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UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

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Reduced Gabaergic Signaling At The Axon Initial Segment Decreases Vigilance State Transitioning, Austin John Boren Aug 2019

Reduced Gabaergic Signaling At The Axon Initial Segment Decreases Vigilance State Transitioning, Austin John Boren

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Sleep is a highly regulated homeostatic process that is disrupted in an estimated 50-70 million Americans. Regulation of sleep depends upon coordinated signaling of multiple neurotransmitter systems. In particular, inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling is required to suppress wake-active brain regions in order to initiate and maintain sleep states. GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) are ionotropic receptors with subunit compositions uniquely enriched on subcellular domains of target cells. α2 subunit-containing GABAARs are the primary target of GABA released onto the axon initial segment (AIS), a site critical for phasing the oscillatory activity of cortical cells. α2-containing GABAARs have previously been ...


Multi-Polygenic Risk Score Prediction Model For Bipolar Disorder, Travis Mize Aug 2019

Multi-Polygenic Risk Score Prediction Model For Bipolar Disorder, Travis Mize

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bipolar disorder (BP), a severe mental disorder characterized by recurring manic and depressive episodes, has been shown to have a strong genetic underpinning. Current theory suggests that it is the summation of risk alleles, spread across the entirety of the genome, which contributes to the development of BP, as well as other polygenic traits. The comorbid nature of these polygenic traits are often problematic for diagnosticians as the symptomology of the disorders may vary substantially between individuals and can create diagnostic confusion. To alleviate issues such as these, a more objective measure, to be used alongside current diagnostic procedures, is ...


Optimization Of Motor Performance, Lee-Kuen Chua Aug 2019

Optimization Of Motor Performance, Lee-Kuen Chua

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

According to the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention of Learning) theory of motor learning, enhanced expectancies (EE), autonomy support (AS), and external focus (EF) augment the coupling of a person’s actions to intended movement goals. This goal-action coupling is postulated to boost a person’s focus on goal-related aspects of the motor task while reducing the person’s self-related thoughts, resulting in enhanced performance of skilled movements as well as in improving the acquisition outcomes for the learning of motor skills. The three studies in this compilation report were aimed at providing empirical evidence for the ...


Changes In Hippocampal-Anterior Cingulate Cortex Interactions During Remote Memory Recall, Ryan A. Wirt May 2019

Changes In Hippocampal-Anterior Cingulate Cortex Interactions During Remote Memory Recall, Ryan A. Wirt

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Spatial memory is an important cognitive process that relies on extensive neural networks throughout the brain. The hippocampus (HC) is important for the formation of these memories but over time, in a process referred to as consolidation, recall becomes increasingly reliant on other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region within the medial prefrontal cortex, is important for spatial learning, spatial working memory, and remote memory recall, but the mechanisms underlying recall processes are still unknown. To better understand the role of the ACC and HC during memory recall, we introduced rodents into a series of spatially and ...


Tree To Grass Water Use Ratios; Assessing Turfgrass’ High Water Use In The Urban Landscape, Tamara Wynne May 2019

Tree To Grass Water Use Ratios; Assessing Turfgrass’ High Water Use In The Urban Landscape, Tamara Wynne

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Water demand in the southwestern United States continues to rise. The population of the Las Vegas Valley doubled from 2000-2010 and now more than two million people call it home. The residential sector uses 60% of all water consumed in the valley. Outdoor urban landscape irrigation is responsible for 70% of all residential use. These landscapes are dominated by trees and turf grass. Although the water use of turf grass species is well studied, there are few published results about the water use of landscape trees in the desert southwest USA. To obtain a more complete picture of the tradeoffs ...


Effects Of Ecological Restoration Techniques In Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Simone Ka-Voka Jackson May 2019

Effects Of Ecological Restoration Techniques In Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Simone Ka-Voka Jackson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A better understanding of key ecological restoration techniques can inform land management in the Southwest on restoration options for areas infested by invasive grasses that can pose threats to ecosystems, from changes in nutrient cycling to altered fire regimes. In the semi-arid desert of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GLCA), several exotic grasses pose risks to local ecosystems: Saccharum ravennae, a relatively new invasive perennial grass, and Bromus rubens and Bromus tectorum, widespread annual grasses. In this study, multiple ecological restoration techniques were implemented to assess their effects on native and nonnative vegetation on sites invaded by the non-native grasses ...


Prevalence Of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans And Fusobacterium Nucleatum Among Clinical Orthodontic Saliva Samples, Jason Robert Klingler May 2019

Prevalence Of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans And Fusobacterium Nucleatum Among Clinical Orthodontic Saliva Samples, Jason Robert Klingler

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Changes to the oral microflora occur when there are shifts in the levels of the numerous bacterial species. Changes in bacterial load occur in health, disease, and dental treatments such as orthodontics and can be detected through saliva. Many studies dealing with saliva have centered around detecting bacteria known for correlation with chronic periodontitis and caries. Fewer have focused on bacterial species that contribute to microbial shifts not strictly correlated with disease. Measuring the degree of disease progression or future susceptibility is not always possible with traditional clinical parameters alone.

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA) is a bacterial strain that serves as ...


Effect Of Common Oxidative Water Treatments On Acanthamoeba Internalized Legionella, James Park May 2019

Effect Of Common Oxidative Water Treatments On Acanthamoeba Internalized Legionella, James Park

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Legionella pneumophila can cause pneumonic and non-pneumonic disease in humans. Infections occur from aerosolized contaminated water. This bacterium is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen able to infect both protozoans, such as Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and human macrophages. Both L. pneumophila and A. polyphaga resist commonly used water treatments, such as chlorination, but L. pneumophila has displayed greater resistance in the presence of A. polyphaga. Therefore, there is concern that L. pneumophila could become established in plumbing systems after water treatment, leading to infections. The objective of this study was to show the effect of chlorine and chlorine dioxide exposures on the survival ...


Long-Term Monitoring Of Rare Gypsum Communities In The Eastern Mojave Desert: A Study In Science And Art, Tiffany Jane-Marie Pereira May 2019

Long-Term Monitoring Of Rare Gypsum Communities In The Eastern Mojave Desert: A Study In Science And Art, Tiffany Jane-Marie Pereira

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

For land managers, reliable estimates of soil seed banks, and more specifically, change in seed banks over time, provide insight into the restoration and regeneration potential of the landscape, site history and disturbance mapping, and, invasive and rare plant management. To understand the intricacies of desert soil seed banks in relation to aboveground vegetation change, my research evaluated long-term change in soil seed banks, fertile islands, and plant communities of conservation-priority gypsum rare plant habitat of the eastern Mojave Desert. Research found significant spatial and temporal differences in seed bank composition and density over an 11-year period; however, the gypsum ...


Assessing Minimal-Input Restoration Strategies For Desert Soil And Vegetation Restoration, Audrey Jean Rader May 2019

Assessing Minimal-Input Restoration Strategies For Desert Soil And Vegetation Restoration, Audrey Jean Rader

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Mojave and Sonoran Deserts have been negatively impacted by anthropogenic disturbances. Considering that these ecosystems may recover on millennial timescales, research has shown that restoration techniques can be fairly successful in initiating long-term recovery processes in these sensitive environments. However, uncertainty remains as to which techniques are effective in different circumstances, such as in different climates or across different soil properties, and which techniques may best avoid unintended consequences, such as facilitating non-native plants. To reduce fugitive dust as a human health hazard, increase soil stability, and enhance wildlife habitat, further work is necessary to develop restoration techniques for ...


Triglyceride Metabolism Following Oral Fat Tolerance Tests Of Varying Fat Content In Adults, Nathaniel Glen Bodell May 2019

Triglyceride Metabolism Following Oral Fat Tolerance Tests Of Varying Fat Content In Adults, Nathaniel Glen Bodell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction: Investigations of lipid metabolism commonly utilize an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) to elicit a dramatic increase in serum triglycerides (TG). Although this is common practice there does not currently exist an agreed upon formula for an OFTT. Nor has there been in investigation as to the reliability among commonly used OFTT. Furthermore, the effects of sex and activity level are mixed among the literature. The purpose of this investigation is to discover an ideal OFTT for research and clinical purposes, evaluate the effects of activity and sex on TG metabolism, and to test each OFTT concentration for reliability ...


Analysis Of Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis (Sos) Fusion In A Contemporary Southern Nevada Subadult Hispanic Population Using Archival Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography (Cbct) Images, Megan Baker May 2019

Analysis Of Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis (Sos) Fusion In A Contemporary Southern Nevada Subadult Hispanic Population Using Archival Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography (Cbct) Images, Megan Baker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study employs the three-dimensional visualization capability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to investigate the relationship between chronological age and timing of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis in a male/female subadult Hispanic population of Southern Nevada. The sample includes cross-sectional data of 374 orthodontic patients (166 males and 208 females) aged 8-20 years. The SOS is scored by a four-stage scoring system as completely open (stage 0), less than half fused (stage 1), more than half fused (stage 2), or completely fused (stage 3) as visualized in the midsagittal plane in the CBCT image. The relationship between SOS fusion ...


The Effects Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor On The Characteristics Of Pluripotent Dental Pulp Stem Cells, Cale Forgues May 2019

The Effects Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor On The Characteristics Of Pluripotent Dental Pulp Stem Cells, Cale Forgues

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Many believe that stem cells hold the key to regenerative medicine. Therefore, research with stem cells has become increasingly popular over the years. Three specific groups of study have become present in literature. The first group has focused much of their research on harvesting and cultivating stem cell lines to retain their pluripotent ability. Stem cells can be tricky to cultivate and preserve over time as they will often differentiate or die. Another group examines the specific characteristics that a pluripotent stem cell has and how to retain, or even create, a cell with pluripotent potential. Lastly, the third group ...


Optimizing Back Squat Performance, Arthur Hockwald May 2019

Optimizing Back Squat Performance, Arthur Hockwald

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The back squat is a task commonly used to train and test performance levels in competitive sports and strength based performance events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the potential performance benefits for a 1-repetition max (1RM) back squat under conditions in which the three key factors of OPTIMAL theory of motor learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016) are present: Enhanced expectancies (EE), autonomy support (AS), and an external focus (EF) of attention. Participants (N = 23) were assigned to either an optimized condition, which included EE AS, and EF, or a control condition. They were asked to perform a 1RM ...


Workload Position Evaluation To Determine Efficient Training Load For Optimal Competition Performance Of Female Collegiate Soccer Players, Michaela Kelsey May 2019

Workload Position Evaluation To Determine Efficient Training Load For Optimal Competition Performance Of Female Collegiate Soccer Players, Michaela Kelsey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction. The purpose of this study was to describe player workload between competition and training of female collegiate soccer players; as well as to determine workload between positions to better our understanding of the mechanical and physical demands of a full soccer match of collegiate female soccer players. Methods. The study sample was comprised of 20 female Division 1 Collegiate soccer players in 7 positions: goalkeeper (n = 1), Attacking Midfielders (n = 2), Defensive Midfielders (n = 3), Center Backs (n = 3), Outside Backs (n = 4), Strikers (n = 2), and Wingers (n = 5). 19 training sessions and 11 competitive games were used ...


From Deviant Symbol To Cultural Icon? Understanding Pit Bull Stigma, Genevieve Minter May 2019

From Deviant Symbol To Cultural Icon? Understanding Pit Bull Stigma, Genevieve Minter

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This research draws from twelve months of ethnographic data using Las Vegas as a case study to understand how pit bull owners experience and negotiate stigma in various social settings. The human-dog relationship, long rooted in utility, transformed in the modern era as animals were promoted from worker to companion. The world’s first dog register, The American Kennel Club, created breed standards and encouraged selective breeding, which influenced the idea of certain dogs being more physically “dangerous” than others. Though the pit bull is not the first dog “breed” to be the object of discrimination, it is the first ...


Wearable Technology Devices: Heart Rate And Step Count Analysis, Jeffrey Montes May 2019

Wearable Technology Devices: Heart Rate And Step Count Analysis, Jeffrey Montes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The overarching purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate and analyze heart rate and/or step count measurements for six popular wearable technology devices: the Samsung Gear 2, FitBit Surge, Polar A360, Garmin Vivosmart HR+, Leaf Health Tracker, and the Scosche Rhythm+ in four separate conditions: free motion walking, free motion jogging, treadmill walking, and treadmill jogging. The four studies presented here utilized one test design and data collection protocol in which many measurements could be addressed simultaneously. Currently, there is no accepted standardized protocol to evaluate wearable technology devices. The test design utilized for this research series was introduced ...


Effects Of Disturbance And Restoration Treatment On Fertile Islands In Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Camille Traylor May 2019

Effects Of Disturbance And Restoration Treatment On Fertile Islands In Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Camille Traylor

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Disturbances by humans are one of the main drivers of change in contemporary desert ecosystems. Restoration treatments such as topsoil application and outplanting can be implemented in response to disturbances in order to maintain soil stability and a diverse plant community. Fertile islands - nutrient enriched areas beneath perennial shrubs - are fundamental features of deserts that can facilitate annual plant growth. A major uncertainty in desert ecology is how much time is required for fertile islands and nurse plant effects (the facilitation of one plant by another) to develop below maturing perennial plants. By studying naturally recruited perennial plants no older ...


Optimizing Cycle Exercise Performance During Normobaric Hypoxia Exposure, Cierra Brittany Ugale May 2019

Optimizing Cycle Exercise Performance During Normobaric Hypoxia Exposure, Cierra Brittany Ugale

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether implementing factors of OPTIMAL Theory: Enhanced Expectancies (EE), Autonomy Support (AS), and External Focus (EF) during a cycle exercise bout at a simulated altitude of 21,000 feet elevation had an effect on exercise performance and EPOC response in comparison to a control condition.

Methods: Sixteen participants (n = 8 women, n = 8 men) completed resting oxygen measurements (resting metabolic rate) between 6:00 A.M. and 8:00 A.M. Cycle exercise to fatigue at a constant workload was performed (100 W) while breathing air with reduced oxygen content ...


Correlation Between Pluripotent Stem Cell Markers And Microrna Expression In Dental Pulp Stem Cells, Mark Whiting May 2019

Correlation Between Pluripotent Stem Cell Markers And Microrna Expression In Dental Pulp Stem Cells, Mark Whiting

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In human development there are many factors that cause our cells to form certain organs and systems with specific functions. These cells original start as stem cells before biological processes take over and cause differentiation into different cell lines. Since these undifferentiated stem cells have been discovered, many studies have been done to try and find the exact mechanism that causes a cell to change into another specific cell. Due to the multiple sources that stem cells can be harvest from the human body, this knowledge of how differentiation works could lead to breakthroughs in regenerative medicine.

Traditional biomarkers have ...


Effects Of Ambient Air Pollution On Asthma-Related Emergency Department Visits Within The Las Vegas Metropolitan Area, Loiren E. Monardes Dec 2018

Effects Of Ambient Air Pollution On Asthma-Related Emergency Department Visits Within The Las Vegas Metropolitan Area, Loiren E. Monardes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The objective of this research was to evaluate the risk for asthma-related Emergency Department visits and their association with ambient air pollution within the Las Vegas metropolitan area. All data were aggregated by date and ZIP Code. The association was analyzed by applying the distributed lag non-linear model in an attempt to identify elevated concentrations of specific air pollutants

as triggers and their delayed effects (lag days). Relative Risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were produced, while adjusting for socioeconomic status. This ecological population-based study analyzed daily asthma counts of Emergency Department visits from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st ...


Examining Environmental Hazards In Rental Homes And Habitability Laws In Clark County, Nevada, Jorge Luis Bertran Dec 2018

Examining Environmental Hazards In Rental Homes And Habitability Laws In Clark County, Nevada, Jorge Luis Bertran

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

It is well established that home conditions are linked to the health outcomes of occupants. There are over 880,000 housing units in Clark County, Nevada; nearly half of those are renter-occupied units (ROUs). Currently, there is limited research on the characteristics of environmental hazards found in Clark County ROUs and the strength of habitability statutes created to protect tenants from substandard housing. Understanding how renters in Clark County are affected by environmental hazards in ROUs and the processes by which landlords and tenants resolve grievances related to those hazards would benefit public health. It would enhance the ability to ...


Cocoa, Postprandial Lipoproteins, And Inflammation In Type 2 Diabetes: A Secondary Data Analysis, Rickelle Tallent Dec 2018

Cocoa, Postprandial Lipoproteins, And Inflammation In Type 2 Diabetes: A Secondary Data Analysis, Rickelle Tallent

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with dyslipidemia and chronic low-grade inflammation, which greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population. Hyperlipidemia and inflammation in the postprandial state substantially contribute to atherosclerosis development and CVD risk, and have shown to be exacerbated by high-fat meals. Dietary cocoa is a rich source of flavanols that is associated with favorable effects on cardiovascular health, such as improvements in the lipid profile and chronic inflammation, in non-diabetic adults.

Objective: To conduct a secondary data analysis using unpublished data from a previously conducted clinical study to determine whether acute cocoa ...


Comparison Of Cervical Angle During Different Equipment Removal Techniques Used In Ice Hockey For Suspected Cervical Injuries, Kendell Sarah Galor Dec 2018

Comparison Of Cervical Angle During Different Equipment Removal Techniques Used In Ice Hockey For Suspected Cervical Injuries, Kendell Sarah Galor

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of the study was to compare cervical movement between two different methods of removal of the helmet and shoulder pads. Seven college age male subjects (height: 172.54 ± 7.98 cm; weight: 85.70 ± 15.75 kg) with hockey experience volunteered to participate in the study. Each subject agreed to and signed the institutional review board approved informed consent before articipation. Subjects used their own game fit hockey helmet and were fitted with a pair of shoulder pads (CCM Tacks 1052 Sr Shoulder Pads). Cervical spine motion was measured using 3D kinematics (Vicon Motion Systems Ltd., UK). Reflective ...


Expression Of Line-1 In Human Somatic Tissues And The Factors Correlated With Line- 1 Expression, G. M. Jonaid Aug 2018

Expression Of Line-1 In Human Somatic Tissues And The Factors Correlated With Line- 1 Expression, G. M. Jonaid

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Despite the long-held assumption that transposons are normally only expressed in the germline, recently we discovered that full length or partial transcripts of LINE1 are frequently found in the somatic cells. However, the extent of variation in LINE1 levels across different tissues and different individuals, and the genes and pathways that are co-expressed with LINE1 are unknown. Co-expressed genes may be candidate genes that are functioning in transposon silencing. Here, we report the extent of variation in L1HS expression levels across cancer tissues and healthy tissues collected for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). L1HS is overexpressed in most of the ...


Handgrip Fatigue And Forearm Girth In Intermediate Sport Rock Climbers, Grace Antoinette Macdonald Aug 2018

Handgrip Fatigue And Forearm Girth In Intermediate Sport Rock Climbers, Grace Antoinette Macdonald

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Rock climbing has been increasing in popularity both recreationally and competitively. Indoor sport rock climbing is a type of climbing where the climber ascends a wall using artificial rocks (hand and foot holds) and is attached to a safety rope. Despite this increase in popularity of the sport, the physiological responses to sport climbing as an exercise to specific muscle groups are not well defined in literature. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in handgrip strength over a 30-minute bout of continuous climbing, specifically in intermediate sport climbers. An additional aim of this study ...


An Evaluation Of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology In Two Different Models Of Diabetes In Immune-Challenged Mice, Andrew Scott Murtishaw Aug 2018

An Evaluation Of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology In Two Different Models Of Diabetes In Immune-Challenged Mice, Andrew Scott Murtishaw

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome are related disorders with wide-ranging and devastating effects that can be observed throughout the body. One important and understudied organ of damage is the brain. Clinical and epidemiological studies have found that T2DM, and more specifically hyperinsulinemia, significantly increases the risk of cognitive decline and increases the likelihood of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other forms of dementia in the elderly. Insulin has slightly different functions in the peripheral body than in the central nervous system and the dysregulation of these functions may contribute to the onset and progression of late-life ...


Effect Of Bmp Treatment On Periostin Gene Expression In Pre-Osteoblastic Mc3t3-E1 Mouse Cells, Vincent Lee Khang May 2018

Effect Of Bmp Treatment On Periostin Gene Expression In Pre-Osteoblastic Mc3t3-E1 Mouse Cells, Vincent Lee Khang

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Periostin is a secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM) protein widely expressed within collagen-rich fibrous connective tissues of the body including the periodontal ligament (PDL), bone, skin, heart, and cornea. Periostin has been shown to serve many important regulatory functions including cell adhesion, cell motility, wound healing and of particular importance to the dental field, differentiation of osteoblasts. The deletion of periostin compromises osteoblast attachment to bone matrix and induces a reduction in mineralization and expression of bone markers, including type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase. Periostin has also been shown to play a significant role in collagen fibrillogenesis by ...


Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp May 2018

Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Subterranean digging behaviors provide opportunities for protection, access to prey, and predator avoidance for a diverse array of vertebrates, yet studies of the biomechanics of burrowing have been limited by the technical challenges of measuring kinetics and kinematics of animals moving within a substrate. Prior studies of burrowing have recorded a single axis of x-ray video and/or force. However, empirical observations show that burrowing is not restricted to a single axis or plane. I describe a new system called a ‘tunnel-tube’ for measuring 3D reaction force during burrowing. This tunnel-tube has two separate tubes, one ‘entry tube’ that has ...


Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker May 2018

Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing affect many aspects of bacterial physiology, including virulence in bacterial pathogens. In Shigella species, a group of gram-negative pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in humans, the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) transcriptionally silences virulence genes found on the large virulence plasmid while VirB anti-silences these genes. However, the mechanistic details of their interplay are not fully understood. To elucidate their regulatory mechanisms, I use the icsP virulence locus, which shares a long intergenic region with the divergently transcribed ospZ gene (1535 bp from TSS to TSS). Prior to this work, two discrete H-NS binding regions had ...