Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Theses/Dissertations

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 237

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Long-Term Effects Of Elevated Manganese On Procambarus Clarkii Behavior, Cody W. Lambert Jan 2019

Long-Term Effects Of Elevated Manganese On Procambarus Clarkii Behavior, Cody W. Lambert

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Manganese is a prominent heavy metal within the earth’s crust and a micro mineral essential for biological function, however, high level exposure may lead to neurological defects. Industrial activities allow elevated manganese (Mn2+)to enter air and waterways. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implements secondary standards for aesthetics in drinking water at 0.05 ppm Mn2+, although evidence indicates levels at, or below this concentration negatively impact aquatic life. Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were exposed to environmentally relevant Mn2+ concentrations for 6 months, while the control group was kept in reconstituted fresh water for the same time period ...


Description And Histology Of A Small-Bodied Elasmosaur And Discription Of Mortuneria Seyemourensis Postcranium, Elizabeth Lester Jan 2019

Description And Histology Of A Small-Bodied Elasmosaur And Discription Of Mortuneria Seyemourensis Postcranium, Elizabeth Lester

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Elasmosauridae is a monophyletic group of plesiosaurs that evolved in the Early Cretaceous and radiated to achieve a cosmopolitan distribution by the end of the Cretaceous. They were a highly successful group of deep sea predators with long necks, small heads, and stout four flippered bodies. Here we describe four postcranial elasmosaurs skeletons that were collected from the shallow marine Lopez de Bertodano formation located on Seymour Island of the Antarctic Peninsula. One specimen is a small-bodied elasmosaurs. Despite its small size it has several advanced ontogenetic character states including the fusion of neural spines to the vertebral centra. The ...


The Relationship Between Angular Momentum Of The Lower Trunk And Shoulder Joint Forces In Overarm Throwing Athletes, Kevin Moore Jan 2019

The Relationship Between Angular Momentum Of The Lower Trunk And Shoulder Joint Forces In Overarm Throwing Athletes, Kevin Moore

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Overarm throwing athletes utilize the kinetic chain, which allows forces generated by the lower body to be transmitted to the throwing arm in a proximal-to-distal sequence. Efficient force transmission from the lower body to the throwing arm can improve performance and reduce risk for injury. The purpose of this thesis was to explore the relationship between the lower trunk (pelvis) maximum angular momentum and the joint resultant forces at the shoulder during the overarm throwing motion of baseball athletes. I hypothesized that there would be a negative correlation between the maximum angular momentum about the superior-inferior axis of the lower ...


Identifying C-Mannosylatedproteins In Raw264.7 Cells Via In Vitro Hsc70 Co-Immunoprecipitation Strategies, Nicholas Ryan Kegley Jan 2019

Identifying C-Mannosylatedproteins In Raw264.7 Cells Via In Vitro Hsc70 Co-Immunoprecipitation Strategies, Nicholas Ryan Kegley

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

C-mannosylation is a specific type of glycosylation in which α-mannose is covalently bound to the C2 atom of a tryptophan via a carbon-carbon bond. Presently, it is known to occur on proteins that contain the W-x-x-W-x-x-W/C motif found within the Thrombospondin Type-1 Repeat (TSR), with ‘x’ denoting any amino acid. C-mannosylation has been implicated in a number of cellular functions, including protein secretion and type I cytokine receptor function. Previous research has shown that exogenous C-mannosylated peptides derived from TSR-containing proteins upregulate the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. This ...


The Life History Of Faxonius Rusticus (Girard, 1852) In Sunfish Creek, Monroe County, Ohio, Kyle Mcgill Jan 2018

The Life History Of Faxonius Rusticus (Girard, 1852) In Sunfish Creek, Monroe County, Ohio, Kyle Mcgill

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Crayfish are among the most imperiled faunal groups globally. The continued spread of invasive species is a major impact to crayfish. Invasive species, much like the native species, are often understudied. As declines continue, invasive species spread, and new species are discovered; additional life history studies are as important as ever for crayfish conservation. Life history data was collected for rusty crayfish (Faxonius rusticus) from October 2017 to September 2018 in Sunfish Creek, Monroe County, Ohio. Faxonius rusticus are native to the Ohio River drainage around Cincinnati, Ohio but have extensively expanded their range over the past 30 years. Sunfish ...


Using Environmental Dna And Occupancy Modeling To Examine Drivers Of Eastern Hellbender Extirpation And Sampling Method Efficiency In West Virginia, Sean Michael Wineland Jan 2018

Using Environmental Dna And Occupancy Modeling To Examine Drivers Of Eastern Hellbender Extirpation And Sampling Method Efficiency In West Virginia, Sean Michael Wineland

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Amphibian population declines and range constrictions are widespread but poorly understood. Effective conservation planning relies on accurate distribution data to develop a fundamental understanding of causal changes in species distributions. However, conventional detection methods for cryptic and elusive amphibians suffer from imperfect detection. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has emerged as an innovative and powerful conservation tool for detecting aquatic species presence; however comparative studies aimed at fully understanding eDNA detection probabilities are lacking. In this study, I used environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling methods and detailed historical records to identify drivers of extirpation and sampling method efficiency for an imperiled, long-lived giant ...


Freshwater Mussels Of The Greenup Navigational Pool, Ohio River, With A Comparison To Fish Host Communities, Mitchell David Kriege Jan 2018

Freshwater Mussels Of The Greenup Navigational Pool, Ohio River, With A Comparison To Fish Host Communities, Mitchell David Kriege

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The Ohio River was historically a free-flowing system with diverse fish and freshwater mussel communities. Heavy industrialization, erosion from deforestation, and wide scale damming during the early-mid 20th century decimated riverine life. While mussel declines are well documented in the United States, in big river systems, freshwater mussel populations are poorly understudied. This thesis project mapped the mussel communities and site-specific sediments of the Greenup pool in the Ohio River for comparison to 2016 nighttime electrofishing data, provided by ORSANCO. Qualitative SCUBA surveys were performed at 18 randomly selected sites and two fixed sites between July and September. Each site ...


A Characterization Of West Virginia Coyotes (Canis Latrans) Utilizing Skull Morphology, Katharina E. Scholer Jan 2018

A Characterization Of West Virginia Coyotes (Canis Latrans) Utilizing Skull Morphology, Katharina E. Scholer

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are now found throughout North and Central America, but before European colonization were restricted to west of the Mississippi. Migration occurred in two major paths to the East; north over the Great Lakes (through Canada) and south below the Great Lakes. The location of these routes is significant because those migrating north interbred with the wolves that reside there. These hybrid animals are larger and behaviorally different from their western counterparts. It is possible to differentiate these hybrids morphologically and genetically. Hybrids are known to be located in Maine, New York, and Pennsylvania, but the interest of ...


Southern Fox Squirrel (Sciurus Niger Niger) Translocation, Occupancy, And Foraging Behaviors, Katelyn Marie Amspacher Jan 2018

Southern Fox Squirrel (Sciurus Niger Niger) Translocation, Occupancy, And Foraging Behaviors, Katelyn Marie Amspacher

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Southern fox squirrels (SFSs) are habitat specialists within the longleaf pine ecosystem of the southeastern US whose populations are declining due to habitat fragmentation. Eastern gray squirrels (EGSs) are generalists found throughout the eastern US that have historically avoided competition with SFSs through habitat-partitioning. The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) use translocation as a conservation tool to establish a population of SFSs on Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island (MCRDPI), South Carolina and monitor survival, home range size, and habitat use post-translocation, 2) estimate SFS density on Spring Island, SC and examine patterns of SFS and EGS occupancy ...


Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus Adamanteus) Telemetry Techniques And Translocation, Michael Thomas Jungen Jan 2018

Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus Adamanteus) Telemetry Techniques And Translocation, Michael Thomas Jungen

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Internal implantation of radio-transmitters is the preferred attachment technique for snakes, but the high costs and invasive nature of the surgery make a functional alternative desirable. External radio-transmitters are cost-effective alternatives to surgical implantation. Rattlesnake rattles are unique morphological features that can serve as an attachment site for external radio-transmitters. Using thread and epoxy, I attached transmitters to the rattles of eastern diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus; EDB). I calculated average monitoring duration using radio telemetry data collected from 49 adult EDBs telemetered from 2014 to 2017 in coastal South Carolina. On average, we monitored EDBs for 189 ±78 days with ...


Influence Of Developmental Stage, Habitat, And Captivity On Thecutaneous Bacterial Communities Of Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis Alleganiensis) In West Virginia, Rachel Fern Arrick Jan 2018

Influence Of Developmental Stage, Habitat, And Captivity On Thecutaneous Bacterial Communities Of Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis Alleganiensis) In West Virginia, Rachel Fern Arrick

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Microbes inhabit virtually all surfaces of multicellular animal hosts, with microbial cells outnumbering the hosts’ own cells 10:1. Symbiont microbes, collectively referred to as the microbiome, can have profound impacts on the metabolism, development, behavior, and disease resistance of their multicellular hosts. Because the community structure of symbiont bacteria can influence host health, the characterization of amphibian microbiomes is becoming an increasingly important tool for future conservation in the face of global amphibian declines. Eastern hellbenders are good candidates for a microbiome study because they have seen substantial declines in recent decades and learning more about the environmental and ...


Amphibians Among Road-Rut Pools In West Virginia, Abby L. Sinclair Jan 2018

Amphibians Among Road-Rut Pools In West Virginia, Abby L. Sinclair

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

As anthropogenic environmental stressors such as urbanization continue to increase, it is necessary to understand their impact on amphibian ecology. Due largely to their biphasic life history amphibians are negatively impacted by the destruction of lotic habitats i.e., wetlands for the creation of roads and urban centers. I examined the effects of three human-made road rut pools on the reproductive success and species richness of amphibians in southwest West Virginia from May to October 2012. I employed three detection techniques: drift fence pitfall trap arrays, funnel traps and dipnet sampling. Additionally, habitat covariates were taken (i.e., water depth ...


Modeling Chlorophyll Concentrations On The Ohio River Using Remotely Sensed Data, Thaddaeus Stephen Tuggle Jan 2018

Modeling Chlorophyll Concentrations On The Ohio River Using Remotely Sensed Data, Thaddaeus Stephen Tuggle

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Traditional direct water quality methodologies limit the ability to spatially and temporally predict algal blooms in lotic systems due to the size and characteristics of large river systems. Algal blooms potentially can be predicted by knowing the spatial and temporal patterns of change in cyanobacteria concentrations at large scales. Remote sensing studies investigating freshwater algal blooms, some known to secrete harmful toxins, are primarily conducted on lentic systems while large lotic systems are greatly ignored. In this study I developed a chlorophyll concentration estimation model for the Ohio River using a satellite remote sensing approach. Ground-truth water quality measures, including ...


The Role Of Oxidation-Sensitive Nociception And Epigenetics In Endometriosis-Associated Pain, Kristeena Ray Wright Jan 2017

The Role Of Oxidation-Sensitive Nociception And Epigenetics In Endometriosis-Associated Pain, Kristeena Ray Wright

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease that is associated with severe symptoms and consequences such as total hysterectomy. Upwards of 10% of women of reproductive age have endometriosis, most of whom are afflicted with chronic pelvic pain and/or infertility. Despite many treatment options available to endometriosis patients, there is no cure for this condition and recurrence of symptoms is extremely common. In CHAPTER 1, we describe the mechanisms involved in endometriotic pain and the currently available treatment strategies. Our laboratory has provided evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the etiology of endometriosis and its associated pain. In this ...


Tenofovir Induced Nephrotoxicity: A Mechanistic Study, Rachel A. Murphy Jan 2017

Tenofovir Induced Nephrotoxicity: A Mechanistic Study, Rachel A. Murphy

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Tenofovir (TFV) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat HIV and chronic Hepatitis B. It has a long half-life, allowing for once a day dosing and is effective in treatment of both naive and experienced patients. It is administered orally as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and is deesterified in plasma to the active drug TFV. However, renal impairment is associated with its use; TFV can induce decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and free calcitriol, renal failure, and Fanconi Syndrome. The exact mechanism of toxicity currently remains unknown, largely ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Wolf Restoration In Yellowstone Nation Park Using Omnivory Models, Derek Fields Jan 2017

Sensitivity Analysis Of Wolf Restoration In Yellowstone Nation Park Using Omnivory Models, Derek Fields

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

In the ever-changing world of ecology, species survival often depends on approximations and measurements taken by biologists. These approximations help to ensure and predict the future of that given species. Our ecological community of interest involves wolves, elk, and berry producing shrubs within Yellowstone National Park. We use two different systems of ordinary differential equations, each increasing in complexity to model our community. In each model the predator (wolves) and consumers (elk) compete for a common resource, berry producing shrubs. We call this consumption of resources, from more than one trophic level, omnivory. We approximate each system with parameter values ...


The Effects Of Flexor Pronator Mass Fatigue On Medial Elbow Stability, Nathaniel Harvey Millard Jan 2017

The Effects Of Flexor Pronator Mass Fatigue On Medial Elbow Stability, Nathaniel Harvey Millard

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Introduction: The medial elbow is supported from valgus loading with the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), the flexor pronator mass (FPM), and the radial head. Fatigue of muscle can lead to a decrease in force production. The decrease in force production can lead to a decrease in joint stability. This study tested the effect of fatigue of the FPM muscles on the width of the medial joint space.

Methods: Thirty-one participants volunteered for this study (18 female and 12 male, 1 excluded; mean height 170.2±10.1 cm, mean weight 71.2±15.6 kg, mean age 21.53±1 ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Stress Responses In Diverse Acanthamoeba Isolates, Mallory Jean Douthitt Jan 2017

A Comparative Analysis Of Stress Responses In Diverse Acanthamoeba Isolates, Mallory Jean Douthitt

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Acanthamoeba are free-living amoebae which can differentiate from vegetative, trophozoite forms into dormant cysts upon encountering unfavorable conditions. Acanthamoeba isolates FLA9, BP, and FLA22 are known to have unusual tolerance to environmental conditions which would promote encystment in the type strain, Neff. To facilitate further research into the behavior of these isolates, the phenotypic variables of instantaneous growth rate (μ), mean exponential encystment rate (Ԑ), and overall encystment success are calculated for the study isolates a variety of environmental conditions. Results indicate that BP and FLA22 may prefer growth conditions that are intolerable to the Neff strain. Findings suggest genomic ...


Establishing Environmental Variability In The Toxins Produced By A Single Strain Of Prymnesium Parvum, Amy Parsons-White Jan 2017

Establishing Environmental Variability In The Toxins Produced By A Single Strain Of Prymnesium Parvum, Amy Parsons-White

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Prymnesium parvum (P. parvum) is a toxin producing haptophyte that has spread globally over the past 100 years. The algae, initially a marine organism, has moved inland to less saline waters. In addition, there is variability in the efficacy of the toxins produced from bloom to bloom. Variation between strains has been suggested as the reason for bloom differences; however, environmental variability within a single strain must first be established. Here, a single strain of P. parvum was cultured at three environmentally relevant salinities, 6psu, 13psu, and 35psu. Three different environmental shocks, decreased temperature, raised pH, and addition of specific ...


Analysis Of Bioaccumulation Of Selenium Diets In Brook Trout (Salvelnius Fontinalis), Kyle Aaron Tasker Jan 2017

Analysis Of Bioaccumulation Of Selenium Diets In Brook Trout (Salvelnius Fontinalis), Kyle Aaron Tasker

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is facing many challenges throughout the Appalachian region, which are thought to be brought on by effects of climate change and the loss of habitat because of the disturbance from the pursuit of energy sources, namely, the mining of coal in the region. Most of the mining occurs in the central plateau and southern mountain region of West Virginia. The brook trout have historically had an expansive range covering this region and has the potential to inhabit the headwater stream systems that occur very prevalently throughout the Appalachians. In the state of West Virginia, the ...


Electromyography Study Of Muscle Fatigue During Isometric Exercises In Swimmers And Non-Swimmers, Tiffany Aeling Jan 2016

Electromyography Study Of Muscle Fatigue During Isometric Exercises In Swimmers And Non-Swimmers, Tiffany Aeling

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The use of electromyography (EMG) techniques offer strong evaluation of musculature fatigue during activity in different exercises. Studies show that EMG can be used to monitor fatigue patterns in muscles composing the upper extremities and thoracic areas of the human body by analyzing median frequency values. Advances in muscle fatigue research have been critical for improving rehabilitation programs for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Despite these developments, many collegiate athletes are still at high risk for muscle injury on and off the playing field. Therefore, in order to help reduce injury numbers, it is important that current research focus on the ...


The Effect Of Mast Availability On Ambush Site Selection In Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Adamanteus), Berlynna May Heres Jan 2016

The Effect Of Mast Availability On Ambush Site Selection In Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Adamanteus), Berlynna May Heres

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

I examined ambush site selection in eastern diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus). The eastern diamondback rattlesnake (EDB) is an imperiled, ambush predator endemic to southeastern pine savannas and woodlands of the United States. Eastern diamondbacks prey on small mammals that feed on hard and soft mast (e.g., nuts and fruits). In this study, I hypothesized that intra-seasonal shifts in masting vegetation would cause intra-season shifts in ambush site selection in EDBs as the result of a bottom-up trophic effect. I quantified EDB ambush site selection using radio telemetry data and vegetation analysis within a naturalized study site. When EDBs were ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Metabolism And Energetics Of Darters (Percidae), Emma Kirsten Kist Jan 2016

A Comparative Analysis Of The Metabolism And Energetics Of Darters (Percidae), Emma Kirsten Kist

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Ecological niche theory suggests two species cannot live in the same ecological niche and differences should exist among species that appear to cohabitate. Variations in physiology and behavior that potentially enable species coexistence can be reflected in metabolism. This study investigated coexisting darter fishes by measuring the metabolism of greenside (Etheostoma blennioides) and variegate (E. variatum) darters over 48 h using intermittent-flow respirometry. Activity was analyzed using time-lapse videos. E. blennioides mean metabolic rate (154.64 ± SE 52.54 mg O2·kg-1 ·hr-1 ; n=14; p=0.0006) was significantly greater than and varied more than E. variatum’s mean ...


Analyzing Pterosaur Ontogeny And Sexual Dimorphism With Multivariate Allometry, Erick Charles Anderson Jan 2016

Analyzing Pterosaur Ontogeny And Sexual Dimorphism With Multivariate Allometry, Erick Charles Anderson

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The relationships of pterosaurs have been previously inferred from observed traits, depositional environments, and phylogenetic associations. A great deal of research has begun to analyze pterosaur ontogeny, mass estimates, wing dynamics, and sexual dimorphism in the last two decades. The latter has received the least attention because of the large data set required for statistical analyses. Analyzing pterosaurs using osteological measurements will reveal different aspects of size and shape variation in Pterosauria (in place of character states) and sexual dimorphism when present. Some of these variations, not easily recognized visually, will be observed using multivariate allometry methods including Principle Component ...


3,5-Dichloroaniline: Biotransformation And Mechanistic Aspects Of Nephrotoxicity In Vitro, Christopher Robert Racine Jan 2016

3,5-Dichloroaniline: Biotransformation And Mechanistic Aspects Of Nephrotoxicity In Vitro, Christopher Robert Racine

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Chlorinated anilines have been used as important chemical intermediates in the production of a wide variety of pharmaceutical, industrial, and agricultural products. Exposure to chloroanilines can arise in both occupational and environmental settings and can lead to toxicity to multiple organs, including the kidney. Previous studies have established that of the mono- and dichlorinated anilines, 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) possesses the most nephrotoxic potential both in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known concerning the role of renal metabolism in nephrotoxicity. The studies presented in the following dissertation are the first to explore the toxicity, metabolism, and bioactivation of ...


Hibernacula Site Selection Of The Eastern Box Turtle, Terrapene C. Carolina, In A West Virginia Population, Benjamin Owen Koester Jan 2016

Hibernacula Site Selection Of The Eastern Box Turtle, Terrapene C. Carolina, In A West Virginia Population, Benjamin Owen Koester

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) are a terrestrially hibernating reptile found throughout the eastern United States. Despite their prevalence, little, outside of anecdotal observations, is known about their hibernacula selection. This study examines if they preferentially select hibernacula locations, and if so, what characteristics they select in a West Virginia population. Over the course of two years, radio-tagged turtles (n=12) were followed into hibernation in Wayne County, WV. Upon entering hibernation, ~36 data point were collected in a grid-like fashion around the hibernacula, with an additional point collected at the hibernacula. At each point, seven variables were recorded ...


Testing The Efficacy Of Anuran Callback Surveys, Matthew S. Grisnik Jan 2016

Testing The Efficacy Of Anuran Callback Surveys, Matthew S. Grisnik

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Monitoring programs often suffer from imperfect detection resulting in skewed population estimates, biased estimates of changes in occupancy over time, and can result in an underestimated proportion of area occupied (PAO) by a species. To increase the detection probability, researchers must increase sampling both spatially and temporally. Callback surveys are an active form of sampling that have been used to monitor many avian and mammal species. During callback surveys, the call of a conspecific male is projected with the intention of increasing probability of detection by eliciting a response from territorial males. These methods work for organisms that establish breeding ...


A Coprological Survey Of Golden Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta Palliata Palliata) In The Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, Jess M. Conatser Jan 2016

A Coprological Survey Of Golden Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta Palliata Palliata) In The Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, Jess M. Conatser

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Interactions between free-ranging primates and their associated parasitic forms continue to be a point of interest in ecology for several reasons. External and internal parasitism is not atypical for wild populations of primates, and the repercussions of these relationships can range from benign to life-threatening and capable of altering the structure of naturally occurring groups. The ecological relationship between the golden mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata palliata) and its host-specific ectoparasite, the howler monkey bot fly (Alouattamyia baeri) poses significant potential detriment to the overall body quality and success of the host primate. A. p. palliata has also been recorded ...


Uncovering New Roles For The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) In Breast Cancer, Justin Kirk Tomblin Jan 2016

Uncovering New Roles For The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) In Breast Cancer, Justin Kirk Tomblin

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is responsive to many exogenous and endogenous ligands. AHR is of particular interest in cancer, and has been shown to play roles in tumor progression. As such, it has received growing attention as a possible chemotherapeutic target. Obesity increases the risk of breast cancer, complicates treatment of breast cancer, and stimulates the growth of larger, more aggressive mammary tumors. Many breast tumors in obese women are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and, while targeting hormone receptors like ER is beneficial, many obese women see a recurrence of their cancer after ...


Adult Neural Stem Cell Differentiation And Signaling Is Disrupted By Low-Level Silver Nanoparticle Exposure In Vitro, Robert Jefferson Cooper Jan 2016

Adult Neural Stem Cell Differentiation And Signaling Is Disrupted By Low-Level Silver Nanoparticle Exposure In Vitro, Robert Jefferson Cooper

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are an emerging environmental contaminant with unique chemical and physical properties. They are utilized in products like medical dressings and children’s toys for their antimicrobial action. Though AgNP’s bioaccumulative nature and high-level toxicity are established, low-level effects from chronic exposure to AgNP-containing products and environmental AgNP remain unclear. This study uses adult neural stem cells, a model for neural cell function and neurodevelopment, to assess changes in cell differentiation and behavior following low-level AgNP exposure. In vitro, low-level AgNP produced dose- and timedependent formation of co-localized f-actin inclusions and β-catenin puncta. Neurite extension and arborization ...