epidemiologic triangle model, the host (students who take antibiotics or have a history of skin infections), the infectious agent (MRSA) and the environment (direct contact with people, animals, or objects that may harbor MRSA) all ...